Lough Swilly in Ireland is a glacial fjord or sea inlet lying between the western side of the Inishowen Peninsula and the Fanad Peninsula, in County Donegal. Along with Carlingford Lough and Killary Harbour it is one of three glacial fjords in Ireland, at the northern extremities of the lough are Fanad Head with its famous lighthouse and Dunaff Head. Towns situated on the lough include Buncrana on Inishowen and Rathmullan on the western side, at the southern end of the lough lies Letterkenny. Steeped in history the lough and the Grianán Ailigh hill fort at its southeastern bend was recorded on Ptolemys map of the world and it has numerous early Stone Age monuments and Iron Age fortifications along its shores as well as a number of shell middens dated to approximately 7000 BC. It is most famous for being the site of the Flight of the Earls, during a gale on 4 December 1811, the Royal Navy 36-gun Apollo-class frigate HMS Saldanha was shipwrecked in Lough Swilly. There were no survivors out of the estimated 253 aboard, due to its natural shelter and impressive depth the lough was an important naval port.
Subsequently Tone was captured and taken ashore at Buncrana on the east side of the Swilly, martello towers were built around 1804 to defend the approaches to Derry. The six on the lough cost €1,800 each, were armed with smoothbore cannon, firing round shot and were completed in six months. The remains of fortifications can still be inspected at Lenan Head, Fort Dunree, Neds Point, Inch Island and on the west coast at Rathmullan, Knockalla. During this period a boom was placed across the lough between Macamish Point and Neds Point, supported by a number of trawlers, to prevent U-boat attacks. After the Irish War of Independence the lough was one of the Treaty Ports specified in the Anglo-Irish Treaty until its final handing over at Fort Dunree in 1938. There was reportedly only one incident, when a Royal Navy ship entered the lough. However, the turned around before Irish forces fired upon it. List of loughs in Ireland Londonderry and Lough Swilly Railway
Kinsale is a historic port and fishing town in County Cork, which has significant military history. Kinsale is in the Cork South–West constituency, which has five seats, Kinsale is a popular holiday resort for Irish and overseas tourists. Leisure activities include yachting, sea angling, and golf, the town has several art galleries and a school of English. The town is compact with a quaint air of antiquity in the narrow streets, there is a large yachting marina close to the town centre. The town is known for its restaurants, and holds an annual Gourmet Festival, chef Keith Floyd was previously a resident of Kinsale. The towns Community School has been awarded the Best School in the Republic of Ireland twice, including at the BT Young Scientist Exhibition in 2014. Prominent historical buildings in the town include St. Multoses church of 1190, St. John the Baptist of 1839, the Market House of c.1600, Charles Fort, a partly restored star fort of 1677, is in nearby Summercove. On 8 October 2005, Kinsale became Irelands second Fair Trade Town, in 1333, under a charter granted by King Edward III of England, the Corporation of Kinsale was established to undertake local government in the town.
It returned two members to the Irish House of Commons prior to its abolition in 1800, in its history, Kinsale has important occasional links with Spain. In 1518 Archduke Ferdinand, Emperor Ferdinand I, paid a visit to the town. In 1601 a Spanish military expedition - the last of the Armadas - landed in Kinsale, shortly after the battle, Jamess Fort was built to protect the harbour. Charles Fort, located at Summer Cove and dating from 1677 in the reign of Charles II, is a bastion-fort that guards the entrance to Kinsale harbour. It was built to protect the area and specifically the harbour from use by the French, Jamess Fort, which dates from the reign of James I, is located on the other side of the cove, on the Castlepark peninsula. An underwater chain used to be strung between the two forts across the mouth during times of war to scuttle enemy shipping by ripping the bottoms out of incoming vessels. Kinsales naval significance declined after the Royal Navy moved its centre from Kinsale to Cork harbour in 1805 during the Napoleonic Wars in the period of Frances First Empire.
A statue in the harbour commemorates the effort, the Lusitania memorial is at Casement Square in Cobh, to the east of Cork city. The station, inconveniently located for the town and harbour, was on Barrack Hill, bus Éireann provides Kinsales primary means of public transport. Buses regularly operate from Kinsale to Cork City, with most of these stopping at Cork Airport on the way and Bandon are linked by public transport with a bus service provided by East Cork Rural Transport
Normandy is one of the regions of France, roughly corresponding to the historical Duchy of Normandy. Administratively, Normandy is divided into five departments, Eure, Orne and it covers 30,627 km², forming roughly 5% of the territory of France. Its population of 3.37 million accounts for around 5% of the population of France, Normans is the name given to the inhabitants of Normandy, and the region is the homeland of the Norman language. The historical region of Normandy comprised the region of Normandy, as well as small areas now part of the départements, or departments of Mayenne. For a century and a following the Norman conquest of England in 1066, Normandy and England were linked by Norman. Archaeological finds, such as paintings, prove that humans were present in the region in prehistoric times. Celts invaded Normandy in successive waves from the 4th to the 3rd century BC, when Julius Caesar invaded Gaul, there were nine different Celtic tribes living in Normandy. The Romanisation of Normandy was achieved by the methods, Roman roads.
Classicists have knowledge of many Gallo-Roman villas in Normandy, in the late 3rd century, barbarian raids devastated Normandy. Coastal settlements were raided by Saxon pirates, Christianity began to enter the area during this period. In 406, Germanic tribes began invading from the east, while the Saxons subjugated the Norman coast, the Roman Emperor withdrew from most of Normandy. As early as 487, the area between the River Somme and the River Loire came under the control of the Frankish lord Clovis, the Vikings started to raid the Seine Valley during the middle of the 9th century. As early as 841, a Viking fleet appeared at the mouth of the Seine, after attacking and destroying monasteries, including one at Jumièges, they took advantage of the power vacuum created by the disintegration of Charlemagnes empire to take northern France. The fiefdom of Normandy was created for the Norwegian Viking leader Hrólfr Ragnvaldsson, Rollo had besieged Paris but in 911 entered vassalage to the king of the West Franks, Charles the Simple, through the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte.
In exchange for his homage and fealty, Rollo legally gained the territory which he, the name Normandy reflects Rollos Viking origins. The descendants of Rollo and his followers adopted the local Gallo-Romance language and they became the Normans – a Norman-speaking mixture of Saxons and indigenous Franks and Celts. Besides the Norman conquest of England and the subsequent conquests of Wales and Ireland, Norman families, such as that of Tancred of Hauteville, Rainulf Drengot and Guimond de Moulins played important parts in the Norman conquest of southern Italy and Crusades. They carved out a place for themselves and their descendants in the Crusader states of Asia Minor, the 14th century Norman explorer Jean de Béthencourt established a kingdom in the Canary Islands
Tudor conquest of Ireland
The Tudor conquest of Ireland took place under the Tudor dynasty, which held the Kingdom of England during the 16th century. By conciliation and repression the conquest continued for sixty years, until 1603 and this control was increased after the Flight of the Earls in 1607. The conquest was complicated by the imposition of English law and culture, upon completion of the conquest, the polity of Gaelic Ireland had been largely destroyed and the Spanish were no longer willing to intervene directly. This left the way clear for extensive confiscation of land by English, Ireland in 1500 was shaped by the Norman conquest, initiated by Anglo-Norman barons in the 12th century. Many of the native Gaelic Irish had been expelled from various parts of the country and replaced with English peasants, a large area on the east coast, extending from the Wicklow Mountains in the south to Dundalk in the north, became known as the Pale. The Gaelic Irish were, for the most part, outside English jurisdiction, maintaining their own language, social system, the English referred to them as His Majestys Irish enemies.
In legal terms, they had never admitted as subjects of the Crown. Ireland was not formally a realm, but rather a lordship, the rise of Gaelic influence resulted in the passing in 1366 of the Statutes of Kilkenny, which outlawed many social practices that had been developing apace. In the 15th century the Dublin government remained weak, owing principally to the Wars of the Roses, beyond the Pale, the authority of the Dublin government was tenuous. The Hiberno-Norman lords had been able to carve out fiefdoms for themselves, the Butlers and Burkes raised their own armed forces, enforced their own law, and adopted Gaelic language and culture. Beyond those territories large areas of previously held by authority of the English crown were taken by the resurgent Gaelic Irish, particularly in the north. By 1500, English monarchs had delegated government of Ireland to the most powerful of the Hiberno-Norman dynasties to keep the costs of running Ireland down and to protect the Pale. The Kings Lord Deputy of Ireland was chief of the administration, based in Dublin Castle, in 1495 laws were passed during Poynings parliament that imposed English statute law wholesale upon the lordship and compromised the independence of the Irish parliament.
The head of the Kildare FitzGeralds held the position of lord deputy until 1534, the Reformation led to growing tension between England and Ireland as Protestantism gained sway within England. Thomas, Earl of Kildare, a fervent Catholic, offered control of Ireland to both the Pope and Emperor Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire. Henry put down the rebellion by executing the leader, along several of his uncles, and imprisoned Gearoid Og. But now the king had to find a replacement for the FitzGeralds to keep Ireland quiet, what was needed was a cost-effective new policy that protected the Pale and guaranteed the safety of Englands vulnerable west flank from foreign invasion. With the assistance of Thomas Cromwell, the king implemented the policy of surrender, the keystone to the reform was in a statute passed by the Irish parliament in 1541, whereby the lordship was converted to the Kingdom of Ireland
Hugh Roe O'Donnell
Hugh Roe ODonnell, known as Red Hugh ODonnell, was The ODonnell and king of Tyrconnell. He led a rebellion against English government in Ireland from 1593 and he is sometimes known as Aodh Ruadh II or Red Hugh II, especially within County Donegal. He had numerous brothers and sisters including Donnell and Cathbarr, Sir Hugh was a long-standing ally of the Crown, in attempt to counterbalance the power of Shane ONeill and Turlough Luineach ONeill the rulers of neighboring Tyrone. In Sir Hughs years, a succession dispute broke out to determine who would succeed him. Although Ineen Dubh pushed the case for Hugh Roe to succeed, the Crown chose to support Donnell as it regarded him as the rightful and most stable potential ruler, partly due to the fact that Donnells mother was a local woman while Hugh Roes was from Scotland. Donnell was strengthened by the arrival of a detachment of Irish Army troops dispatched from Dublin under John Connill. There were a number of claimants to the ODonnell title including Hugh Roes great uncle Hugh Dubh ODonnell.
ODonnell escaped briefly in 1591 but was recaptured within days, Hugh ODonnell and his two companions, the brothers Art and Henry ONeill, were the only prisoners ever to successfully escape captivity in Dublin Castle. Upon his return to Ulster, he gained the leadership of the ODonnell Clan becoming The ODonnell, at this point, ONeill did not join ODonnell in open rebellion, but secretly backed him to enhance his bargaining power with the English. ONeill by now was communicating with Philip II of Spain for military aid, declaring open rebellion against the English the following year, ODonnells forces captured Connacht from Sligo to Leitrim by 1595. Their greatest victory came two years however at Battle of the Yellow Ford on the Blackwater River near the border of Tyrone in August 1598. At this battle, the Irish annihilated an English force marching to relieve Armagh, ONeill went south to secure the allegiance of Irish lords in Munster, without much success. ODonnell raided Connacht, destroying the town of Athenry, laying waste to much of County Galway and they leaped from the parapets, and gained the streets of the town, and opened the gates for those who were outside.
They all proceeded to demolish the storehouses and the strong habitations and they remained that night in the town. It was not easy to enumerate or reckon the quantities of copper, iron and habiliments, as a result of these and other assaults, ODonnell was unable to persuade the local lords to join him. However, in the two years, ODonnell and ONeill were hard pressed with the deployment of thousands more English troops in the country. ODonnell repulsed an English expedition towards western Ulster at the battle of Curlew Pass in 1599, even worse for ODonnell than English offensives was the defection of his kinsman, Niall Garve ODonnell to the English side, in return for their backing his own claim the ODonnell chieftainship. Niall Garves brothers and hundreds of followers joined him in supporting the Crown
Bill of attainder
A bill of attainder is an act of a legislature declaring a person or group of persons guilty of some crime and punishing them, often without a trial. Bills of attainder passed in Parliament by Henry Vlll on the 29 January 1542 resulted in the executions of a number of historical figures. For these reasons, bills of attainder are expressly banned by Article I, section 9, unlike the United States Constitution, there is no specific provision forbidding the Commonwealth Government from passing bills of attainder. One of the aspects of Judicial Power is the ability to make binding and authoritative decisions on questions of law. The wielding of Judicial Power by the Legislative or Executive Branch includes the direct wielding of power, the State Constitutions in Australia contain few limitations on government power. Bills of attainder are considered permissible because there is no entrenched separation of powers at the state level, the States cannot structure their legal systems to prevent them from being subject to the Australian Constitution.
In the province of Quebec, the Michaud Affair is one case in which a provincial parliament expressed public disapproval of an individual. However, the motion passed on 13 December 2000 by the National Assembly was worded as an opinion of the Assembly rather than a bill of attainder per se, the word attainder, meaning taintedness, is part of English common law. His property could consequently revert to the Crown or to the mesne lord, any peerage titles would revert to the Crown. Attainder functioned more or less as the revocation of the chain of privilege and all rights. Due to mandatory sentencing, the due process of the courts provided limited flexibility to deal with the circumstances of offenders. On the other hand, when a legal conviction did take place, in some cases the Crown would eventually re-grant the convicted peers lands and titles to his heir. It was possible, as political fortunes turned, for a bill of attainder to be reversed and this sometimes occurred long after the convicted person was executed.
Unlike the mandatory sentences of the courts, acts of Parliament provided considerable latitude in suiting the punishment to the conditions of the offenders family. Parliament could impose non-capital punishments without involving courts, such bills are called bills of pains, the first use of attainder was in 1321 against both Hugh le Despenser, 1st Earl of Winchester and his son Hugh Despenser the Younger, Earl of Gloucester. They were both attainted for supporting King Edward II during his struggle with the queen and barons, in the case of Catherine Howard, in 1541 King Henry VIII was the first monarch to delegate Royal Assent, to avoid having to assent personally to the execution of his wife. After defeating Richard III and replacing him on the throne of England and it is noteworthy that this bill made no mention of the Princes in the Tower. After the committee stages, the Bill of Attainder passed both the Houses of Lords and Commons and was engrossed on 4 December 1660 and this aroused some protests in British public opinion at the time, including from people with no Jacobite sympathies
Catesby may have embarked on the scheme after hopes of securing greater religious tolerance under King James had faded, leaving many English Catholics disappointed. Fawkes, who had 10 years of experience fighting in the Spanish Netherlands in suppression of the Dutch Revolt, was given charge of the explosives. The plot was revealed to the authorities in a letter sent to William Parker, 4th Baron Monteagle. During a search of the House of Lords at about midnight on 4 November 1605, most of the conspirators fled from London as they learned of the plots discovery, trying to enlist support along the way. Several made a stand against the pursuing Sheriff of Worcester and his men at Holbeche House, in the battle, Catesby was one of those shot. At their trial on 27 January 1606, eight of the survivors, including Fawkes, were convicted and sentenced to be hanged, details of the assassination attempt were allegedly known by the principal Jesuit of England, Father Henry Garnet. Although he was convicted of treason and sentenced to death, doubt has been cast on how much he knew of the plot.
As its existence was revealed to him through confession, Garnet was prevented from informing the authorities by the absolute confidentiality of the confessional, although anti-Catholic legislation was introduced soon after the plots discovery, many important and loyal Catholics retained high office during King James Is reign. Between 1533 and 1540, the Tudor King Henry VIII took control of the English Church from Rome, English Catholics struggled in a society dominated by the newly separate and increasingly Protestant Church of England. The penalties for refusal were severe, fines were imposed for recusancy, Catholicism became marginalised, but despite the threat of torture or execution, priests continued to practise their faith in secret. Queen Elizabeth and childless, steadfastly refused to name an heir, many Catholics believed that her Catholic cousin, Queen of Scots, was the legitimate heir to the English throne, but she was executed for treason in 1587. In the months before Elizabeths death on 24 March 1603, Cecil prepared the way for James to succeed her, some exiled Catholics favoured Philip II of Spains daughter, Infanta Isabella, as Elizabeths successor.
More moderate Catholics looked to Jamess and Elizabeths cousin Arbella Stuart, despite competing claims to the English throne, the transition of power following Elizabeths death went smoothly. Jamess succession was announced by a proclamation from Cecil on 24 March, leading papists, rather than causing trouble as anticipated, reacted to the news by offering their enthusiastic support for the new monarch. Jesuit priests, whose presence in England was punishable by death, demonstrated their support for James, for decades, the English had lived under a monarch who refused to provide an heir, but James arrived with a family and a future line of succession. His wife, Anne of Denmark, was the daughter of a king, Jamess attitude towards Catholics was more moderate than that of his predecessor, perhaps even tolerant. During the late 16th century, Catholics made several assassination attempts against Protestant rulers in Europe and in England, including plans to poison Elizabeth I. Much of the rather nervous James Is political writing was concerned with the threat of Catholic assassination and refutation of the argument that faith did not need to be kept with heretics
Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, and the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, and Northern Ireland, in 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.4 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.6 million live in the Republic of Ireland, the islands geography comprises relatively low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland. The island has lush vegetation, a product of its mild, thick woodlands covered the island until the Middle Ages. As of 2013, the amount of land that is wooded in Ireland is about 11% of the total, there are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is moderate and classified as oceanic.
As a result, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, summers are cooler than those in Continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant, the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century CE, the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the Norman invasion in the 12th century, England claimed sovereignty over Ireland, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, with the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s and this subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures, especially in the fields of literature.
Alongside mainstream Western culture, an indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music. The culture of the island shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, and sports such as association football, horse racing. The name Ireland derives from Old Irish Eriu and this in turn derives from Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, which is the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning fat, during the last glacial period, and up until about 9000 years ago, most of Ireland was covered with ice, most of the time
Peerage of Ireland
The creation of such titles came to an end in the 19th century. The ranks of the Irish peerage are Duke, Earl, Viscount, as of 2016, there were 135 titles in the Peerage of Ireland extant, two dukedoms, ten marquessates,43 earldoms,28 viscountcies, and 52 baronies. A handful of titles in the peerage of Ireland date from the Middle Ages, as a consequence, many Irish peers had little or no connection to Ireland, and indeed the names of some Irish peerages refer to places in Great Britain. Irish peerages were created in the nineteenth century at least as often as the Act permitted. Accordingly, the Duke of Abercorn ranks between the Duke of Sutherland and the Duke of Westminster, the existing representative peers kept their seats in the House of Lords, but they have not been replaced. Since the death of Francis Needham, 4th Earl of Kilmorey in 1961, the right of the Irish Peerage to elect Representatives was abolished by statute in 1971. In the following table of the Peerage of Ireland as it currently stands, Irish peers possessed of titles in any of the other peerages had automatic seats in the House of Lords until 1999.
In Ireland, barony may refer to a political subdivision of a county. There is no connection between such a barony and the title of baron. List of Irish representative peers Irish nobility, which three groups of Irish nobility, the other two being, Gaelic nobility of Ireland Hiberno-Normans Courthope, William. Debretts Complete Peerage of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, 22nd edition, the Peerage of Ireland, Volume I. The Peerage of Ireland, Volume II, the Peerage of Ireland, Volume II
Tyrconnell or Tirconnell was a political state in northwest Ireland until 1601. According to Geoffrey Keating, it included the baronies of Carbury, Rosclogher, as such it had a size varying between that of Corsica and Lebanon. It was founded in the century by a son of Niall of the Nine Hostages, Conall Gulban. His descendants of the ODonnell dynasty ruled the kingdom till the Flight of the Earls in September 1607, see index entry for Tír Chonaill The Life of Hugh Roe ODonnell, Prince of Tyrconnell by Lughaidh Ó Cléirigh. Edited by Fr. Paul Walsh and Colm Ó Lochlainn, Educational Company of Ireland,1948. Blood Royal – From the time of Alexander the Great to Queen Elizabeth II, by Charles Mosley, published for Ruvigny Ltd. London,2002 Vicissitudes of Families, by Sir Bernard Burke, Ulster King of Arms, published by Longman, Green and Roberts, Paternoster Row, London,1861. The Fate and Fortunes of the Earls of Tyrone and Tyrconnel, their flight from Ireland and death in exile, by the Rev. C. P. Meehan, MRIA, 2nd edition, James Duffy, London,1870.
Erins Blood Royal – The Gaelic Noble Dynasties of Ireland, by Peter Berresford Ellis, vanishing Kingdoms – The Irish Chiefs and their Families, by Walter J. P. Curley, with foreword by Charles Lysaght, published by The Lilliput Press, Dublin,2004
House of Stuart
The House of Stuart, originally Stewart and, in Gaelic, Stiùbhart was a European royal house that originated in Scotland. The dynastys patrilineal Breton ancestors had held the office of High Steward of Scotland since the 12th century, the royal Stewart line was founded by Robert II, and they were Kings and Queens of Scots from the late 14th century until the union with England in 1707. Mary I, Queen of Scots was brought up in France and her son, James VI of Scotland, inherited the thrones of England and Ireland upon the death of Elizabeth I in 1603. Except for the period of the Commonwealth, 1649–1660, the Stuarts were monarchs of England and Ireland until 1707, of Great Britain and Ireland, in total, nine Stewart/Stuart monarchs ruled Scotland alone from 1371 until 1603. James VI of Scotland inherited the realms of Elizabeth I of England, following the Glorious Revolution in 1688, two Stuart queens ruled the isles, Mary II and Anne. Both were the Protestant daughters of James VII and II by his first wife, during the reign of the Stuarts, Scotland developed from a relatively poor and feudal country into a prosperous and centralised state.
They ruled during a time in European history of transition from the Middle Ages, through the Renaissance, monarchs such as James IV were known for sponsoring exponents of the Northern Renaissance such as the poet Robert Henryson, and others. The name Stewart derives from the position of office similar to a governor. It was originally adopted as the surname by Walter Stewart, 3rd High Steward of Scotland. Prior to this, family names were not used, but instead they had patronyms defined through the father, the gallicised spelling was first borne by John Stewart of Darnley after his time in the French wars. During the 16th century, the French spelling Stuart was adopted by Mary, Queen of Scots, the FitzAlan family quickly established themselves as a prominent Anglo-Norman noble house, with some of its members serving as High Sheriff of Shropshire. It was the great-grandson of Alan named Walter FitzAlan who became the first hereditary High Steward of Scotland, another supporter of Matilda was her uncle David I of Scotland from the House of Dunkeld.
After Matilda was pushed out of England into the County of Anjou, essentially failing in her legitimist attempt for the throne, many of her supporters in England fled also. It was that Walter followed David up to the Kingdom of Scotland, where he was granted lands in Renfrewshire, the next monarch of Scotland, Malcolm IV, made the High Steward title a hereditary arrangement. While High Stewards, the family were based at Dundonald, South Ayrshire between the 12th and 13th centuries. The sixth High Steward of Scotland, Walter Stewart, married Marjorie, daughter of Robert the Bruce, in 1503, James IV attempted to secure peace with England by marrying King Henry VIIs daughter, Margaret Tudor. The birth of their son, James V, brought the House of Stewart into the line of descent of the House of Tudor, and the English throne. Margaret Tudor married Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus, and their daughter, Margaret Douglas, was the mother of Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley
Malcolm III of Scotland
Malcolm was King of Scots from 1058 to 1093. Malcolms long reign of 35 years preceded the beginning of the Scoto-Norman age and he is the historical equivalent of the character of the same name in William Shakespeares Macbeth. Malcolm III fought a series of wars against the Kingdom of England and these wars did not result in any significant advances southward. Malcolms second wife, St. Margaret of Scotland, is Scotlands only royal saint, Malcolm himself had no reputation for piety, with the notable exception of Dunfermline Abbey in Fife he is not definitely associated with major religious establishments or ecclesiastical reforms. Malcolms father Duncan I became king in late 1034, on the death of Malcolm II, Duncans maternal grandfather, Duncans reign was not successful and he was killed by Macbeth on 15 August 1040. Although Shakespeares Macbeth presents Malcolm as a man and his father as an old one, it appears that Duncan was still young in 1040. Malcolms family did attempt to overthrow Macbeth in 1045, but Malcolms grandfather Crínán of Dunkeld was killed in the attempt, soon after the death of Duncan his two young sons were sent away for greater safety—exactly where is the subject of debate.
According to one version, Malcolm was sent to England, based on Forduns account, it was assumed that Malcolm passed most of Macbeths seventeen-year reign in the Kingdom of England at the court of Edward the Confessor. An English invasion in 1054, with Siward, Earl of Northumbria in command, had as its goal the installation of one Máel Coluim and this Máel Coluim has traditionally been identified with the Malcolm III. This interpretation derives from the Chronicle attributed to the 14th-century chronicler of Scotland, John of Fordun, the latter reported that Macbeth was killed in the battle by Siward, but it is known that Macbeth outlived Siward by two years. A. A. M. Duncan argued in 2002 that, using the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle entry as their source, Duncans argument has been supported by several subsequent historians specialising in the era, such as Richard Oram, Dauvit Broun and Alex Woolf. It has suggested that Máel Coluim may have been a son of Owain Foel, British king of Strathclyde perhaps by a daughter of Malcolm II.
In 1057 various chroniclers report the death of Macbeth at Malcolms hand, Macbeth was succeeded by his stepson Lulach, who was crowned at Scone, probably on 8 September 1057. Lulach was killed by Malcolm, by treachery, near Huntly on 23 April 1058, after this, Malcolm became king, perhaps being inaugurated on 25 April 1058, although only John of Fordun reports this. If he did visit the English court, he was the first reigning king of Scots to do so in more than eighty years. If a marriage agreement was made in 1059, it was not kept, Malcolms raids in Northumbria may have been related to the disputed Kingdom of the Cumbrians, reestablished by Earl Siward in 1054, which was under Malcolms control by 1070. The Orkneyinga saga reports that Malcolm married the widow of Thorfinn Sigurdsson, although Ingibiorg is generally assumed to have died shortly before 1070, it is possible that she died much earlier, around 1058. The Orkneyinga Saga records that Malcolm and Ingibiorg had a son, Duncan II, Malcolms son Domnall, whose death is reported in 1085, is not mentioned by the author of the Orkneyinga Saga