A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
Shankar Mahadevan is an Indian singer and composer, part of the Shankar–Ehsaan–Loy composing trio team for Indian films. Shankar Mahadevan was born in Mumbai into a Tamil family from Palakkad, Kerala, he learned Hindustani classical and Carnatic music as a child, began playing the veena at the age of five. Mahadevan studied music under Pandit Shrinivas Khale, he is an alumni of the school Swami Vivekananda High School and graduated in 1988 with a degree in Computer Science and Software Engineering from the Ramrao Adik Institute of Technology in Navi Mumbai, affiliated to Mumbai University, was a software engineer for the company, Leading Edge. After working for Leading Edge Systems, Mahadevan ventured into music. National Film Awards2000: Best Male Playback Singer - "Yenna Solla Pogirai" 2004: Best Music Direction - Kal Ho Naa Ho 2007: Best Male Playback Singer - "Maa" 2012: Best Male Playback Singer - "Bolo Na" Film Awards2008: Kerala State Film Award for Best Singer - "Kalyaana Kacheri" 2008: Nandi Award for Best Male Playback Singer - Venkatadri 2012: Nandi Award for Best Male Playback Singer- "okkade devudu" Filmfare Awards2001: Filmfare RD Burman Award for New Music Talent for Dil Chahta Hai 2003: Best Music Direction for Kal Ho Naa Ho 2005: Best Music Direction for Bunty Aur Babli 2014: Best Music Direction for 2 States 2015: Filmfare Award Best Music Direction for Katyar Kaljat Ghusli 2015: Filmfare Award Best Male Playback Singer for Katyar Kaljat Ghusli Filmfare Awards South2005: Best Playback Singer for "Nuvvostanante Nenoddantana"South Indian International Movie Awards2017: Nominated for Best Playback Singer - Telugu for "Janatha Garage"Star Screen Awards2000: Nominated for Best Background Music for Mission Kashmir 2001: Best Music Direction for Dil Chahta Hai 2005: Best Music Direction for Bunty aur Babli 2009: Nominated for Best Music Direction for Rock On!!
Other awards2007: Swaralaya-Kairali-Yesudas Award for outstanding contribution to Indian film music 2009: Asianet Film Award for Best Male Playback - "Pichavecha Naal" 2009: Annual Malayalam Movie Awards for Best Male Singer - "Pichavecha Naal" 2011: Lata Mangeshkar Award on 28 September 2011: Kerala Film Critics Award for Best Male Playback Singer - "Indhumukhi Varumo" 2012: MAA Music Award for Best Male Playback Singer - "Nee Dookudu" 2015: Tulu Cinemotsava Awards for Best Playback Singer -Rikshaw Driver 2019: Padma Shri Award for his contributions to Film Music under the category Arts. Katyar Kaljat Ghusali Marathi Ek Se Badh Kar Ek Doordarshan Serial Rockford Bhopal Express Shool Dillagi Mission Kashmir Aalavandhan Dil Chahta Ha Yeh Kya Ho Raha Hai? Ek Aur Ek Gyarah Armaan Nayee Padosan Kuch Naa Kaho Kal Ho Naa Ho Rudraksh Kyun! Ho Gaya Na... Lakshya Phir Milenge Vanity Fair Bunty Aur Babli Dil Jo Bhi Kahey... Dus Kabhi Alvida Naa Kehna Don: The Chase Begins Again Salaam-e-Ishq: A Tribute to Love Marigold: An Adventure in India Heyy Babyy Jhoom Barabar Jhoom Johnny Gaddaar Taare Zameen Par High School Musical 2 soundtrack Rock On!!
Thoda Pyaar Thoda Magic Madambi Chandni Chowk to China Yavarum Nalam Shortkut Luck by Chance Sikandar 13B Konchem Ishtam Konchem Kashtam Wake Up Sid London Dreams My Name Is Khan Kismat Talkies Karthik Calling Karthik Hum Tum Aur Ghost Housefull Tere Bin Laden Koochie Koochie Hota Hai Patiala House De Ghuma Ke Game Zindagi Na Milegi Dobara Don 2 Chittagong Vishwaroopam Bhaag Milkha Bhaag D - Day One By Two Darr @ the Mall Dostana Hamara Bajaj 2 States Kill Dil Mitwaa Marathi Katyar Kaljat Ghusali Marathi Than Than Gopal Marathi Telugu Songs "Bongaram Lanti" From Attarintiki Daredi "Aakasham Ammayithe" From Gabbar Singh "Pranamam ￼Pranamam" From Janatha Garage "Neeru ￼Neeru" From Khaidi No. 150 ingh Khaidi No. 150 "Majhya Mana" - Lagna Pahave Karun "Man Udhan Varyache " - Aga Bai Arechya Breathless Nine: Explores nine moods, one in each song Nandagopalam Rising Star Live on Colors as a Judge Official website Shankar Mahadevan Academy Shankar Mahadevan on IMDb
Devotion (John McLaughlin album)
Devotion is the third album by the English jazz fusion guitarist John McLaughlin, released in 1970. It was recorded shortly after McLaughlin left the Miles Davis band and prior to forming The Mahavishnu Orchestra. McLaughlin was unhappy with the resulting album. On his website, he writes: “In 1969, I sign a contract in America for 2 records. First is'Devotion', destroyed by producer Alan Douglas who mixes the recording in my absence.” In a contemporary review, Rolling Stone magazine called the album "very fine" and said that McLaughlin "has managed to make an album as Heavy as the most fanatical Led Zeppelin devotee could wish, while maintaining a high musical level". Allmusic awards the album four and a half stars, Sean Westergaard concludes, "Devotion is a complete anomaly in his catalog, as well as one of his finest achievements." All songs written by John McLaughlin. "Devotion" – 11:25 "Dragon Song" – 4:13 "Marbles" – 4:05 "Siren" – 5:55 "Don't Let the Dragon Eat Your Mother" – 5:18 "Purpose of When" – 4:45 John McLaughlin – electric guitar Buddy Miles – drums, percussion Larry Young – organ, electric piano Billy Rich – bass guitar Devotion at Discogs
My Goal's Beyond
My Goal's Beyond is the fourth solo album by John McLaughlin. The album was released in 1971 on Douglas Records in the US, it was reissued by Douglas/Casablanca, Elektra/Musician, in 1987 by Rykodisc on CD and LP. The music is influenced by music of India, was dedicated to McLaughlin's spiritual leader, Indian guru Sri Chinmoy. Side one has two longer pieces for the whole band, including soprano saxophone, flute and Indian percussion. Side two of the album features eight short compositions played by McLaughlin on acoustic guitar. Douglas – KZ 30766 John McLaughlin – acoustic guitar Billy Cobham – drums Charlie Haden – bass Jerry Goodman – violin Dave Liebman – flute, soprano saxophone Airto Moreira – percussion Badal Roy – tabla Mahalakshmi – tanpura John McLaughlin discography
John McLaughlin (musician)
John McLaughlin known as Mahavishnu John McLaughlin, is an English guitarist and composer. His music includes many genres of jazz, combined with elements of rock, Indian classical music, Western classical music and blues, he is one of the pioneering figures in fusion. After contributing to several key British groups of the early 1960s, McLaughlin made Extrapolation, his first album as a bandleader, in 1969, he moved to the U. S. where he played with Tony Williams's group Lifetime and with Miles Davis on his electric jazz-fusion albums In a Silent Way, Bitches Brew, Jack Johnson, On the Corner. His 1970s electric band, the Mahavishnu Orchestra, performed a technically virtuosic and complex style of music that fused electric jazz and rock with Indian influences. McLaughlin's solo on "Miles Beyond" from his album Live at Ronnie Scott's won the 2018 Grammy Award for the Best Improvised Jazz Solo, he has been awarded multiple "Guitarist of the Year" and "Best Jazz Guitarist" awards from magazines such as DownBeat and Guitar Player based on reader polls.
In 2003, he was ranked 49th in Rolling Stone magazine's list of the "100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time". In 2009, DownBeat included McLaughlin in its unranked list of "75 Great Guitarists", in the "Modern Jazz Maestros" category. In 2012, Guitar World magazine ranked him 63rd on its top 100 list. In 2010, Jeff Beck called McLaughlin "the best guitarist alive," and Pat Metheny has described him as the world's greatest guitarist. John McLaughlin was born on 4 January 1942 to a family of musicians in Doncaster, South Yorkshire, England. McLaughlin studied violin and piano as a child and took up the guitar at the age of 11, exploring styles from flamenco to the jazz of Django Reinhardt and Stéphane Grappelli, he moved to London from Yorkshire in the early 1960s, playing with Alexis Korner and the Marzipan Twisters before moving on to Georgie Fame and the Blue Flames, the Graham Bond Organisation and Brian Auger. During the 1960s, he supported himself with session work, which he found unsatisfying but which enhanced his playing and sight-reading.
He gave guitar lessons to Jimmy Page. In 1963, Jack Bruce formed the Graham Bond Quartet with Ginger Baker and John McLaughlin, they played an eclectic range of music genres, including bebop and rhythm and blues. In January 1969, McLaughlin recorded his debut album Extrapolation in London, it prominently features Tony Oxley on drums. McLaughlin composed the number ‘Binky’s Beam’ as a tribute to his friend, the innovative bass player Binky McKenzie; the album's post-bop style is quite different than McLaughlin's fusion works, though it developed a strong reputation among critics by the mid-1970s. McLaughlin moved to the U. S. in 1969 to join Tony Williams' group Lifetime. A recording from the Record Plant, NYC, dated 25 March 1969, exists of McLaughlin jamming with Jimi Hendrix. McLaughlin recollects "we played one night, just a jam session, and we played from 2 in the morning. I thought it was a wonderful experience! I was playing an acoustic guitar with a pick-up. Um, flat-top guitar, Jimi was playing an electric.
Yeah, what a lovely time! Had he lived today, you'd find that he would be employing everything he could get his hands on, I mean acoustic guitar, orchestras, anything he could get his hands on he'd use!" He played on Miles Davis' albums In A Silent Way, Bitches Brew, Live-Evil, On the Corner, Big Fun and A Tribute to Jack Johnson. In the liner notes to Jack Johnson, Davis called McLaughlin's playing "far in". McLaughlin returned to the Davis band for one night of a week-long club date and released as part of the album Live-Evil and of the Cellar Door boxed set, his reputation as a "first-call" session player grew, resulting in recordings as a sideman with Miroslav Vitous, Larry Coryell, Joe Farrell, Wayne Shorter, Carla Bley, the Rolling Stones, others. He recorded Devotion in early 1970 on Douglas Records, a high-energy, psychedelic fusion album that featured Larry Young on organ, Billy Rich on bass and the R&B drummer Buddy Miles. Devotion was the first of two albums. In 1971 he released My Goal's Beyond in a collection of unamplified acoustic works.
Side A offers a fusion blend of jazz and Indian classical forms, while side B features melodic acoustic playing McLaughlin on such standards as "Goodbye Pork Pie Hat", by Charles Mingus whom McLaughlin considered an important influence. My Goal's Beyond was inspired by McLaughlin's decision to follow the Indian spiritual leader Sri Chinmoy, to whom he had been introduced in 1970 by Larry Coryell's manager; the album was dedicated with one of the Guru's poems printed on the liner notes. It was on this album that McLaughlin took the name "Mahavishnu". In 1973 McLaughlin collaborated with Carlos Santana a disciple of Sri Chinmoy, on an album of devotional songs, Love Devotion Surrender, which featured recordings of Coltrane compositions including a movement of A Love Supreme. McLaughlin has worked with the jazz composers Carla Bley and Gil Evans. In 1979 he formed a short-lived funk fusion power trio named Trio of Doom with drummer Tony Williams and bassist Jaco Pastorius, their only live performance was on 3 March 1979 at the Havana Jam Festival in Cuba, part of a US State Department sponsored visit to Cuba.
On 8 March 1979 the group recorded the songs they had written for the festival at Columbia Studios, New York, on 52nd Street. Recollections from this per
In computing, floating-point arithmetic is arithmetic using formulaic representation of real numbers as an approximation so as to support a trade-off between range and precision. For this reason, floating-point computation is found in systems which include small and large real numbers, which require fast processing times. A number is, in general, represented to a fixed number of significant digits and scaled using an exponent in some fixed base. A number that can be represented is of the following form: significand × base exponent, where significand is an integer, base is an integer greater than or equal to two, exponent is an integer. For example: 1.2345 = 12345 ⏟ significand × 10 ⏟ base − 4 ⏞ exponent. The term floating point refers to the fact that a number's radix point can "float"; this position is indicated as the exponent component, thus the floating-point representation can be thought of as a kind of scientific notation. A floating-point system can be used to represent, with a fixed number of digits, numbers of different orders of magnitude: e.g. the distance between galaxies or the diameter of an atomic nucleus can be expressed with the same unit of length.
The result of this dynamic range is that the numbers that can be represented are not uniformly spaced. Over the years, a variety of floating-point representations have been used in computers. In 1985, the IEEE 754 Standard for Floating-Point Arithmetic was established, since the 1990s, the most encountered representations are those defined by the IEEE; the speed of floating-point operations measured in terms of FLOPS, is an important characteristic of a computer system for applications that involve intensive mathematical calculations. A floating-point unit is a part of a computer system specially designed to carry out operations on floating-point numbers. A number representation specifies some way of encoding a number as a string of digits. There are several mechanisms. In common mathematical notation, the digit string can be of any length, the location of the radix point is indicated by placing an explicit "point" character there. If the radix point is not specified the string implicitly represents an integer and the unstated radix point would be off the right-hand end of the string, next to the least significant digit.
In fixed-point systems, a position in the string is specified for the radix point. So a fixed-point scheme might be to use a string of 8 decimal digits with the decimal point in the middle, whereby "00012345" would represent 0001.2345. In scientific notation, the given number is scaled by a power of 10, so that it lies within a certain range—typically between 1 and 10, with the radix point appearing after the first digit; the scaling factor, as a power of ten, is indicated separately at the end of the number. For example, the orbital period of Jupiter's moon Io is 152,853.5047 seconds, a value that would be represented in standard-form scientific notation as 1.528535047×105 seconds. Floating-point representation is similar in concept to scientific notation. Logically, a floating-point number consists of: A signed digit string of a given length in a given base; this digit string is referred to mantissa, or coefficient. The length of the significand determines the precision; the radix point position is assumed always to be somewhere within the significand—often just after or just before the most significant digit, or to the right of the rightmost digit.
This article follows the convention that the radix point is set just after the most significant digit. A signed integer exponent. To derive the value of the floating-point number, the significand is multiplied by the base raised to the power of the exponent, equivalent to shifting the radix point from its implied position by a number of places equal to the value of the exponent—to the right if the exponent is positive or to the left if the exponent is negative. Using base-10 as an example, the number 152,853.5047, which has ten decimal digits of precision, is represented as the significand 1,528,535,047 together with 5 as the exponent. To determine the actual value, a decimal point is placed after the first digit of the significand and the result is multiplied by 105 to give 1.528535047×105, or 152,853.5047. In storing such a number, the base need not be stored, since it will be the same for the entire range of supported numbers, can thus be inferred. Symbolically, this final value is: s b p − 1 × b e, where s is the
Bitches Brew is a studio double album by American jazz musician Miles Davis, released on March 30, 1970, on Columbia Records. It continued his experimentation with electric instruments featured on his critically acclaimed album In a Silent Way. With the use of these instruments, such as the electric piano and guitar, Davis rejected traditional jazz rhythms in favor of a looser, rock-influenced improvisational style, it received a mixed response, due to the album's unconventional style and experimental sound, but became Davis's first gold record, selling more than half a million copies. In subsequent years, Bitches Brew gained recognition as one of jazz's greatest albums and a progenitor of the jazz rock genre, as well as a major influence on rock and funk musicians; the album won a Grammy Award for Best Large Jazz Ensemble Album in 1971. In 1998, Columbia Records released The Complete Bitches Brew Sessions, a four-disc box set that included the original album as well as the studio sessions through February 1970.
Recording sessions took place at Columbia's Studio B over the course of three days in August 1969. Davis called the musicians to the recording studio at short notice. A few pieces on Bitches Brew were rehearsed before the recording sessions, but at other times the musicians had little or no idea what they were to record. Once in the recording studio, the players were given only a few instructions: a tempo count, a few chords or a hint of melody, suggestions as to mood or tone. Davis liked to work this way. On the quieter moments of "Bitches Brew", for example, Davis's voice is audible, giving instructions to the musicians: snapping his fingers to indicate tempo, or, in his distinctive whisper, saying, "Keep it tight" or telling individuals when to solo. Despite his reputation as a "cool", melodic improviser, much of Davis's playing on this album is aggressive and explosive playing fast runs and venturing into the upper register of the trumpet, his closing solo on "Miles Runs the Voodoo Down" is noteworthy in this regard.
Davis did not perform on the short piece "John McLaughlin". Significant editing was made to the recorded music. Short sections were spliced together to create longer pieces, various effects were applied to the recordings. Paul Tingen reports: Bitches Brew pioneered the application of the studio as a musical instrument, featuring stacks of edits and studio effects that were an integral part of the music. Miles and his producer, Teo Macero, used the recording studio in radical new ways in the title track and the opening track, "Pharaoh's Dance". There were like tape loops, tape delays, reverb chambers and echo effects. Through intensive tape editing, Macero concocted many new musical structures that were imitated by the band in live concerts. Macero, who has a classical education and was most inspired by'50s and'60s French musique concrète experiments, used tape editing as a form of arranging and composition. "Pharaoh's Dance" contains 19 edits – its famous stop-start opening is constructed in the studio, using repeat loops of certain sections.
On in the track there are several micro-edits: for example, a one-second-long fragment that first appears at 8:39 is repeated five times between 8:54 and 8:59. The title track contains 15 edits, again with several short tape loops of, in this case, five seconds. Therefore, Bitches Brew not only became a controversial classic of musical innovation, it became renowned for its pioneering use of studio technology. Though Bitches Brew was in many ways revolutionary its most important innovation was rhythmic; the rhythm section for this recording consists of two bassists, two to three drummers, two to three electric piano players, a percussionist, all playing at the same time. As Paul Tanner, Maurice Gerow, David Megill explain, "like rock groups, Davis gives the rhythm section a central role in the ensemble's activities, his use of such a large rhythm section offers the soloists wide but active expanses for their solos." Tanner and Megill further explain that "the harmonies used in this recording move slowly and function modally rather than in a more tonal fashion typical of mainstream jazz....
The static harmonies and rhythm section's collective embellishment create a open arena for improvisation. The musical result flows from basic rock patterns to hard bop textures, at times passages that are more characteristic of free jazz." The solo voices heard most prominently on this album are the trumpet and the soprano saxophone of Miles and Wayne Shorter. Notable is Bennie Maupin's bass clarinet present on four tracks; the technology of recording, analog tape, disc mastering and inherent recording time constraints had, by the late sixties, expanded beyond previous limitations and sonic range for the stereo, vinyl album and Bitches Brew reflects this. In it are found long-form performances which encompass entire improvised suites with rubato sections, tempo changes or the long, slow crescendo more common to a symphonic orchestral piece or Indian raga form than the three-minute rock song. Starting in 1969, Davis' concerts included some of the material. Reviewing for Rolling Stone in 1970, Langdon Winner said Bitches Brew shows Davis' music expanding in "beauty and sheer magnificence", finding it "so rich in its form and substance that it permits and encourages soaring flights of imagination by anyone who listens".