A flood myth or deluge myth is a narrative in which a great flood sent by a deity or deities, destroys civilization in an act of divine retribution. Parallels are drawn between the flood waters of these myths and the primaeval waters found in certain creation myths, as the flood waters are described as a measure for the cleansing of humanity, in preparation for rebirth. Most flood myths contain a culture hero, who "represents the human craving for life"; the flood myth motif is found among many cultures as seen in the Mesopotamian flood stories and Pyrrha in Greek mythology, the Genesis flood narrative, Pralaya in Hinduism, the Gun-Yu in Chinese mythology, Bergelmir in Norse mythology, in the arrival of the first inhabitants of Ireland with Cessair in Irish mythology, in the lore of the K'iche' and Maya peoples in Mesoamerica, the Lac Courte Oreilles Ojibwa tribe of Native Americans in North America, the Muisca, Cañari Confederation, in South America and some Aboriginal tribes in Australia.
Though the account of Noah in the Hebrew Bible has long been the most studied flood story by scholars, in the 19th century Assyriologist George Smith translated the first Babylonian account of a great flood. Further discoveries produced several versions of the Mesopotamian flood myth, with the account closest to that in Genesis found in a 700 BC Babylonian copy of the Epic of Gilgamesh; the known versions of the Mesopotamian flood myths have as their protagonists Atrahasis and Utnapishtim. The Sumerian King List relies on the flood motif to divide its history into preflood and postflood periods; the preflood kings were claimed to have had enormous lifespans, whereas postflood lifespans in the list were much reduced. The Sumerian flood myth found in the Deluge Tablet was the epic of Ziusudra, who heard the gods' plan to destroy humanity, in response to which he constructed a vessel that delivered him from great waters. In the more detailed Mesopotamian accounts of the flood, the Gilgamesh flood myth and the epic of Atrahasis, the highest god Enlil decides to destroy the world with a flood because humans have become too noisy.
The god Ea, who created humans out of clay and divine blood, secretly warns the hero Utnapishtim of the impending flood and gives him detailed instructions for building a boat so that life may survive. In the c. 6th century BC Book of Genesis, the god Yahweh, who created man out of the dust of the ground, decides to flood the earth because of the sinful state of mankind. It is Yahweh who gives the protagonist Noah instructions to build an ark in order to preserve human and animal life; when the ark is completed, his family, representatives of all the animals of the earth are called upon to enter the ark. When the destructive flood begins, all life outside of the ark perishes. After the waters recede, all those aboard the ark disembark and have Yahweh's promise that he will never judge the earth with a flood again, he causes a rainbow to form as the sign of this promise. In Hindu mythology, texts such as the Satapatha Brahmana and the Puranas contain the story of a great flood, "Pralaya", wherein the Matsya Avatar of the Vishnu warns the first man, Manu, of the impending flood, advises him to build a giant boat.
In Zoroastrian Mazdaism, Ahriman tries to destroy the world with a drought, which Mithra ends by shooting an arrow into a rock, from which a flood springs. In Plato's Timaeus, written c. 360 BC, Timaeus describes a flood myth similar to the earlier versions. In it, the Bronze race of humans angers the high god Zeus with their constant warring. Zeus decides to punish humanity with a flood; the Titan Prometheus, who had created humans from clay, tells the secret plan to Deucalion, advising him to build an ark in order to be saved. After nine nights and days, the water starts the ark lands on a mountain. A world-wide deluge, such as described in Genesis, is incompatible with modern scientific understanding of natural history geology and paleontology. In an early example of ichnology, Leonardo da Vinci explains in his notebooks that the fossils of marine shells would have been scattered in such a deluge, not gathered in groups, which were evidently left at various times on mountains in Lombardy. In ancient Mesopotamia, the Sumerian King List reads: After kingship came down from heaven... the kingship was taken to Shuruppak.
In Shuruppak, Ubara-Tutu became king. In 5 cities 8 kings; the flood swept over. Excavations in Iraq have revealed evidence of localized flooding at Shuruppak and various other Sumerian cities. A layer of riverine sediments, radiocarbon dated to about 2900 BC, interrupts the continuity of settlement, extending as far north as the city of Kish, which took over hegemony after the flood. Polychrome pottery from the Jemdet Nasr period was discovered below the Shuruppak flood stratum. Other sites, such as Ur, Uruk and Ninevah, all present evidence of flooding. However, this evidence comes from different time periods; the Shuruppak flood seems to have been a localised event caused through the damming of the Karun River through the spread of dunes, flooding into the Tigris, simultaneous heavy rainfall in the Nineveh region, spilling across into the Euphrates. In Israel, there is no such evidence of a widespread flood. Given the similarities in the Mesopotamian flood story and the Biblical account, it would seem
Howard Marion-Crawford, the grandson of writer F. Marion Crawford, was an English character actor, best known for his portrayal of Dr. Watson in the 1954 television adaptation of Sherlock Holmes. In 1948, Marion-Crawford had played Holmes in a radio adaptation of "The Adventure of the Speckled Band", making him one of the few actors to portray both Holmes and Watson, he is known for his portrayal of Dr. Petrie in a series of five low budget Dr. Fu Manchu films in the 1960s, playing Paul Temple in the BBC Radio serialisations. Howard Marion-Crawford was the son of an officer of the Irish Guards killed during the First World War. After attending Clifton College Crawford began a career in radio, his first film appearance was in Brown on Resolution. During the Second World War he enlisted in the Irish Guards, his father's old regiment, but soon suffered a major injury to one of his legs that caused him to be invalided out of the service. After he recovered, he enlisted in the Royal Air Force, where he became a navigator, rose to the rank of sergeant.
He resumed his acting career in both film in The Rake's Progress and was a regular broadcaster in BBC Radio Drama including playing the fictional detective Paul Temple in several series by Francis Durbridge. Among his film appearances are the character of Cranford in The Man in the White Suit and a British medical officer in Lawrence of Arabia. One of his last roles was as another military officer, Sir George Brown, in Tony Richardson's The Charge of the Light Brigade, he played "blusterers", "old duffers" and upper class military types, appearing as guest performer in television programmes like The Avengers, three roles with Patrick McGoohan in the television series Danger Man: the 1964 episodes "No Marks for Servility" and "Yesterday's Enemies" and the 1965 episode "English Lady Takes Lodgers". Marion-Crawford was married four times. Early in the Second World War, he was married to Jeanne Scott-Gunn, with whom he had a single son, Harold Francis Marion-Crawford. In 1946, he married the actress Mary Wimbush, with whom he had Charles.
His marriages were to June Elliot and Germaine Tighe-Umbers. A large man with a distinctive booming voice, known to his friends and family as "Boney", Howard Marion-Crawford had a lot of talent and acting came to him; this sometimes led to his being unreliable and his years were a struggle. Plagued by ill health in life, he died from a mixture of alcohol and sleeping pills in 1969. An inquest recorded accidental death, his doctor stating that "in moments of strife he would go on a drinking bout lasting twenty-four to forty-eight hours". Detailed biography of Howard Marion-Crawford Howard Marion-Crawford on IMDb
The Machine, the former Alpha Rho chapter of Theta Nu Epsilon at the University of Alabama, is a coalition of Panhellenic sororities and IFC and NPHC fraternities which formed a secret society with some degree of influence over campus and Alabama state politics. The group, which has operated in varying degrees of secrecy since 1914, is credited with selecting and ensuring the election of candidates for Student Government Association, Homecoming Queen, other influential on-campus and off-campus offices, including the Student Government Association Senate, it was evidently first publicly noted as "a political machine" in 1928 by Alabama's campus newspaper, The Crimson White. In a 1945 article in the newspaper, it was referred to as "the machine", the name has stuck since, it plays a role in the politics of the student community, it is argued by others that it plays a real role in the political careers of numerous politicians in the state. The Alpha Rho chapter of Theta Nu Epsilon was founded at the University of Alabama in 1888.
The Alpha Rho Chapter was illegitimately founded. In 1902, it contacted the governing authority of the society, the Alpha Chapter at Wesleyan University, was accepted as a legitimate chapter, it was subsequently accepted by the administration and university community, in 1905, the chapter hosted its first annual promenade, a successful public event. In 1909, on February 14, The Alpha Rho Chapter created a new society, this one for members of the senior class, called The Skulls; the Skulls replaced the Theta Nu Epsilon chapter. Both the earlier and organizations were publicly recognized by the university, appeared each year in the university yearbook; the Skulls was considered a legitimate student group until 1922. The organization ceased to exist at that time. Esquire devoted its April 1992 cover story to an exposé of The Machine. Over the years, numerous campus political groups have been formed in an attempt to motivate independent students to vote for non-Machine candidates; the University Party was formed by Ed Still and Jack Drake in 1967.
Drake Still lost to Joe Espy. An anti-machine group called "The Coalition" formed in 1968 and operated through 1972; this was a joint effort by the men's dormitories, small non-machine fraternities, International Students Association, women students, the Afro-American Association. It was formed by Tommy Chapman, Steve "Red" Wadlington, Don Gilbert and Jim Zeigler; the Coalition succeeded in 1969 in electing Joe Estep as vice-president over the Machine's George Culver. It elected Henry Agee as secretary-treasurer over the Machine's Phil Reich. In 1970 it elected Zeigler as president of SGA as an independent, it elected Windom to the Student Senate and 50% of the Student Senate in 1970-71. In 1972 the coalition senators led by Fred Benjamin got the SGA to recognize and fund the Afro American Association. Benjamin co-won Senator of the Year award along with a machine Senator, he lost election for vice president of the SGA that year. Another anti-Machine group was the Alabama Student Party, founded by SGA Senators Fred L. Gibson, Jr. and O. Kevin Vincent in 1985.
ASP intended to run a full slate of independent candidates, but its efforts were temporarily thwarted when the Machine orchestrated a takeover of ASP by flooding its first general campus meeting at Ferguson Center with fraternity pledges and members and electing Neal Orr, a freshman member of a fraternity that belonged to the Machine, as its president. Orr's fraternity was the fraternity of the SGA President, George Harris. Control of ASP was subsequently retaken by independents in the year, it played a pivotal role as a force for independents in upcoming elections. ASP challenged the Machine with the election of John Merrill, an independent, as President in 1986, as well as a number of SGA Senators. Merrill was opposed by the Machine when he ran for SGA Senator, had been backed by the Machine for Vice President in 1985, was opposed by the Machine for President in 1986; the Alabama Student Party subsequently was involved in the federal court case of Alabama Student Party v. Student Government Association of the University of Alabama, 867 F.2d 1344.
The Mallet Assembly a men's honors program founded by Dean of Men John Blackburn in the early 1960s, is traditionally opposed to Machine influence, has campaigned for several candidates under the banner of the "Blue Door Party". Jim Zeigler, who defeated The Machine in 1970 for SGA President, was a member of the Mallet Assembly and lived in old Mallet Hall, where his room was burned in 1971. One of the most controversial elections took place in 1976, when Cleo Thomas, an African-American student and member of an black fraternity, was elected to the SGA presidency with the support of the Mallet Assembly and a coalition of several sororities. In 1979, the Machine weathered an internal disagreement about who should be the Machine-endorsed candidates, which resulted three fraternities electing to leave the Machine to run their own candidates. In 1989, independent Joey Viselli lost a close election for president to a candidate, the first Machine-backed female candidate for the office. Many people, including Tuscaloosa County election workers assisting with the election, believed there were definite irregu
Mellerud Municipality is a municipality in Västra Götaland County by Lake Vänern in Sweden. Its seat is located in the town of Mellerud; the amalgamation leading to the present municipality took place in 1969 when "old" Mellerud was merged with Bolstad, Kroppefjäll and Skållerud. Before the municipal reform of 1952 there were ten entities in the area. Population figures from Statistics Sweden as of December 31, 2005. Mellerud, 3,796 Dals Rostock, 885 Åsensbruk, 530 Bränna, 228 Dalskog, 151 Håverud, 150 Köpmannebro, 76 Erikstad, 58 Mellerud Municipality - Official site The local newspaper -
Thottakattu Sankunni Menon CSI spelt as Shungoony Menon, was an Indian civil servant and administrator who served as the Diwan of the Cochin kingdom from 1860 to 1879. His administration is recognized as a period of development. Sankunni Menon's brother T. Govinda Menon served as Diwan from 1879 to 1889. Sankunni Menon was the eldest son of T. Sankara Warrier who had served as the Diwan of Cochin kingdom from 1840 to 1856. Born in Trichur in 1820, Sankunni Menon had a good English education and joined the Madras provincial civil service serving as a Deputy Collector in Tinnevely District when he was appointed Diwan of Cochin to succeed Venkata Rao; the first four years of Sankunni Menon's diwanship were occupied with his handling the intrigues of his deputy, Parameswara Bhattar. In 1864, Bhattar's patron Ravi Varma IV died and Sankummi Menon took full control of the administration after dismissing Parameswara Bhattar. Having served as judicial officer in British India prior to his appointment as diwan, Menon reformed the judicial system of Cochin.
He established munsiff courts in all the taluks. Till Menon's time, all judicial appointments in the state were held by unqualified men and there was rampant corruption. Menon made it mandatory for judicial officers to be qualified barristers, their powers and duties pay, doubled. Through a total of eleven regulations, Menon brought the system on par with those prevailing in British India; the Interportal Trade Convention was held in 1865 in which the princely states of Cochin and Travancore and British India participated. As a result of the convention, Cochin relinquished its monopoly over tobacco and raised salt tax to prices on par with British India; these measures helped curb smuggling of essential commodities. To compensate for the loss of revenue due to relinquishment of the tobacco monopoly, Menon increase the price of paddy. Coincidentally, during this period, irrigation prospered and large tracts of land in the Chittur taluk were brought under cultivation; the government of Cochin assumed a monopoly over the sale of opium and ganja.
The total land revenue increased by over 35 percent during Menon's tenure. Registration of land deeds was introduced, court fee was revised and forest lands were cleared for coffee cultivation; the income of the state increased by over 50 percent during Menon's tenure. A public works department was organised in 1868 under a European engineer. Sankunni Menon negotiated with railway authorities in British India for the extension of the railways to the state's capital but the efforts did not come to fruitition during the diwan's lifetime; the state postal service was opened for public use. The Ernakulam Public Library was opened on 1 January 1870 and the Trichur Public Library in 1873; the Ernakulam school was raised to the standard of a second-grade college and English schools were opened in all taluk centres. Sankunni Menon retired on 22 August 1879 due to failing health, he was succeeded by his younger brother Govinda Menon. On his retirement, the monarch Rama Varma wrote to him We shall lose in you a safe and prudent administrator, it will be a constant regret that the conduct of affairs will no longer be guided by your wise and sagacious counsels.
We realize that during your term of office the country has made vast progress in material prosperity. Chelnat Achyuta Menon; the life of T. Sankunnimenon, Diwan of Cochin, 1860-79. V. Sundra Iyer
Common Existence is the fifth full-length album from rock band Thursday. On August 13, 2008, the band announced that they had begun recording their next album with producer Dave Fridmann, who had produced A City by the Light Divided. Recording took place at Fridmann's Tarbox Road Studios; the album was completed in November. The album includes the track "As He Climbed The Dark Mountain," which appeared on the band's split EP with Japanese hardcore band Envy; the song "Last Call" originates from 2005. While the first four were released on A City by the Light Divided, "Last Call" had not been released up until now; the band explores many subjects, including marriage and physical abuse. In an interview, Rickly explained the album's title refers to humanity's shared experience, that many of the songs were influenced by the words of his favorite poets and authors. In successive interviews with Spin.com and Rock Sound, keyboard player Andrew Everding and vocalist Geoff Rickly explained the significance of "Friends in the Armed Forces": " is about a personal experience that Geoff had with someone we know who's serving in the Iraq conflict.
It can be forced down your throat to support someone who's fighting for a cause you don't believe in... We support you as people but we don't support your efforts." - Andrew Everding, Rock Sound interview "I have a close friend in the service and several others that have finished their tours... The song was inspired by my conversations with them and by my conversations with their family members. It's about the shifting of perspective when it comes to wrong and right - the song is a wish for peace and wellbeing for my friends." - Geoff Rickly, Spin.com interview On September 30, 2008, it was announced that the band had signed to independent label Epitaph Records and that their next album would be released in the spring. Rickly said one of the group's biggest concerns is that they "find a situation where we could be free to just be Thursday. Epitaph have continually voiced their desire to help us become the band that we have always wanted to be." On November 18, announced that their next album would be called Common Existence and that it would be released in February 2009.
On December 9, "Resuscitation of a Dead Man" was post on the group's Myspace page. The following day, the album's track listing was posted online. On December 24, "Resuscitation of a Dead Man" was released as a single. On February 3, 2009, "Friends in the Armed Forces" was posted on the band's Myspace page. On February 10, "Resuscitation of a Dead Man" was released as a free download. On February 12, Common Existence was made available for streaming through the band's Myspace, before being released on February 17 through Epitaph Records. Between mid-February and early April, the band headlined the 2009 edition of Taste of Chaos with support from Bring Me the Horizon, Four Year Strong, Pierce the Veil, Cancer Bats Following this, the band toured Europe as part of the Give it a Name festival. On February 18, a music video was released for "Resuscitation of a Dead Man"; the video features various pyrotechnics such as sparks falling around the band. Footage includes the band performing in a red room and urgent scenes of a man being rushed on a gurney.
On, Thursday's amplifiers become engulfed in fire as well. In an interview on No. 1 Countdown, band members stated that all pyrotechnics were indeed real and singed their hair. On September 15, Thursday with release a digital exclusive deluxe edition of Common Existence with five bonus tracks, the music video for "Resuscitation of a Dead Man" and a digital booklet; the album so far has a score of 72 out of 100 from Metacritic based on "generally favorable reviews". AbsolutePunk gave it an 88% and said, "Over the course of the last few years, Thursday has seemed to be the forgotten band, one we take for granted, but with Common Existence, Thursday will be knocking down doors throughout 2009." Punknews.org gave it a score of four stars out of five and said, "true return to indie-dom, Common Existence is a good fit for Epitaph. Both sides prove. Common Existence Escape the Fate right out; the record is somehow forward-thinking, further pushing the more atmospheric approach glimpsed at on the band's split with Envy last year, yet speckled with retro stylings of previous albums.
Sputnikmusic gave it four stars out of five and stated, "Just when Thursday seems to stir in unfamiliar, unwanted territory, they manage to find a way to make it happen." The A. V. Club gave it a B and said it was "the band’s densest, most accomplished album to date, with sonic layers and the complexity of a big-budget record, without the bloat." NME gave it a score of seven out of ten and called it "a worthy addition to Thursday’s canon."Other reviews are average, mixed or negative: Blender gave it a score of three stars out of five and said it "amps up the band’s aggro guitars, cookie-monster yells and proggy ambition." Billboard gave it an average review and said it "melds the band's hardcore influences with shoegaze and atmospheric elements, with mixed results." The New York Times gave it an average review and called it "the least pungent and immediate Thursday album since its debut. In places it sounds like an experiment, sometimes a successful one." Melodic.net gave it a score of one-and-a-half stars out of five and called it "one of the biggest letdowns".
All music by Thursday. All lyrics by Geoff Rickly. "Resuscitation of a Dead Man" – 3:21 "Last Call" – 4:03 "As He Climbed the Dark Mountain" – 3:01 "Friends in the Armed Forces" – 4:10 "Beyond the Visible Spectrum" – 3:59 "Time's Arrow