The Florida Department of Education is the state education agency of Florida. It manages funding and testing for local educational agencies, it is headquartered in the Turlington Building in Tallahassee. The Florida Commissioner of Education manages the day-to-day operation of the department; the office of Education Commissioner was a Cabinet-level position filled by direct election and directly responsible for education in Florida. The 2002 Florida Constitution Revision Commission submitted a revision to the Florida Constitution, amending Article IV, Section IV to reduce the Cabinet from six elected officials to three; the voters approved the changes and it became effective January 7, 2003. The revised constitution created a new Florida Board of Education with seven members, appointed by the Governor to oversee the Department of Education. Division of Vocational Rehabilitation - 930 positions Division of Blind Services - 300 positions Annual operating budget for all entities in 2012-13 - $18.6 billion Oversee 28 locally governed public state colleges and 47 school district technical centers The department supports 2.6 million students, 3,800 public schools and 318,000 full-time staff and more than 180,000 teachers.
The department manages the Florida Information Resource Network, which provides Internet access to public schools. The State of Florida requires students to take the Florida Standards Assessments each year in grades 3-10. Students' results from the FSA are compiled to generate a grade for each public school under former Governor Jeb Bush's "A+ Plan." Under this plan, public schools receive a letter grade from A to F, depending on student performance and the degree to which the bottom 25% of the school has improved compared to its past performances. The higher a public school scores, the more funding it receives. Students in third grade are required to pass the English/language arts portion of the test in order to be promoted to the fourth grade. Students in Florida must pass the tenth grade FSA in English/language arts and pass the Algebra 1 End-Of-Course Assessment in order to be eligible to receive a high school diploma; the department paid bonuses to teachers certified by the federal government.
Up until 2010, the bonus was as much as $3,800 annually. This is expected to diminish with diminished income to the state. C. Thurston Chase Henry Quarles Rev. Charles Beecher Jonathan C. Gibbs Samuel B. McLin William Penn Haisley Eleazer K. Foster Albert Jonathan Russell William N. Sheats and William M. Holloway William S. Cawthon Colin English Thomas D. Bailey T. D. Johnson Floyd Thomas Christian Ralph D. Turlington Betty Castor Douglas L. Jamerson Frank T. Brogan Tom Gallagher Charlie Crist Jim Horne John L. Winn Jeanine Blomberg Eric J. Smith Gerard Robinson Tony Bennett Pam Stewart Richard Corcoran Education in Florida FEAP Florida College System Florida Board of Governors State University System of Florida Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test List of colleges and universities in Florida Florida Department of Education website Florida Department of Education Statistics and Schools
Checkpoint inhibitor therapy is a form of cancer immunotherapy. The therapy targets immune checkpoints, key regulators of the immune system that when stimulated can dampen the immune response to an immunologic stimulus; some cancers can protect themselves from attack by stimulating immune checkpoint targets. Checkpoint therapy can block inhibitory checkpoints; the first anti-cancer drug targeting an immune checkpoint was ipilimumab, a CTLA4 blocker approved in the United States in 2011. Approved checkpoint inhibitors target the molecules CTLA4, PD-1, PD-L1. PD-1 is the transmembrane programmed cell death 1 protein, which interacts with PD-L1. PD-L1 on the cell surface binds to PD1 on an immune cell surface, which inhibits immune cell activity. Among PD-L1 functions is a key regulatory role on T cell activities, it appears that upregulation of PD-L1 on the cell surface may inhibit T cells that might otherwise attack. Antibodies that bind to either PD-1 or PD-L1 and therefore block the interaction may allow the T-cells to attack the tumor.
The discoveries in basic science allowing checkpoint inhibitor therapies led to James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo winning the Tang Prize in Biopharmaceutical Science and the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2018; the first checkpoint antibody approved by the FDA was ipilimumab, approved in 2011 for treatment of melanoma. It blocks the immune checkpoint molecule CTLA-4. Clinical trials have shown some benefits of anti-CTLA-4 therapy on lung cancer or pancreatic cancer in combination with other drugs. However, patients treated with check-point blockade, or a combination of check-point blocking antibodies, are at high risk of suffering from immune-related adverse events such as dermatologic, endocrine, or hepatic autoimmune reactions; these are most due to the breadth of the induced T-cell activation when anti-CTLA-4 antibodies are administered by injection in the blood stream. Using a mouse model of bladder cancer, researchers have found that a local injection of a low dose anti-CTLA-4 in the tumour area had the same tumour inhibiting capacity as when the antibody was delivered in the blood.
At the same time the levels of circulating antibodies were lower, suggesting that local administration of the anti-CTLA-4 therapy might result in fewer adverse events. Initial clinical trial results with IgG4 PD1 antibody Nivolumab were published in 2010, it was approved in 2014. Nivolumab is approved to treat melanoma, lung cancer, kidney cancer, bladder cancer and neck cancer, Hodgkin's lymphoma. Pembrolizumab is another PD1 inhibitor, approved by the FDA in 2014 and was the second checkpoint inhibitor approved in the United States. Keytruda is produced by Merck. Spartalizumab is a PD-1 inhibitor being developed by Novartis to treat both solid tumors and lymphomas In May 2016, PD-L1 inhibitor atezolizumab was approved for treating bladder cancer. Other modes of enhancing immunotherapy include targeting so-called intrinsic checkpoint blockades e.g. CISH. Immunological adverse effects may be caused by checkpoint inhibitors. Altering checkpoint inhibition can have diverse effects on most organ systems of the body.
The 2012 FFV State Knockout Cup is the second edition of a football knockout-cup competition held between men's clubs in Victoria, Australia. Round 1 will contain clubs below State League 1. Clubs will play teams in their Zones and some teams will have a bye which automatically puts them into the second round; the draw was held on 2 March 2011 at 6pm AEDT. North-Eastern Draw Central Draw Southern Draw Western Draw Wimmera South Coast Draw Gippsland Draw The 2012 Battle of Britain Cup, the local Knockout Tournament in the Gippsland Region, acted as the qualifying for this region of the tournament, with the two finalists advancing to the Zone Playoffs regardless of the result of the Battle of Britain Cup Final; the North-Western, Eastern, South-Eastern and Goulburn North-East draws did not begin until Round 2. North-Eastern Draw Central Draw Southern Draw Western Draw Wimmera South Coast Draw North-Western Draw Northern Draw Eastern Draw South-Eastern Draw Goulburn North-East Draw Gippsland Draw North-Eastern Draw Central Draw Southern Draw Western Draw North-Western Draw Wimmera South Coast Draw Northern Draw Eastern Draw South-Eastern Draw Goulburn North-East Draw Gippsland Draw This round will see the 12 teams from the Victorian Premier League and the 12 teams from the Victorian State League Division 1 enter the competition, alongside the 22 winners from the previous round.
Two teams from the Loddon-Mallee region – Mildura City and Castlemaine Goldfields – entered the competition at this stage, without needing to qualify through preliminary matches. The Draw for this round took place on 10 April; the draw for this round took place on 9 May