An aircraft carrier is a warship that serves as a seagoing airbase, equipped with a full-length flight deck and facilities for carrying, arming and recovering aircraft. It is the capital ship of a fleet, as it allows a naval force to project air power worldwide without depending on local bases for staging aircraft operations. Carriers have evolved since their inception in the early twentieth century from wooden vessels used to deploy balloons to nuclear-powered warships that carry numerous fighters, strike aircraft and other types of aircraft. While heavier aircraft such as fixed-wing gunships and bombers have been launched from aircraft carriers, it is not possible to land them. By its diplomatic and tactical power, its mobility, its autonomy and the variety of its means, the aircraft carrier is the centerpiece of modern combat fleets. Tactically or strategically, it replaced the battleship in the role of flagship of a fleet. One of its great advantages is that, by sailing in international waters, it does not interfere with any territorial sovereignty and thus obviates the need for overflight authorizations from third party countries, reduce the times and transit distances of aircraft and therefore increase the time of availability on the combat zone.
There is no single definition of an "aircraft carrier", modern navies use several variants of the type. These variants are sometimes categorized as sub-types of aircraft carriers, sometimes as distinct types of naval aviation-capable ships. Aircraft carriers may be classified according to the type of aircraft they carry and their operational assignments. Admiral Sir Mark Stanhope, RN, former First Sea Lord of the Royal Navy, has said, "To put it countries that aspire to strategic international influence have aircraft carriers." Henry Kissinger, while United States Secretary of State said: "An aircraft carrier is 100,000 tons of diplomacy". As of April 2019, there are 41 active aircraft carriers in the world operated by thirteen navies; the United States Navy has 11 large nuclear-powered fleet carriers—carrying around 80 fighter jets each—the largest carriers in the world. As well as the aircraft carrier fleet, the U. S. Navy has nine amphibious assault ships used for helicopters, although these carry up to 20 vertical or short take-off and landing fighter jets and are similar in size to medium-sized fleet carriers.
China, India and the UK each operate a single large/medium-size carrier, with capacity from 30 to 60 fighter jets. Italy operates two light fleet carriers and Spain operates one. Helicopter carriers are operated by Japan, Australia, Brazil, South Korea, Thailand. Future aircraft carriers are under construction or in planning by Brazil, India, the United Kingdom, the United States. Amphibious assault ship Anti-submarine warfare carrier Balloon carrier and balloon tenders Escort carrier Fleet carrier Flight deck cruiser Helicopter carrier Light aircraft carrier Sea Control Ship Seaplane tender and seaplane carriers Aircraft cruiser A fleet carrier is intended to operate with the main fleet and provides an offensive capability; these are the largest carriers capable of fast speeds. By comparison, escort carriers were developed to provide defense for convoys of ships, they were slower with lower numbers of aircraft carried. Most were built from mercantile hulls or, in the case of merchant aircraft carriers, were bulk cargo ships with a flight deck added on top.
Light aircraft carriers were fast enough to operate with the main fleet but of smaller size with reduced aircraft capacity. The Soviet aircraft carrier Admiral Kusnetsov was termed a heavy aircraft-carrying cruiser; this was a legal construct to avoid the limitations of the Montreux Convention preventing'aircraft carriers' transiting the Turkish Straits between the Soviet Black Sea bases and the Mediterranean. These ships, while sized in the range of large fleet carriers, were designed to deploy alone or with escorts. In addition to supporting fighter aircraft and helicopters, they provide both strong defensive weaponry and heavy offensive missiles equivalent to a guided missile cruiser. Aircraft carriers today are divided into the following four categories based on the way that aircraft take off and land: Catapult-assisted take-off barrier arrested-recovery: these carriers carry the largest and most armed aircraft, although smaller CATOBAR carriers may have other limitations. All CATOBAR carriers in service today are nuclear powered.
Two nations operate carriers of this type: ten Nimitz class and one Gerald R. Ford class fleet carriers by the United States, one medium-sized carrier by France, for a world total of twelve in service. Short take-off but arrested-recovery: these carriers are limited to carrying lighter fixed-wing aircraft with more limited payloads. STOBAR carrier air wings, such as the Sukhoi Su-33 and future Mikoyan MiG-29K wings of Admiral Kuznetsov are geared towards air superiority and fleet defense roles rather than strike/power projection tasks, which require heavier payloads. Today China and Russia each operate one carrier of this type – a total of three in service currently. Short take-off vertical-landing: limited to carrying STOVL aircraft. STOVL aircraft, such as the Harrier Jump Jet family and Yakovlev Yak-38 have limited payloads, lower perfor
A torpedo bomber is a military aircraft designed to attack ships with aerial torpedoes. Torpedo bombers came into existence just before the First World War as soon as aircraft were built that were capable of carrying the weight of a torpedo, remained an important aircraft type until they were rendered obsolete by anti-ship missiles, they were an important element in many famous Second World War battles, notably the British attack at Taranto and the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Torpedo bombers first appeared prior to the First World War, they carried torpedoes designed for air launch, which were smaller and lighter than those used by submarines and surface warships. Nonetheless, as an airborne torpedo could weigh as much as 2,000 pounds, more than twice the bomb load of contemporary single-engined bombers, the aircraft carrying it needed to be specially designed for the purpose. Many early torpedo bombers were floatplanes, such as the Short 184, the undercarriage had to be redesigned so that the torpedo could be dropped from the aircraft's centerline.
While many torpedo bombers were single-engine aircraft, some multi-engined aircraft have been used as torpedo bombers, with the Mitsubishi G3M Nell and Mitsubishi G4M Betty being used in the sinking of Prince of Wales and Repulse. Other twin-engine or three-engined aircraft designed or used as torpedo bombers include the Mitsubishi Ki-67, the Savoia-Marchetti SM.79 "Sparviero", the CANT Z.1007, the Bristol Beaufort and Bristol Beaufighter, the Junkers Ju 88, the Heinkel He 111, the B-25 Mitchell and many others. Some postwar jet aircraft were adapted as torpedo bombers in the late 1950s; the last known torpedo bomber attack was made by US Navy Skyraiders against the Hwacheon Dam during the Korean War. The North Korean Air Force retired the world's last operational torpedo bombers in the 1980s. In a parallel development, many maritime strike aircraft and helicopters have been capable of launching guided torpedoes. Many naval staffs began to appreciate the possibility of using aircraft to launch torpedoes against moored ships in the period before the First World War.
Captain Alessandro Guidoni, an Italian naval captain, experimented with dropping weights from Farman MF.7 in 1912. Which led to Raúl Pateras Pescara and Guidoni developing a purpose-built torpedo bomber from which a 375 lb dummy torpedo was dropped in February 1914 but they abandoned their work shortly afterwards when the aircraft's performance proved inadequate. Admiral Bradley A. Fiske of the United States Navy took out a patent in 1912 for a torpedo carrying aircraft entitled "Method of and apparatus for delivering submarine torpedoes from airships." He suggested. Winston Churchill, as First Lord of the Admiralty from October 1911 to May 1915, was a strong proponent of naval air power, he established the Royal Naval Air Service in April 1912 and took flying lessons to foster aviation development. Churchill ordered the RNAS to torpedo bombers for the Fleet; the British Admiralty ordered the Short Admiralty Type 81 biplane floatplane as a reconnaissance aircraft. It first flew in July 1913 and was loaded aboard the cruiser HMS Hermes, converted to become the Royal Navy's first seaplane tender.
When the rival Sopwith Special, designed from the outset as a torpedo bomber, failed to lift its payload off the water, Shorts converted the Type 81 to carry torpedoes in July 1914, just before the outbreak of the First World War. On 28 July 1914, Arthur Longmore dropped the first aerial torpedo, a 14-inch 810 lb torpedo, from a Type 81 at the Royal Naval Air Station Calshot; the support wires of the floats were moved to allow the torpedo to be carried above the water and a specially designed quick-release mechanism was used. The first plane designed from the outset as a torpedo bomber was the five-seat floatplane biplane AD Seaplane Type 1000 or AD1. However, it proved to be a failure; when the prototype built by J. Samuel White from the Isle of Wight first flew in June 1916, it was found to be too heavy and its float struts too weak for operations. Remaining orders were cancelled. On 12 August 1915, a Royal Naval Air Service Short 184 floatplane torpedo bomber sank a Turkish merchantman in the Sea of Marmara.
It was operating from a seaplane carrier converted from a ferry. Fitted with an aircraft hangar, Ben-my-Chree was used to carry up to six biplanes with their wings folded back to reduce carrying space; this was the first ship sunk by air-launched torpedo. Five days another ship supplying Turkish forces in the Gallipoli campaign against British and New Zealand troops was sunk. Production of the Short 184 continued until after the Armistice of 11 November 1918, with a total of 936 built by several manufacturers, it served including the Imperial Japanese Navy, which built them under licence. The first torpedo bomber designed for operation from aircraft carriers was the Sopwith Cuckoo. First flown in June 1917, it was designed to take off from the Royal Navy's new aircraft carriers, but had to land on an airfield as arrester wires, needed to stop an aircraft during landing on a ship, had not yet been perfected; the Admiralty planned to use five carriers and 100-120 Cuckoos to attack the German High Seas Fleet, sheltering in Kiel since the Battle of Jutland in 1916 but when the war ended only 90 Cuckoos had been compl
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
The Coupe d'Aviation Maritime Jacques Schneider called the Schneider Trophy or Schneider Prize, was a trophy awarded annually to the winner of a race for seaplanes and flying boats. The Schneider Trophy is now held at South Kensington, London. Announced in 1912 by Jacques Schneider, a French financier and aircraft enthusiast, the competition offered a prize of £1,000; the race was held twelve times between 1913 and 1931. It was intended to encourage technical advances in civil aviation but became a contest for pure speed with laps over a triangular course; the contests were staged as time trials, with aircraft setting off individually at pre-agreed times 15 minutes apart. The contests were popular and some attracted crowds of over 200,000 spectators. An earlier trophy presented by Jacques Schneider in 1910, in France, was the Schneider Cup, now in the possession of the RAF College Cranwell. If an aero club won three races in five years, they would retain the trophy and the winning pilot would receive 75,000 francs for each of the first three wins.
Each race was hosted by the previous winning country. The races were supervised by the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale and the aero club in the hosting country; each club could enter up to three competitors with an equal number of alternatives. The race was significant in advancing aeroplane design in the fields of aerodynamics and engine design, would show its results in the best fighters of World War II; the streamlined shape and the low drag, liquid-cooled engine pioneered by Schneider Trophy designs are obvious in the British Supermarine Spitfire, the American North American P-51 Mustang, the Italian Macchi C.202 Folgore. The Schneider Trophy is bronze set on a marble base, it depicts a zephyr skimming the waves, a nude winged figure is seen kissing a zephyr recumbent on a breaking wave. The heads of two other zephyrs and of Neptune, the god of the Sea, can be seen surrounded by octopus and crabs; the symbolism represents speed conquering the elements of air. The first competition was held on 16 April 1913, at Monaco.
It was won by a French Deperdussin at an average speed of 73.56 km/h. The British won in 1914 with a Sopwith Tabloid at 139.74 km/h. After World War I, the competition resumed in 1919 at Bournemouth where in foggy conditions the Italian team won, they were disqualified and the race was voided. In 1920 and 1921 at Venice the Italians won—in 1920 no other nation entered and in 1921 the French entry did not start. After 1921, an additional requirement was added: the winning seaplane had to remain moored to a buoy for six hours without human intervention. In 1922 in Naples the British and French competed with the Italians; the British private entry, a Supermarine Sea Lion II, was the victor. The French aircraft did not start the race, which became a competition between the Sea Lion and three Italian aircraft, including a Macchi M.7 and a Savoia. The 1923 trophy, contested at Cowes, went to the Americans with a sleek, liquid-cooled engined craft designed by Glenn Curtiss, it used the Curtiss D-12 engine.
US Navy Lieutenant David Rittenhouse won the cup. In 1924 there was no competition as no other nation turned out to face the Americans—the Italians and the French withdrew and both British craft crashed in pre-race trials. In 1925 at Chesapeake Bay the Americans won again, the US pilot Jimmy Doolittle winning in a Curtiss R3C ahead of the British Gloster III and the Italian entry. Two British planes did not compete. Two of the American planes did not finish. In 1926, the Italians returned with a Macchi M.39 and won against the Americans with a 396.69 km/h run at Hampton Roads. In 1927 at Venice there was a strong British entry with government backing and RAF pilots for Supermarine and Shorts. Supermarine's Mitchell-designed S. 5s took second places. 1927 was the last annual competition, the event moving to a biennial schedule to allow for more development time. In 1929, at Calshot, Supermarine won again in the Supermarine S.6 with the new Rolls-Royce R engine with an average speed of 528.89 km/h.
Both Britain and Italy entered a backup plane from the previous race. In 1931 the British government withdrew support, but a private donation of £100,000 from Lucy, Lady Houston, allowed Supermarine to compete and win on 13 September against only British opposition, with half a million spectators lining the beachfronts; the Italian and German entrants failed to ready their aircraft in time for the competition. The remaining British team set both a new world speed record and won the trophy outright with a third straight win; the following days saw the winning Supermarine S.6B further break the world speed record twice, making it the first craft to break the 400 mph barrier on 29 September at an average speed of 655.8 km/h. Development of the other entrants did not cease there; the proposed Italian entrant which pulled out of the contest due to engine problems went on to set two new world speed records. In April 1933 it set a record with a speed of 682.36 km/h. Eighteen months in the same venue, it broke the 700 km/h barrier with an average speed of 709.202 km/h.
Both times the plane was piloted by Francesco Agello. This speed remains the fastest speed attained by a piston-engined seaplane. For a com
The Nakajima A6M2-N was a single-crew floatplane based on the Mitsubishi A6M Zero Model 11. The Allied reporting name for the aircraft was Rufe; the A6M2-N floatplane was developed from the Mitsubishi A6M Type 0 to support amphibious operations and defend remote bases. It was based with a modified tail and added floats. A total of 327 were built, including the original prototype; the aircraft was deployed in 1942, referred to as the "Suisen 2", was only utilized in defensive actions in the Aleutians and Solomon Islands operations. Such seaplanes were effective in harassing American PT boats at night, they could drop flares to illuminate the PTs which were vulnerable to destroyer gunfire, depended on cover of darkness. The seaplane served as an interceptor for protecting fueling depots in Balikpapan and Avon Bases and reinforced the Shumushu base in the same period; such fighters served aboard seaplane carriers Kamikawa Maru in the Solomons and Kuriles areas and aboard Japanese raiders Hokoku Maru and Aikoku Maru in Indian Ocean raids.
In the Aleutian Campaign this fighter engaged with RCAF Curtiss P-40 Warhawk, Lockheed P-38 Lightning fighters and Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress bombers. The aircraft was used for interceptor, fighter-bomber, short reconnaissance support for amphibious landings, among other uses. In the conflict the Otsu Air Group utilized the A6M2-N as an interceptor alongside Kawanishi N1K1 Kyofu aircraft based in Biwa lake in the Honshū area; the last A6M2-N in military service was a single example recovered by the French forces in Indochina after the end of World War II. It crashed shortly after being overhauled. JapanImperial Japanese Navy Air Service Yokohama Air Group Toko Air Group Otsu Air Group Yokosuka Air Group 11th Air Fleet 5th Air Fleet 36th Air Fleet 452nd Air Fleet 934th Air Fleet FranceFrench Navy - Postwar, one Nakajima A6M-2N was captured in Indo-China, it was impressed into service with the French Navy in late 1945. Data from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War General characteristics Crew: 1 Length: 10.10 m Wingspan: 12.00 m Height: 4.30 m Wing area: 22.44 m² Empty weight: 1,912 kg Loaded weight: 2,460 kg Max.
Takeoff weight: 2,880 kg Powerplant: 1 × Nakajima NK1C Sakae 12 air cooled 14 cylinder radial engine, 950 hp at 4,200 m Performance Maximum speed: 436 km/h at 5,000 m Cruise speed: 296 km/h Range: 1,782 km Service ceiling: 10,000 m Climb rate: 6 min 43 s to 5,000 m Armament Guns: 2 × 7.7 mm Type 97 machine guns in forward fuselage 2 × 20 mm Type 99 cannons -fixed in outer wings Bombs: 2 × 60 kg bombs Related development Mitsubishi A6M ZeroAircraft of comparable role and era Bernard H 110 Dewoitine HD.780 Grumman F4F-3S Wildcatfish Kawanishi N1K1 Kyōfū Loire 210 Supermarine Spitfire floatplanes Related lists List of aircraft of Japan during World War II List of aircraft of World War II List of fighter aircraft List of military aircraft of Japan Media related to Nakajima A6M2-N Rufe at Wikimedia Commons
Loch Lomond is a freshwater Scottish loch which crosses the Highland Boundary Fault considered the boundary between the lowlands of Central Scotland and the Highlands. Traditionally forming part of the boundary between the counties of Stirlingshire and Dunbartonshire, Loch Lomond is split between the council areas of Stirling and Bute and West Dunbartonshire, its southern shores are about 23 kilometres northwest of the centre of Glasgow, Scotland's largest city. The Loch forms part of the Loch Lomond and The Trossachs National Park, established in 2002. Loch Lomond is 36.4 kilometres long and between 1 and 8 kilometres wide, with a surface area of 71 km2. It is the largest lake in Great Britain by surface area. In the British Isles as a whole there are several larger loughs in the Republic of Ireland; the loch has a maximum depth of about 153 metres in the deeper northern portion, although the southern part of the loch exceeds 30 metres in depth. The total volume of Loch Lomond is 2.6 km3, making it the second largest lake in Great Britain, after Loch Ness, by water volume.
The loch contains many islands, including Inchmurrin, the largest fresh-water island in the British Isles. Loch Lomond is a popular leisure destination and is featured in the song "The Bonnie Banks o' Loch Lomond"; the loch is surrounded by hills, including Ben Lomond on the eastern shore, 974 metres in height and the most southerly of the Scottish Munro peaks. A 2005 poll of Radio Times readers voted Loch Lomond as the sixth greatest natural wonder in Britain; the depression in which Loch Lomond lies was carved out by glaciers during the final stages of the last ice age, during a return to glacial conditions known as the Loch Lomond Readvance between 20,000 and 10,000 years ago. The loch lies on the Highland Boundary Fault, the difference between the Highland and Lowland geology is reflected in the shape and character of the loch: in the north the glaciers dug a deep channel in the Highland schist, removing up to 600 m of bedrock to create a narrow, fjord-like finger lake. Further south the glaciers were able to spread across the softer Lowland sandstone, leading to a wider body of water, more than 30 m deep.
In the period following the Loch Lomond Readvance the sea level rose, for several periods Loch Lomond was connected to the sea, with shorelines identified at 13, 12 and 9 metres above sea level. The change in rock type can be seen at several points around the loch, as it runs across the islands of Inchmurrin, Creinch and Inchcailloch and over the ridge of Conic Hill. To the south lie green fields and cultivated land; the loch contains thirty or more other islands, depending on the water level. Several of them are large by the standards of British bodies of freshwater. Inchmurrin, for example, is the largest island in a body of freshwater in the British Isles. Many of the islands are the remains of harder rocks. English travel writer, H. V. Morton wrote: What a large part of Loch Lomond's beauty is due to its islands, those beautiful green tangled islands, that lie like jewels upon its surface. Writing some 150 years earlier than Morton, Samuel Johnson had however been less impressed by Loch Lomond's islands, writing: But as it is, the islets, which court the gazer at a distance, disgust him at his approach, when he finds, instead of soft lawns and shady thickets, nothing more than uncultivated ruggedness.
Powan are one of the commonest fish species in loch, which has more species of fish than any other loch in Scotland, including lamprey, brook trout, loach, common roach and flounder. The river lamprey of Loch Lomond display an unusual behavioural trait not seen elsewhere in Britain: unlike other populations, in which young hatch in rivers before migrating to the sea, the river lamprey here remain in freshwater all their lives, hatching in the Endrick Water and migrating into the loch as adults; the surrounding hills are home to species such as black grouse, golden eagles, pine martens, red deer and mountain hares. Many species of wading birds and water vole inhabit the loch shore. During the winter months large numbers of geese migrate to Loch Lomond, including over 1 % of the entire global population of Greenland white-fronted geese, up to 3,000 greylag geese; the Scottish dock, sometimes called the Loch Lomond dock, is in Britain unique to the shores of Loch Lomond, being found on around Balmaha on the western shore of the loch.
It was first discovered growing there in 1936. One of the loch's islands, Inchconnachan, is home to a colony of wallabies; as well as forming part of the Loch Lomond and the Trossachs National Park, Loch Lomond holds multiple other conservation designations. 428 ha of land in the southeast, including five of the islands, is designated as national nature reserve: the Loch Lomond National Nature Reserve. Seven islands and much of the shoreline form a Special Area of the Loch Lomond Woods; this designation overlaps with the national nature reserve, is protected due to the presence of Atlantic oak woodlands and a population of otters. Four islands and a section of the shoreline are designated as a Special Protection Area due to their importance for breeding capercaillie
Landing is the last part of a flight, where a flying animal, aircraft, or spacecraft returns to the ground. When the flying object returns to water, the process is called alighting, although it is called "landing", "touchdown" or "splashdown" as well. A normal aircraft flight would include several parts of flight including taxi, climb, cruise and landing. Aircraft land at an airport on a firm runway or helicopter landing pad constructed of asphalt concrete, gravel or grass. Aircraft equipped with pontoons or with a boat hull-shaped fuselage are able to land on water. Aircraft sometimes use skis to land on snow or ice. To land, the airspeed and the rate of descent are reduced such that the object descends at a low enough rate to allow for a gentle touch down. Landing is accomplished by descending to the runway; this speed reduction is accomplished by reducing thrust and/or inducing a greater amount of drag using flaps, landing gear or speed brakes. When a fixed-wing aircraft approaches the ground, the pilot will move the control column back to execute a flare or round-out.
This increases the angle of attack. Progressive movement of the control column back will allow the aircraft to settle onto the runway at minimum speed, landing on its main wheels first in the case of a tricycle gear aircraft or on all three wheels in the case of a conventional landing gear-equipped aircraft referred to as a "taildragger"; this is known as flaring. In a light aircraft, with little crosswind, the ideal landing is when contact with the ground occurs as the forward speed is reduced to the point where there is no longer sufficient airspeed to remain aloft; the stall warning is heard just before landing, indicating that this speed and altitude have been reached. The result is light touch down. Light aircraft landing situations, the pilot skills required, can be divided into four types: Normal landings Crosswind landings - where a significant wind not aligned with the landing area is a factor Short field landings - where the length of the landing area is a limiting factor Soft and unprepared field landings - where the landing area is wet, soft or has ground obstacles such as furrows or ruts to contend with In large transport category aircraft, pilots land the aircraft by "flying the airplane on to the runway."
The airspeed and attitude of the plane are adjusted for landing. The airspeed is kept well at a constant rate of descent. A flare is performed just before landing, the descent rate is reduced, causing a light touch down. Upon touchdown, spoilers are deployed to reduce the lift and transfer the aircraft's weight to its wheels, where mechanical braking, such as an autobrake system, can take effect. Reverse thrust is used by many jet aircraft to help slow down just after touch-down, redirecting engine exhaust forward instead of back; some propeller-driven airplanes have this feature, where the blades of the propeller are re-angled to push air forward instead of back using the'beta range'. Factors such as crosswind where the pilot will use a crab landing or a slip landing will cause pilots to land faster and sometimes with different aircraft attitude to ensure a safe landing. Other factors affecting a particular landing might include: the plane size, weight, runway length, ground effects, runway altitude, air temperature, air pressure, air traffic control, visibility and the overall situation.
For example, landing a multi-engine turboprop military such as a C-130 Hercules, under fire in a grass field in a war zone, requires different skills and precautions than landing a single engine plane such as a Cessna 150 on a paved runway in uncontrolled airspace, different from landing an airliner such as an Airbus A380 at a major airport with air traffic control. Required Navigation Performance is being used more. Rather than using radio beacons, the airplane uses GPS-navigation for landing using this technique; this translates into a much more fluid ascend, which results in decreased noise, decreased fuel consumption. The term "landing" is applied to people or objects descending to the ground using a parachute; some consider these objects to be in a controlled descent instead of flying. Most parachutes work by capturing air, inducing enough drag that the falling object hits the ground at a slow speed. There are many examples including the seeds of a dandelion. On the other hand, modern ram-air parachutes are inflatable wings that operate in a gliding flight mode.
Parachutists execute a flare at landing, reducing or eliminating both downward and forward speed at touchdown, in order to avoid injury. Sometimes, a safe landing is accomplished by using multiple forms of lift and dampening systems. Both the Surveyor unmanned lunar probe craft and the Apollo Lunar Module used a rocket deceleration system and landing gear to soft-land on the moon. Several Soviet rockets including the Soyuz spacecraft have used parachutes and airbag landing systems to dampen the landing on earth. In November 2015, Blue Origin's New Shepard became the first rocket to cross the van Karman line and land vertically back on Earth. In December 2015, SpaceX's Falcon 9 became the first launch vehicle on an orbital trajectory to vertically-land and recover its first stage, although the landed first stage was on a sub-orbital trajectory. Arresting gear Landing performance Instrument landing system Instrument flight rules Visual flight rules