A flight nurse is a registered nurse who specialises in the field of providing comprehensive pre-hospital, emergency critical care, hospital care to a vast scope of patients. The care of these patients is during aeromedical evacuation or rescue operations aboard helicopters, propeller aircraft or jet aircraft. On board a rescue aircraft you would find a flight nurse accompanied by flight medics and respiratory practitioners, as well as the option of a flight physician for comprehensive emergency and critical transport teams; the inclusion of a flight physician is more seen in pediatric and neonatal transport teams. A flight nurse is required to complete a copious amount of every call out. Listed below is a comprehensive list of these duties and responsibilities: Flight nurses perform as a member of an aeromedical evacuation team on helicopters and propeller or jet aircraft Responsible for planning and preparing for aeromedical evacuation missions Expedite mission and initiate emergency treatment in absence of Flight Physician Provide in-flight management and nursing care for patients Evaluate individual patient in-flight needs Liaison between medical and operational aircrews and support personnel to promote patient comfort Responsible for maintaining patient care and safety Care for patients with both medical and traumatic issues Request appropriate medications and equipment to provide care to patient Must have training in mechanical ventilation, hemodynamic support, vasoactive medications and intensive care skills Specialised clinical skills in union with knowledge, theory and expertise in hospital and pre-hospital environments are required Perform advanced medical procedures without supervision of a doctor such as intubation, ventilator management, chest tube insertion, intra-osseous line placement, central line placement, intra-aortic balloon pump management, management of pacing devices, titration of vasoactive medications, pain management, administration of anaesthetic medications for intubation, in some cases and family care National requirements for most flight nurse programs include: License as a registered nurse 2–3 years of critical care experience and/or mobile intensive care unit experience.
Advanced cardiac life support certificate Pediatric advanced life support certificateAdditional requirements may include: Neonatal Resuscitation Program Nationally recognised trauma program such as Pre Hospital Trauma Life Support, Basic Trauma Life Support, Trauma Nurse Core Course, or Transport Nurse Advanced Trauma Course Certifications such as Critical Care certification, Certified Emergency Nurse, or Certified Flight Registered Nurse Helpful, but may not be required: EMT or EMT-P certification with field experience Certified Emergency Nurse Certified Flight Registered Nurse Critical Care Registered Nurse Works for hospitals, federal and local governments, private medical evacuation firms, fire departments and other agencies. Army Air Force Evacuation Service Member of aeromedical evacuation crew Senior medical member of aeromedical evacuation team on Continental United States Works in intra-theatre and inter-theatre flights to provide in-flight management and nursing care Plan/Prepare aeromedical evacuation missions and prepare patient care facilitation plan Australia has an estimated 20% of land recognised as desert with a rather small population density.
Providing health care to these remote rural towns can prove to be quite laborious. Australia provides a number of organisations. Aerospace Medical Association Air Medical Services Flight Nurse Badge RAF Medical Services Respiratory therapist Royal Flying Doctor Service of Australia David M Kaniecki Acnp. Operation Flight Nurse: Real-Life Medical Emergencies. David Kaniecki. ISBN 978-0-615-83996-7. Janice Hudson. Trauma Junkie: Memoirs of an Emergency Flight Nurse. Firefly Books. ISBN 978-1-77088-004-7. Air & Surface Transport Nurses Association Flightweb
XDNA is a size-expanded nucleotide system synthesized from the fusion of a benzene ring and one of the four natural bases: adenine, guanine and thymine. This size expansion produces an 8 letter alphabet which has a larger information density by a factor of 2n compared to natural DNA's 4 letter alphabet; as with normal base-pairing, A pairs with xT, C pairs with xG, G pairs with xC, T pairs with xA. The double helix is thus 2.4Å wider than a natural double helix. While similar in structure to B-DNA, xDNA has unique absorption and stacking properties. Synthesized as an enzyme probe by Nelson J. Leonard's group, benzo-homologated adenine was the first base synthesized. Eric T. Kool's group finished synthesizing the remaining three expanded bases followed by yDNA, another benzo-homologated nucleotide system, naphtho-homologated xxDNA and yyDNA. XDNA is more stable when compared to regular DNA when subjected to higher temperature, while entire strands of xDNA, yDNA, xxDNA and yyDNA exist, they are difficult to synthesize and maintain.
Experiments with xDNA provide new insight into the behavior of natural B-DNA. The extended bases xA, xC, xG, xT are fluorescent, single strands composed of only extended bases can recognize and bind to single strands of natural DNA, making them useful tools for studying biological systems. XDNA is most formed with base pairs between a natural and expanded nucleobase, however x-nucleobases can be paired together. Current research supports xDNA as a viable genetic encoding system in the near future; the first nucleotide to be expanded was the purine adenine. Nelson J. Leonard and colleagues synthesized this original x-nucleotide, referred to as "expanded adenine". XA was used as a probe in the investigation of active sites of ATP-dependent enzymes, more what modifications the substrate could take while still being functional. Two decades the other three bases were expanded and integrated into a double helix by Eric T. Kool and colleagues, their goal was to create a synthetic genetic system which mimics and surpasses the functions of the natural genetic system, to broaden the applications of DNA both in living cells and in experimental biochemistry.
Once the expanded base set was created, the goal shifted to identifying or developing faithful replication enzymes and further optimizing the expanded DNA alphabet. In benzo-homologated purines, the benzene ring is bound to the nitrogenous base through nitrogen-carbon bonds. Benzo-homologated pyrimidines are formed through carbon-carbon bonds between the base and the benzene, thus far, x-nucleobases have been added to strands of DNA using phosphoramidite derivatives, as traditional polymerases have been unsuccessful in synthesizing strands of xDNA. X-nucleotides are poor candidates as substrates for B-DNA polymerases as their size interferes with binding at the catalytic domain. Attempts at using template-independent enzymes have been successful as they have a reduced geometric constraint for substrates. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase has been used to synthesize strands of bases which have been bound to fluorophores. Using TdT, up to 30 monomers can be combined to form a double-helix of xDNA, however this oligomeric xDNA appears to inhibit its own extension beyond this length due to the overwhelming hydrogen bonding.
In order to minimize inhibition, xDNA can be hybridized into a regular helix. For xDNA to be used as a substitute structure for information storage, it requires a reliable replication mechanism. Research into xDNA replication using a Klenow fragment from DNA Polymerase I shows that a natural base partner is selectively added in instances of single-nucleotide insertion. However, DNA Polymerase IV has been able to use xDNA for these types of insertions with high fidelity, making it a promising candidate for future research in extending replicates of xDNA. xDNA's mismatch sensitivity is similar to that of B-DNA. Similar to natural bases, x-nucleotides selectively assemble into a duplex-structure resembling B-DNA. XDNA was synthesized by incorporating a benzene ring into the nitrogenous base. However, other expanded bases have been able to incorporate benzothiophene as well. XDNA and yDNA use benzene rings to widen the bases and are thus termed "benzo-homologated". Another form of expanded nucleobases known as yyDNA incorporate naphthalene into the base and are "naptho-homologated".
XDNA has a rise of 3.2Å and a twist of 32° smaller than B-DNA, which has a rise of 3.3Å and a twist of 34.2° xDNA nucleotides can occur on both strands—either alone or mixed with natural bases—or on one strand or the other. Similar to B-DNA, xDNA can bind complementary single-stranded DNA or RNA sequences. Duplexes formed from xDNA are similar to natural duplexes aside from the distance between the two sugar-phosphate backbones. XDNA helices have a greater number of base pairs per turn of the helix as a result of a reduced distance between neighbour nucleotides. NMR spectra report that xDNA helices are anti-parallel, right-handed and take an anti conformation around the glycosidic bond, with a C2'-endo sugar pucker. Helices created from xDNA are more to take a B-helix over an A-helix conformation, have an increased major groove width by 6.5Å and decreased minor groove width by 5.5Å compared to B-DNA. Altering groove width affects the xDNA's ability to associate with DNA-binding proteins, but as long a
The Office of the Comptroller General of the Republic of Colombia is a Colombian independent government institution that acts as the highest form of fiscal control in the country. As such, it has a mission to seek the proper allocation of resources and public funds and contribute to the modernization of the state, by means of continuous improvement in the various public entities, it is one of the Colombian Control Institutions along with the Office of the Inspector General of Colombia. In 1923, after several years of financial crisis, President Pedro Nel Ospina requested an expert committee to study Colombian economic conditions; this committee, led by American economist Edwin Walter Kemmerer was called the Kemmerer Mission. Kemmerer had worked with Latin American governments. Up until the Court of Auditors was the accountability agency of the nation, it was an agency of judicial and fiscal nature, but it was part of the Executive Branch. A study led by the Kemmerer Mission, with the assistance of the Colombian Finance Minister Esteban Jaramillo, recommended Congress to create the Bank of the Republic, the Office of the Comptroller General, to structure the laws for this function using those existing.
The Kemmerer Mission recommended the creation of the Office of the Comptroller General after considering that it could establish the necessary means for imposing a strict observance of the laws and administrative norms in the management of resources and public funds. Government introduced new legislation in Congress following the recommendations of the Kemmerer Mission. Law 42 of 1923 was passed by Congress, being signed by the President of the Senate Luis de Greiff, the President of the Chamber of Representatives Ignacio Moreno; the new law was approved and signed by President Nel Ospina and his Minister of Finance Gabriel Posada, ratified by Congress on July 19, 1923. The Office of the Comptroller General began functioning on September 1, 1923, when Law 42 took effect; the first Comptroller General of the Republic was Eugenio Andrade, appointed by President Ospina. The current Comptroller General is Carlos Felipe Córdoba Larrarte
Cory Devela is an American mixed martial artist who competes in the Welterweight division. Devela continued through middle and high school. After graduating, Devela attended Yakima Valley Community College on a wrestling scholarship. Devela fell into mixed martial arts while in college, he has been fighting professionally since 2004. Devela trains with veteran fighter Dennis "Superman" Hallman at Victory Athletics in Wash.. After defeating by unanimous decision "The Ultimate Fighter 1 " fighter and WEC veteran Lodune Sincaid Devela was signed by Strikeforce, and at the debut in middleweight slammed UFC veteran Joe Riggs. But in the next he was knocked out by Terry Martin. At June 19 of 2009 he loss to Luke Rockhold by rear naked choke. After this fight Devela dropped to welterweight and met with Bobby Voelker at Strikeforce Challengers: del Rosario vs. Mahe and lost by split decision. High Roller Productions HRP Middleweight Championship Sparta Combat League SCL Middleweight Championship Professional MMA record for Cory Devela from Sherdog
Parkview known as a "Saint Louis Urban Oasis," is a historic, private subdivision of St. Louis, Missouri, it is within the city limits of St. Louis and in University City, it is bounded by the Skinker-DeBaliviere neighborhood to the east, the Delmar Loop to the north, the Ames Place section of University City to the west, Washington University to the south, Forest Park to the southeast. Much of the land that became Parkview was, in the mid-19th century, contained in the Kingsbury Farm. In 1905, surveyor Julius Pitzman the designer of Forest Park, was hired to lay out Parkview. Parkview was the last of the private neighborhoods designed by Julius Pitzman, his elegant design for the 70-acre neighborhood includes a symmetrical arrangement of curved streets and parks. Curving streets in residential subdivisions was unusual for the period, in Parkview they were “soothing and peaceful” to the eye, they added privacy as the streets curve out of sight, they diminished the monotony of the continuous building setback.
By 1907 Parkview's first houses were under construction. By 1916, most of Parkview's 255 houses had been built. Most are 3-story brick homes and many are architecturally striking. In 1986, the neighborhood was accepted into the National Register of Historic Places under the name of "Parkview Historic District."Over the years, a large number of notable St. Louisans have made their home in Parkview; the list includes Missouri Governor Henry Caulfield. Today it is home to many writers, lawyers and professors, it is considered a desirable residential area, its homes sell for over $600,000 USD. Gass, M. H. J. Eberle and J. Little Parkview: A Saint Louis Urban Oasis, 1905-2005. St. Louis: Virginia Publishing Co. Parkview website Parkview - National & Local Historic Recognition. Retrieved on 2008-04-02
Harold Balme was a British medical missionary to China. He served as president of Cheeloo University from 1921 to 1927. Balme studied medicine at King's College Hospital, he went to Taiyuan in Shanxi as a medical missionary in 1906. In 1913, he took a position as professor of surgery at Cheeloo University and superindent of the University's hospital, he was appointed dean of the university's medical school and president of the University in 1921. Harold Balme, "Medical Missions in China", The Lancet, Vol. 198 No. 5119 pp 784–786, 1921 Harold Balme, "China and Modern Medicine: A Study in Medical Missionary Development", London: United Council for Missionary Education, 1921. Harold Balme, "The trend of medical mission policy in China, International Review of Mission", Volume 13, Issue 2, pages 247-257, April 1924