The Romantic ballet is defined by an era in ballet in which the ideas of Romanticism in art and literature influenced the creation of ballets. The era occurred during the early to mid 19th century at the Théâtre de l'Académie Royale de Musique of the Paris Opera Ballet and Her Majesty's Theatre in London, it is considered to have begun with the 1827 début in Paris of the ballerina Marie Taglioni in the ballet La Sylphide, to have reached its zenith with the premiere of the divertissement Pas de Quatre staged by the Ballet Master Jules Perrot in London in 1845. The Romantic ballet had no immediate end, but rather a slow decline. Arthur Saint-Léon's 1870 ballet Coppélia is considered to be the last work of the Romantic Ballet. During this era, the development of pointework, although still at a basic stage, profoundly affected people's perception of the ballerina. Many lithographs of the period show her floating, poised only on the tip of a toe; this idea of weightlessness was capitalised on in ballets such as La Sylphide and Giselle, the famous leap attempted by Carlotta Grisi in La Péri.
Other features which distinguished Romantic ballet were the separate identity of the scenarist or author from the choreographer, the use of specially written music as opposed to a pastiche typical of the ballet of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The invention of gas lighting enabled gradual changes and enhanced the mysteriousness of many ballets with its softer gleam. Illusion became more diverse with wires and trap doors being used; the Romantic era marked the rise of the ballerina as a central part of ballet, where men had dominated performances. There had always been admiration for superior dancers, but elevating ballerinas to the level of celebrity came into its own in the nineteenth century as female performers became idealized and objectified. Marie Taglioni became the prototypical Romantic ballerina, praised for her lyricism; the movement style for Romantic ballerinas was characterized by soft, rounded arms and a forward tilt in the upper body. This gave the woman a willowy look.
Leg movements became more elaborate due to the new tutu length and rising standards of technical proficiency. Important Romantic ballerinas included Marie Taglioni, Carlotta Grisi, Lucille Grahn, Fanny Cerrito, Pauline Leroux and Fanny Elssler; the plots of many ballets were dominated by spirit women—sylphs and ghosts, who enslaved the hearts and senses of mortal men and made it impossible for them to live in the real world. While ballerinas became virtuosic, male dancers became scarce in Paris; this led to the rise of the female travesty dancer - a female dancer. While travesty dancing had existed prior to the romantic period it was used in tableau and walk-on parts. Now it became a high-status occupation, a number of prima ballerinas made their names by dancing en travestie. Fanny Elssler and her sister both played travesty parts; the most well known travesty dancer was Eugénie Fiocre, the first dancer to play Frantz in Coppélia, as well as a number of ballerina roles. The costume for the Romantic ballerina was the romantic tutu.
This was a full, multi-layered skirt made of tulle. The ballerina wore a white bodice with the tutu. In the second acts of Romantic ballets, representing the spiritual realm, the corps de ballet appeared on stage in Romantic tutus, giving rise to the term "white act" or ballet-blanc; the dancers wore pointe shoes to give the effect of floating. However, sometimes they decided to throw in extra sharp, sassy movements to portray the given concept or intent using high kicks and fast turns. Romantic ballet owed much to the new developments in theatre effects gas lighting. Candles had been used to light theatres, but gas lighting allowed for dimming effects and other subtleties. Combined with the effects of the Romantic tutu, ballerinas posing en pointe, the use of wires to make dancers "fly," directors used gas lighting to create supernatural spectacles on stage
Belly dance referred to as Arabic dance, is an Arabic expressive dance which originated in Egypt and that emphasizes complex movements of the torso. It has evolved to take many different forms depending on the country and region, both in costume and dance style; the term "belly dance" is a translation of the French term "danse du ventre", applied to the dance in the Victorian era, referred to Egyptian and Middle Eastern female dances. In Arabic, the dance is known as Raqs Baladi in Egyptian Arabic. Belly dance is a torso-driven dance, with an emphasis on articulations of the hips. Unlike many Western dance forms, the focus of the dance is on isolations of the torso muscles, rather than on movements of the limbs through space. Although some of these isolations appear similar to the isolations used in jazz ballet, they are sometimes driven differently and have a different feeling or emphasis. In common with most folk dances, there is no universal naming scheme for belly dance movements; some dancers and dance schools have developed their own naming schemes, but none of these is universally recognized.
Many of the movements characteristic of belly dance can be grouped into the following categories: Percussive movements: Staccato movements, most of the hips, used to punctuate the music or accent a beat. Typical movements in this group include hip drops, vertical hip rocks, outwards hip hits, hip lifts and hip twists. Percussive movements using other parts of the body can include lifts or drops of the ribcage and shoulder accents. Fluid movements: Flowing, sinuous movements in which the body is in continuous motion, used to interpret melodic lines and lyrical sections in the music, or modulated to express complex instrumental improvisations; these movements require a great deal of abdominal muscle control. Typical movements include horizontal and vertical figures of 8 or infinity loops with the hips, horizontal or tilting hip circles, undulations of the hips and abdomen; these basic shapes may be varied and embellished to create an infinite variety of complex, textured movements. Shimmies and vibrations: Small, continuous movements of the hips or ribcage, which create an impression of texture and depth of movement.
Shimmies are layered over other movements, are used to interpret rolls on the or riq or fast strumming of the oud or qanun. There are many types of varying in size and method of generation; some common shimmies include relaxed, up and down hip shimmies, straight-legged knee-driven shimmies, tiny hip vibrations, twisting hip shimmies, bouncing'earthquake' shimmies, relaxed shoulder or ribcage shimmies. In addition to these torso movements, dancers in many styles will use level changes, travelling steps and spins; the arms are used to frame and accentuate movements of the hips, for dramatic gestures, to create beautiful lines and shapes with the body in the more balletic, Westernised styles. Other movements may be used as occasional accents, such as low kicks and arabesques and head tosses. Belly dancing is believed to have had a long history in the Middle East, but reliable evidence about its origins is scarce, accounts of its history are highly speculative. Several Greek and Roman sources including Juvenal and Martial describe dancers from Asia Minor and Spain using undulating movements, playing castanets, sinking to the floor with "quivering thighs", descriptions that are suggestive of the movements that are today associated with belly dance.
In the 18th and 19th centuries, European travellers in the Middle East such as Edward Lane and Flaubert wrote extensively of the dancers they saw there, including the Awalim and Ghawazee of Egypt. In the Ottoman Empire belly dance was performed by both women in the Sultan's palace. Belly dance in the Middle East has two distinct social contexts: as a folk or social dance, as a performance art; as a social dance, belly dance is performed at celebrations and social gatherings by ordinary people, in their ordinary clothes. In more conservative or traditional societies, these events may be gender segregated, with separate parties where men and women dance separately. Professional dance performers were the Awalim, Köçekler; the Maazin sisters may have been the last authentic performers of Ghawazi dance in Egypt, with Khayreyya Maazin still teaching and performing as of 2009. In the modern era, professional performers are not considered to be respectable in the Middle East, there is a strong social stigma attached to female performers in particular, since they display their bodies in public, considered haram in Islam.
Many bellydancers work in Cairo. The modern Egyptian belly dance style are said to have originated in Cairo's nightclubs been used in Egyptian cinema. Many of the local dancers went on to appear in Egyptian films and had a great influence on the development of the Egyptian style and became famous like Samia Gamal and Taheyya Kariokka both of whom helped attract the eyes to Egyptian style worldwide. Egyptian belly dance is noted for its precise movements. Turkish belly dance is referred to in Turkey as Oryantal Dans, or simply'Oryantal'; the Turkish style of bellydance is lively and playful, with a greater outward projection of energy than the more contained Egyptian style. Turkish dancers are known for their energetic, athletic
Doris Batcheller Humphrey was an American dancer and choreographer of the early twentieth century. Along with her contemporaries Martha Graham and Katherine Dunham, Humphrey was one of the second generation modern dance pioneers who followed their forerunners – including Isadora Duncan, Ruth St. Denis, Ted Shawn – in exploring the use of breath and developing techniques still taught today; as many of her works were annotated, Humphrey continues to be taught and performed. Humphrey was born in Oak Park, but grew up in Chicago, Illinois, she was the daughter of Horace Buckingham Humphrey, a journalist and one-time hotel manager, Julia Ellen Wells, who had trained as a concert pianist. She was a descendant of pilgrim William Brewster who arrived on the Mayflower in 1620. In Chicago, with the encouragement of her mother, she studied with eminent ballet masters as well as with Mary Wood Hinman, who taught dance at her school, the Francis Parker School. While still at high school she undertook a concert tour of the western states as a dancer, with her mother as accompanist, in a group sponsored by the Santa Fe Railroad for its Workman’s Clubs.
Due to financial concerns Humphrey opened her own dance school, with her marg as manager and pianist, in 1913 at the age of 18. It was a great success, offering classic and ballroom dance for children and ballroom dance for young adults. In 1917, at the instigation of Mary Wood Hinman, she moved to California and entered the Denishawn School of Dancing and Related Arts where she studied, taught classes and learned choreography, her creations from this era, Valse Caprice and Scherzo Waltz are all still performed today. She remained involved for the next decade. Humphrey toured the Orient for two years followed by a successful career in American vaudeville theaters. Short in stature, Doris was no taller than 5'3" and had a slender build. In 1932 she married Charles Woodford She had one child, a son named Charles Humphrey Woodford In 1928, Humphrey and Charles Weidman, who had worked with Humphrey, left the Denishawn School and moved to New York City. Along with Humphrey and Weidman, Martha Graham rebelled against the Denishawn establishment during this time.
Humphrey and Graham separately developed new ideas about the core dynamics of dance movement that formed the basis of each of their techniques. Humphrey’s theory explored the nuances of the human body's responses to gravity, embodied in her principle of "fall and recovery", she called this "the arc between two deaths". At one extreme, an individual surrenders to the nature of gravity. Through the fall and recovery principle, Humphrey is able to illustrate emotional and physical climax of struggling for stability and submitting to the laws of gravity, her choreography from these early years includes Air for the G String, Water Study, Life of the Bee, Two Ecstatic Themes, The Shakers. Unlike the Denishawn approach in choreography, finding inspiration from abroad, Humphrey sought inspiration from within her home, America; the Shakers, about the 18th century American religious group, is a notable example of finding inspiration from America. The Humphrey-Weidman Company was successful in the Great Depression, touring America and developing new styles and new works based not on old tales but on current events and concerns.
In the mid-1930s Humphrey created the "New Dance Trilogy", a triptych comprising With My Red Fires, New Dance, the now-lost Theater Piece. Though the three pieces were never performed together, they were danced to the score by Wallingford Rigger. Here Humphrey looks at the competitive lives of businessmen, working women and actors. Humphrey was a participant of the Federal Dance Project, created in the 1930s as part of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's Second New Deal. FDP was the first national program created to financially support dance and dancers. Humphrey expanded her choreographic work to Broadway in 1933 with School for Husbands and again the following year with Life Begins at 8:40. During the 1940s, Humphrey spent significant time with one of her former students. After she retired from performing in 1944, due to arthritis, she became artistic director for the José Limón Dance Company and created a number of works for the company, including Day on Earth, Night Spell and Visions, Lament for Ignacio Sanchez Mejias.
Humphrey's dance style was developed further by Limón and his dance company. One of her last pieces, Dawn in New York, showed the strengths Limón demonstrated throughout her career – her mastery of the intricacies of large groups and her emphasis on sculptural shapes. Humphrey was on the original faculties of both The Bennington School of the Dance and The Juilliard School, both directed by Martha Hill. In 1952 Humphrey started directing a new dance company for children called The Merry-Go-Rounders; as stated, Humphrey had some particular theories on the fundamentals of movement. Her theory of Fall and Recovery was the center point of all her movement, she described this as "The arc between two deaths." Moreover, this idea was based in the change in center of gravity and recovery. Humphrey theorized that moving away from center should be followed by an equal adjustment to return to center to prevent a fall; the more dramatic the movement, the more dramatic the recovery should be. Humphrey believed that movement should represent emotion but not to the same extent that Graham had.
Her eye was more clinical, in a way, with most of her works relating to the interactions of an individual or group. As Graham had, she "believed that dance should pr
The 6-step is the basic sequence of breakdancing footwork. The dancer uses their arms to support their body above the floor while moving their legs in a circle; the 6-step is foundational to b-boying not only because it is the first footwork sequence breakers learn, but because it remains the move around which many sets are structured. Many break moves can begin from the 6-step; the move builds momentum while imparting body control. The breaker stays low and in contact with the ground, which places him in perfect position for performing other moves; each of the six distinct steps puts the body in a different position which can be used as starting points for other moves. Steps 1/2 and 3/4 are most used for launching other moves. Conversely, any move which ends on the ground can be transitioned smoothly back into the 6-step; the body position after step and step are mirror images of each other. Six step involves looking straight ahead and placing the feet in the same place for each rotation, but can be done with your body facing a different direction for each rotation.
While the basic 6-step resembles walking in a circle on the ground, there are many variations of footwork or "techs" that can reverse the direction of rotation, interlock limbs, incorporate minor flares, powermoves, freezes and much more. Out of the many 6-step variations, a few have a defined, repeatable pattern like the 6-step itself and therefore are recognized as footwork sequences in their own right; the most recognized ones are listed below. Experimenting breakers invent their own footwork sequences and casually refer to them as "their 9-step" or some similar term, but these sequences are not recognized. Moreover, some moves like the 2-step are unrelated to the 6-step though they have similar nomenclature. A simplified variation of the 6-step; the only difference is. The dancer jumps into step two with his/her front leg more extended. A simple variation on the 6-step; the first step is the same. From here the right leg is kicked forward to a position halfway through the third step of the 6-step.
The right leg is tucked back in and you continue the fifth step. A 6-step variation wherein the bboy uses his head as a platform instead of his hands
Graham technique is a modern dance movement style and pedagogy created by American dancer and choreographer Martha Graham. Graham technique has been called the "cornerstone" of American modern dance, has been taught worldwide, it is regarded as the first codified modern dance technique, influenced the techniques of Merce Cunningham, Lester Horton, Paul Taylor. Graham technique is based on the opposition between contraction and release, a concept based on the breathing cycle which has become a "trademark" of modern dance forms, its other dominant principle is the "spiraling" of the torso around the axis of the spine. Graham technique is known for its unique dramatic and expressive qualities and distinctive floorwork. Graham technique is based on "contraction and release", uses different parts of the body in opposition to one another to create spirals for dramatic tension, it incorporates formal exaggerations of "natural" movements. The fundamental movement of Graham technique is the cycle between "contraction" and subsequent "release", which developed as a stylized representation of breathing.
Along with the "fall and recovery" dualism of Doris Humphrey's technique, it is one of the most important concepts in early modern dance. A classic Graham contraction is a movement originating from the deep pelvic muscles; these muscles, along with the abdominal muscles, pull the spine into a concave arc from the coccyx to the nape of the neck, with the pelvis tucked and shoulders forward. The spine grows longer, not shorter, in a contraction; the force of the contraction can be used to change its trajectory. The release may be considered a passive return to a "normal" state, or alternatively an active outward propulsion of energy; the contraction is associated with the exhale, the release with the inhale, although this connection may be conceptual. The indexical meaning of the contraction in Graham's choreography is that the dancer is overcome with emotion, although the details depend on the specific context. Graham's decision to make movement originate from the core rather than distally echoes the style of Isadora Duncan, but Duncan wrote in her autobiography that movement originates in the solar plexus rather than the low abdomen.
The second fundamental concept in Graham technique is the spiral. The basic "spiraling" position consists of rotating the spine 45° around its vertical axis, so that a dancer facing the front of the stage would have their shoulders aligned with the "Via Triumphalis", an imaginary line parallel to a corner-to-corner diagonal of the stage. In a "hip spiral", the movement initiates subtly from the hip and builds to maximum tension by pulling the opposing shoulder blade away from the initiating hip. Like other early modern choreographers, Graham used floorwork to explore the themes of weight and gravity in new ways. Graham falls use contractions and manipulate the body's center of gravity, in order to control the timing and direction of a fall. There are a wide range of codified Graham falls, including sitting and traveling falls. In all falls, the dancer exerts a strong upward force to counteract the force of gravity and suspend the body in space for artistic effect. Graham falls can be used for dramatic effect, taking meaning in a choreographic context from manipulating the balance between suspending the body and surrendering to gravity.
Graham technique uses the hands in distinctive ways. They are meant to be active and purposeful, not decorative, they are held in a stylized, cupped position, with the fingers held straight and pulled towards the palm. Arms move in response to impetus from the back or shoulders. Arm movements were left unspecified in Graham's early work, there is variation between Graham teachers' use of port de bras. Graham technique is designed to make its dancers dramatic, its movement vocabulary draws connections between the physical and emotional meanings of "power", "control", "vulnerability". Movement initiates from the core, dancing on the floor; the technique highlights effort. In a "vehement" 1934 review, Lincoln Kirstein wrote: "Her jumps are jolts. In contrast, Graham was promoted by dance critic John Martin, who helped her to win a popular following. Graham was exceptionally flexible, many of her technique's exaggerated movements can be difficult or painful to execute. Graham is considered a "codified technique", like the several schools of classical ballet.
There are major differences between ballet techniques. Graham dancers are trained to highlight their effort and use weight as a dramatic tool, while ballet dancers strive to appear weightless and effortless. Graham technique's use of large torso movements and floorwork represent further breaks from the balletic tradition. Graham
Dance partnering is dancing performed by a pair of dancers a male and a female, in which the pair strives to achieve a harmony of coordinated movements so that the audience remains unaware of the mechanics. It relies on the application of partnering dance techniques that facilitate coordinated movements by a pair of dancers. In particular, it involves one dancer providing guidance, support, or both, for the other dancer. Dance partnering technique appears in various forms in many types of dance and is an essential part of all partner dances. A variety of partner dance techniques are employed in dance partnering; the technique used for a particular dance style is focused on either communication between partners or physical support of one partner by the other. In many partner dances the male dancer assumes the role of lead and provides guidance to his female partner, the follower; this may be a matter of guiding his partner to the next fixed position during a set routine, or in free-form dances may include deciding and communicating the sequence of figures to be danced on the fly.
In a ballet pas de deux, the male dancer may provide support for his partner when she performs balancing feats that would be difficult or impossible without assistance. A dance lift is a sequence of acrobatic movements in which one dancer lifts and, in many cases, holds their dance partner above the floor. In some cases, the dance partner may be propelled into the air; when performing a lift, the lifting dancer strives to gracefully and confidently lift and carry their partner. Dance lifts are performed in various types of dance, including acro, ballet and jitterbug. Article on partnering in the Australian Ballet Education site
Contemporary ballet is a genre of dance that incorporates elements of classical ballet and modern dance. It employs classical ballet technique and in many cases classical pointe technique as well, but allows greater range of movement of the upper body and is not constrained to the rigorously defined body lines and forms found in traditional, classical ballet. Many of its attributes come from the ideas and innovations of 20th-century modern dance, including floor work and turn-in of the legs. George Balanchine is considered to have been the first pioneer of contemporary ballet. However, the true origin of contemporary ballet is credited to Russian art producer Serge Diaghilev. Diaghilev wanted to bring an understanding of the arts to the general public, he created a program. When this program had success in Russia, Diaghilev was inspired to bring it to a European audience by creating a new spin on classical ballet, he created Diaghilev's Russian Ballet Company, debuting the first show in 1909. However, Diaghilev was not a choreographer, he entrusted the evolvement of his creation to several well-known choreographers, one of them being George Balanchine.
The style of dance Balanchine developed, which lies between classical ballet and today's contemporary ballet, is known by today's standards as neoclassical ballet. He used flexed hands, turned-in legs, off-centered positions and non-traditional costumes, such as leotards, tunics and "powder puff" tutus instead of "pancake" tutus, to distance his work from the classical and romantic ballet traditions. Balanchine invited modern dance performers such as Paul Taylor in to dance with his company, the New York City Ballet, he worked with modern dance choreographer Martha Graham, which expanded his exposure to modern techniques and ideas. During this period, other choreographers such as John Butler and Glen Tetley began to consciously combine ballet and modern techniques in experimentation. One dancer who trained with Balanchine and absorbed much of this neoclassical style was Mikhail Baryshnikov. Following Baryshnikov's appointment as artistic director of the American Ballet Theatre in 1980, he worked with various modern choreographers, most notably Twyla Tharp.
Tharp choreographed Push Comes To Shove for ABT and Baryshnikov in 1976. Both of these pieces were considered innovative for their use of distinctly modern movements melded with the use of pointe shoes and classically trained dancers—for their use of contemporary ballet. Tharp worked with The Joffrey Ballet, founded in 1957 by Robert Joffrey, she choreographed Deuce Coupe for them in 1973, using pop music and a blend of modern and ballet techniques. The Joffrey Ballet continued to perform numerous contemporary pieces, many choreographed by co-founder Gerald Arpino. Other notable contemporary choreographers include Jorma Elo, William Forsythe, Mark Morris, Jiri Kylian, Alonzo King, Trey McIntyre. Contemporary ballet draws from both modern dance and classical ballet for its training methods and technique. For a dancer to be able to embody various styles the training regimen has become more diverse. In addition to classical technique, which includes the signature speed and style of George Balanchine for American dancers, dancers study modern as well.
In addition, many dancers do various forms of cross training. Pilates and yoga are included to loosen muscles and align the body. Since the late 1920s, Pilates has been a popular form of cross training to help prevent injury, but the Gyrotonic Expansion System is being utilized. With contemporary work, dancers' spines need to be more supple and they need to understand how to be grounded; this is in contrast to classical and neoclassical ballet where the dancers are required to "pull up" and the upper body is held. Dancers are required to first obtain classical ballet training in order to build on it with more modern technique in order to be more versatile. Despite formal training, dancers are affected by ankle injuries, due to the high intensity footwork; the costumes and footwear differ from any other style of dance as well. In contemporary ballet, dancers can be asked to wear pointe shoes, regular ballet shoes, or no shoes at all; the same versatile approach goes for the music and costumes. Contemporary ballet does not require certain standards to be met.
While it has more guidelines that modern dance, it does not conform to the limits of classical ballet. Classical ballet requires pointe shoes and scenery. Contemporary ballet uses different types of costumes, ranging from traditional to more modern tunic type versions; the music choices may vary as well. In Classical ballet, most the choreography is done to classical music. In contemporary ballet, the music can range from the traditional classical music to popular music of today. Today there choreographers all over the world. Notable companies include Nederlands Dans Theater, Hubbard Street Dance Chicago, Complexions Contemporary Ballet, Alonzo King LINES Ballet. Many traditionally "classical" companies regularly perform contemporary works. Most classically trained dancers who may identify as professional ballet dancers are in fact required to be versatile and able to perform work ranging from classical to neoclassical to contemporary ballet to modern dance, they are required to have impeccable ballet technique with a mastery of pointe technique for women, but at the same time, are being asked to be just as comfortable in ballet slippers or bare feet performing the work of modern choreographers such as Paul Taylor or embrac