Flinders Petrie

Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie, FRS, FBA known as Flinders Petrie, was an English Egyptologist and a pioneer of systematic methodology in archaeology and preservation of artefacts. He held the first chair of Egyptology in the United Kingdom, excavated many of the most important archaeological sites in Egypt in conjunction with his wife, Hilda Petrie; some consider his most famous discovery to be that of the Merneptah Stele, an opinion with which Petrie himself concurred. Petrie developed the system of dating layers based on pottery and ceramic findings. Petrie was born on 3 June 1853 in Maryon Road, Kent, the son of William Petrie and Anne. Anne was the daughter of Captain Matthew Flinders. William Petrie was an electrical engineer who developed carbon arc lighting and developed chemical processes for Johnson, Matthey & Co. Petrie was raised in a Christian household, was educated at home, he had no formal education. His father taught his son how to survey laying the foundation for his archaeological career.

At the age of eight, he was tutored in French and Greek, until he had a collapse and was taught at home. He ventured his first archaeological opinion aged eight, when friends visiting the Petrie family were describing the unearthing of the Brading Roman Villa in the Isle of Wight; the boy was horrified to hear the rough shovelling out of the contents, protested that the earth should be pared away, inch by inch, to see all, in it and how it lay. "All that I have done since," he wrote when he was in his late seventies, "was there to begin with, so true it is that we can only develop what is born in the mind. I was in archaeology by nature." The chair of Edwards Professor of Egyptian Archaeology and Philology at University College London was set up and funded in 1892 following a bequest from Amelia Edwards, who died in that year. Petrie's supporter since 1880, Edwards had instructed, he continued to excavate in Egypt after taking up the professorship, training many of the best archaeologists of the day.

In 1913 Petrie sold his large collection of Egyptian antiquities to University College, where it is now housed in the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology. One of his trainees, Howard Carter, went on to discover the tomb of Tutankhamun in 1922. In his teenage years, Petrie surveyed British prehistoric monuments in attempts to understand their geometry, his father had corresponded with Piazzi Smyth about his theories of the Great Pyramid and Petrie travelled to Egypt in early 1880 to make an accurate survey of Giza, making him the first to properly investigate how they were constructed. Petrie's published reports of this triangulation survey, his analysis of the architecture of Giza therein, was exemplary in its methodology and accuracy, disproved Smyth's theories and still provides much of the basic data regarding the pyramid plateau to this day. On that visit, he was appalled by the rate of destruction of mummies, he described Egypt as "a house on fire, so rapid was the destruction" and felt his duty to be that of a "salvage man, to get all I could, as as possible and when I was 60, I would sit and write it all."

Returning to England at the end of 1880, Petrie wrote a number of articles and met Amelia Edwards and patron of the Egypt Exploration Fund, who became his strong supporter and appointed him as Professor at her Egyptology chair at University College London. Impressed by his scientific approach, they offered. Petrie accepted the position and was given the sum of £250 per month to cover the excavation's expenses. In November 1884, Petrie arrived in Egypt to begin his excavations, he first went to a New Kingdom site with 170 workmen. He cut out the middle man role of foreman on this and all subsequent excavations, taking complete overall control himself and removing pressure on the workmen from the foreman to discover finds but sloppily. Though he was regarded as an amateur and dilettante by more established Egyptologists, this made him popular with his workers, who found several small but significant finds that would have been lost under the old system. In 1886, while working for the Egypt Exploration Fund, Petrie excavated at Tell Nebesheh in the Eastern Nile Delta.

This site is located 8 miles southeast of Tanis and, among the remains of an ancient temple there, Petrie found a royal sphinx, now located at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. By the end of the Tanis dig, he ran out of funding but, reluctant to leave the country in case it was renewed, he spent 1887 cruising the Nile taking photographs as a less subjective record than sketches. During this time, he climbed rope ladders at Sehel Island near Aswan to draw and photograph thousands of early Egyptian inscriptions on a cliff face, recording embassies to Nubia and wars. By the time he reached Aswan, a telegram had reached there to confirm the renewal of his funding, he went straight to the burial site at Fayum interested in post-30 BC burials, which had not been studied. He found intact tombs and 60 of the famous portraits, discovered from inscriptions on t

Linköping Bloodbath

The Linköping Bloodbath on 20 March 1600 was the public execution by beheading of five Swedish nobles in the aftermath of the War against Sigismund, which resulted in the de facto deposition of the Polish and Swedish King Sigismund III Vasa as king of Sweden. The five were advisors to Catholic Sigismund or political opponents of the latter's uncle and adversary, the Swedish regent Duke Charles. King Sigismund, eldest son to King John III, had inherited the crown from his father and been crowned the rightful king of Sweden after giving assurances that he would not act to aid the Catholic cause in Sweden during the mounting religious turmoil of the counter-reformation in the late 16th century, he violated the agreement. After trying to manage the Swedish situation from afar, Sigismund invaded with a mercenary army after receiving permission from the Polish legislature, was successful; the turning point of his Swedish campaign was the Battle of Stångebro on 25 September 1598 known as the Battle of Linköping, where Sigismund became trapped in an unfavourable position and had to agree to a truce with Charles.

One of Charles' conditions for the truce was the handing over of Swedish privy counsellors from Sigismund's camp. Sigismund complied. Most prominent among these Swedish senators was the Chancellor of Erik Sparre. While Charles did not detain Sigismund as well, he forced him to agree to the Treaty of Linköping and to agree that their dispute would be settled by a future Riksdag of the Estates in Stockholm. Sigismund retreated to the port of Kalmar, but instead of sailing to Stockholm, he took his sister Anna, left for Danzig in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and never returned to Sweden again. Charles crushed the remaining military opposition from forces loyal to Sigismund and those nobles who had taken control of Finland in the Cudgel War. During these campaigns, some nobles were executed or detained. Executions, including the so-called Åbo Bloodbath, were carried out through decapitation or impalement, Charles himself executed a son of his adversary Clas Fleming; when in March 1600 a riksdag met in Linköping, meanwhile created omnipotent ruler of Sweden and had been offered the Swedish crown, set up a court to try his remaining prisoners.

The court, headed by Erik Brahe and Count Axel Leijonhufvud -- not to be confused with the modern economist Axel Leijonhufvud -- consisted of 155 members, with Charles himself being the prosecutor. Tried were six nobles captured in Stångebro and two Finnish nobles captured including Arvid Stålarm, who in 1598 had intended to aid Sigismund in Stångebro, but aborted the action when his army had reached Stockholm from Finland only after Sigismund had accepted the aforementioned truce; the other Finnish noble, Axel Kurck, was sentenced to death along with Stålarm in Finland but the verdict had been suspended to again try them in Linköping. These eight noblemen were sentenced to death, but three of them were pardoned; the noblemen publicly executed on the Linköping market square on 20 March 1600 were: Erik Sparre — the Chancellor of Sweden and a senator in the Riksens ständer Ture Nilsson Bielke — a senator in the Riksens ständer Gustaf Banér — a senator in the Riksens ständer and father of Gustavus II Adolphus the Great's Swedish Field Marshal Johan Banér Sten Banér — a senator in the Riksens ständer Bengt Falck — a senator in the Riksens ständer Sigismund, allowed to return to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, did not relinquish his desire to regain the throne of Sweden.

This attitude led to a series of Polish–Swedish wars, that culminated during the reign of his son, John II Casimir of Poland, with the giant Swedish invasion of Poland known as the Deluge, ending the golden age of the Commonwealth. On 24 July 1599, the Riksens ständer in Stockholm dethroned Sigismund and named Charles IX Vasa as regent, the Polish–Swedish union was dissolved after seven years of existence. Subsequently, Charles IX of Sweden was named by the Riksens ständer as the new King of Sweden in 1604, the crown would pass to Gustavus the Great, who established his early reputation as an outstanding military leader in campaigns during the early years of the Polish–Swedish wars. Indirectly, the religious conflict in Sweden led to the Swedish Empire as Gustavus and his generals became militant in the cause of Protestants in the Holy Roman Empire. Charles IX of Sweden Pacta conventa Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Polish–Swedish union Privy Council of Sweden War against Sigismund Sigrid Banér Peterson, Gary Dean.

Warrior Kings of Sweden: The Rise of an Empire in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-2873-2. Roberts, Michael; the Early Vasas: A History of Sweden 1523–1611. Cambridge University Press Archive. ISBN 0-521-31182-9. Samuelson, Jan. Aristokrat eller förädlad bonde? Det svenska frälsets ekonomi, politik och sociala förbindelser under tiden 1523–1611. Lund University Press. ISBN 91-7966-248-X

IULM University of Milan

The IULM University - Milan is a university located in Milan, Italy. It is organized in 4 Faculties; the University Institute for Modern Languages was founded by Carlo Bo, literary critic and professor of Spanish and French language and literature and Silvio Baridon, French language and literature professor at Bocconi University, in 1968. It was renamed in 1998, as the IULM University of Languages and Communication, to reflect its teaching of both languages and communication. IULM University offers five three-year degree courses: Business Communication. In addition to these three-year undergraduate degree courses, IULM University offers one- and two-year post-graduate degree courses, research doctorate schools. Teaching staff include managers and professionals from media and communication, professional services, public administration and cultural organisations. Teaching is done through lectures, classroom activities and case studies, continuous assessment, internships in Italy and abroad and through international student exchanges.

IULM University campus includes a study centre with modern teaching facilities. The main building houses students' admin. Offices, the Dean’s office, the library and classrooms. New buildings have been added: a canteen catering for about 400 people, a building intended to become a research institute, an auditorium and a hall of residence; these are the 4 faculties in which the university is divided into: Faculty of Communication, Public Relations and Advertising Faculty of Interpreting, Translation and Cultural Studies Faculty of Arts and Cultural Heritage Faculty of Tourism and Territory. Interpreting and Communication Public Relations and Business Communication Communication and Advertising Tourism and Territory Communication in Culture and Arts Markets Specialised Translation and Conference Interpreting Brand and Design: Strategies and Communication Consumer and Trade Marketing Television and New Media Tourism and Culture: Promotion and Management Arts and Markets Journalism Italian Fashion and Luxury Product Management and Communication Management of Social and Institutional Communication Tourism Management Management of Creative Processes Management of Artistic and Cultural Heritage Music Publishing and Production Communication for the International Relations Health service manager Design-Driven Communication Conference Interpreting Multimedia Management - MIMM Managing educational institutions Comparative Literature Linguistic History of Ancient Mediterranean Communication and New Technologies Corporate Communication Human Interaction: Consumer Psychology, Behaviour And Communication List of Italian universities IULM University - Milan Website