The Florida Keys are a coral cay archipelago located off the southern coast of Florida, forming the southernmost part of the continental United States. They begin at the southeastern coast of the Florida peninsula, about 15 miles south of Miami, extend in a gentle arc south-southwest and westward to Key West, the westernmost of the inhabited islands, on to the uninhabited Dry Tortugas; the islands lie along the Florida Straits, dividing the Atlantic Ocean to the east from the Gulf of Mexico to the northwest, defining one edge of Florida Bay. At the nearest point, the southern part of Key West is just 90 miles from Cuba; the Florida Keys are between 25.5 degrees North latitude. More than 95 percent of the land area lies in Monroe County, but a small portion extends northeast into Miami-Dade County, such as Totten Key; the total land area is 137.3 square miles. As of the 2010 census the population was 73,090 with an average density of 532.34 per square mile, although much of the population is concentrated in a few areas of much higher density, such as the city of Key West, which has 32% of the entire population of the Keys.
The US Census population estimate for 2014 is 77,136. The city of Key West is the county seat of Monroe County; the county consists of a section on the mainland, entirely in Everglades National Park, the Keys islands from Key Largo to the Dry Tortugas. The Keys were inhabited by the Calusa and Tequesta tribes, were charted by Juan Ponce de León in 1513. De León named the islands Los Martires. "Key" is derived from the Spanish word cayo. For many years, Key West was the largest town in Florida, it grew prosperous on wrecking revenues; the isolated outpost was well located for trade with Cuba and the Bahamas and was on the main trade route from New Orleans. Improved navigation led to fewer shipwrecks, Key West went into a decline in the late nineteenth century; the Keys were long accessible only by water. This changed with the completion of Henry Flagler's Overseas Railway in the early 1910s. Flagler, a major developer of Florida's Atlantic coast, extended his Florida East Coast Railway down to Key West with an ambitious series of oversea railroad trestles.
Three hurricanes disrupted the project in 1906, 1909, 1910. The strongest hurricane to strike the U. S. made landfall near Islamorada in the Upper Keys on Labor Day, September 2. Winds were estimated to have gusted to 200 mph, raising a storm surge more than 17.5 feet above sea level that washed over the islands. More than 400 people were killed, though some estimates place the number of deaths at more than 600; the Labor Day hurricane was one of only four hurricanes to make landfall at Category 5 strength on the U. S. coast since reliable weather records began. The other storms were Hurricane Camille, Hurricane Andrew, Hurricane Michael. In 1935, new bridges were under construction to connect a highway through the entire Keys. Hundreds of World War I veterans working on the roadway as part of a government relief program were housed in non-reinforced buildings in three construction camps in the Upper Keys; when the evacuation train failed to reach the camps before the storm, more than 200 veterans perished.
Their deaths caused anger and charges of mismanagement. The storm ended the 23-year run of the Overseas Railway. One of the longest bridges when it was built, the Seven Mile Bridge connects Knight's Key to Little Duck Key in the Lower Keys; the piling-supported concrete bridge is 35,862 6.79 miles long. The current bridge bypasses Pigeon Key, a small island that housed workers building Henry Flagler's Florida East Coast Railway in the 1900s, that the original Seven Mile Bridge crossed. A 2.2-mile section of the old bridge remains for access to the island, although it was closed to vehicular traffic on March 4, 2008. The aging structure has been deemed unsafe by the Florida Department of Transportation. Costly repairs, estimated to be as much as $34 million, were expected to begin in July 2008. Monroe County was unable to secure a $17 million loan through the state infrastructure bank, delaying work for at least a year. On June 14, 2008, the old bridge section leading to Pigeon Key was closed to fishing as well.
While still open to pedestrians—walking and jogging—if the bridge were closed altogether, only a ferry subsidized by FDOT and managed by the county would transport visitors to the island. After the destruction of the Keys railway by the Labor Day Hurricane of 1935, the railroad bridges, including the Seven Mile Bridge, were converted to automobile roadways; this roadway, U. S. Highway 1, became the Overseas Highway. Today this unique highway allows travel through the tropical islands of the Florida Keys and view exotic plants and animals found nowhere else on the US mainland and the largest coral reef chain in the United States. Following the Cuban Revolution, many Cubans emigrated to South Florida. Key West traditionally had strong links with its neighbor ninety miles south by water, large numbers of Cubans settled there; the Keys still attract Cubans leaving their home country, stories of "rafters" coming ashore are not uncommon. In 1982, the United States Border Patrol established a roadblock and inspection points on US Highway 1, stopping all northbound traffic returning to the mainland at Flor
St Peter upon Cornhill is an Anglican church on the corner of Cornhill and Gracechurch Street in the City of London of medieval origin. It was destroyed in the Great Fire of London in 1666 and rebuilt to the designs of Sir Christopher Wren, it is now a satellite church in the parish of St Helen's Bishopsgate. It lies in the ward of Cornhill; the church of St Peter upon Cornhill stands on the highest point of the City of London. A tradition grew up that the church was of ancient origin and was the seat of an archbishop until the coming of the Saxons in the 5th century, after which London was abandoned and Canterbury became the seat for the 6th-century Gregorian mission to the Kingdom of Kent; the London historian John Stow, writing at the end of the 16th century, reported "there remaineth in this church a table whereon is written, I know not by what authority, but of a late hand, that King Lucius founded the same church to be an archbishop's see metropolitan, chief church of his kingdom, that it so endured for four hundred years".
The "table" seen by Stow was destroyed when the medieval church was burnt in the Great Fire of London, but before this time a number of writers had recorded what it said. The text of the original tablet as printed by John Weever in 1631 began: Be hit known to al men, that the yeerys of our Lord God an clxxix. Lucius the fyrst christen kyng of this lond callyd Brytayne, fowndyd the fyrst chyrch in London, to sey, the Chyrch of Sent Peter apon Cornhyl, he fowndyd ther an Archbishoppys See, made that Chirch the Metropolitant, cheef Chirch of this kingdom... A replacement, in the form of an inscribed brass plate, was set up after the Great Fire and still hangs in the church vestry; the text of the brass plate has been printed several times, for example by George Godwin in 1839, an engraving of it was included in Robert Wilkinson's Londina Illustrata. In 1444 a "horsemill" was given to St Peter's; the bells of St Peter are mentioned in 1552, when a bell foundry in Aldgate was asked to cast a new bell.
The church was badly damaged in the Great Fire of London in 1666. The parish tried to patch it up, but between 1677 and 1684 it was rebuilt to a design by Christopher Wren at a cost of £5,647; the new church was 10 feet shorter than its predecessor, the eastern end of the site having been given up to widen Gracechurch Street. St Peter's was described by Ian Nairn as having "three personalities inextricably sewn into the City"; the eastern frontage to Gracechurch Street is a grand stone-faced composition, with five arched windows between Ionic pilasters above a high stylobate. The pilasters support an entablature; the north and south sides are much simpler in style. Unusually, shallow 19th-century shops have survived towards Cornhill, squeezed between the church and the pavement; the tower is of brick, its leaded cupola topped with a small spire, in turn surmounted by a weather vane in the shape of St Peter’s key. The interior is aisled, with square arcade piers resting on the medieval pier foundations.
The nave is barrel vaulted. Unusually for a Wren church, there is a screen marking the division between chancel; this was installed at the insistence of the rector at the time of William Beveridge. St Peter's was the regimental church of the Royal Tank Regiment, having been adopted as such in 1954 at the suggestion of the rector, Douglas Owen, who had served as a Padre with the regiment. Since 2007 the regimental church has been St Mary Aldermary; the church was designated a Grade I listed building on 4 January 1950. It is now a satellite church in the parish of St Helen's Bishopsgate and is used for staff training, bible studies and a youth club; the St Helen's church office controls access to St Peter's. Charles Dickens mentions the churchyard in Our Mutual Friend. A theatre group called The Players of St Peter were formed at the church in 1946 and performed there until 1987, they are now based at St Clement Eastcheap where its members perform medieval mystery plays each November. In June 1834 14-year-old Elizabeth Mounsey became the organist of St Peter's.
She remained in the position for 48 years, until her resignation in 1882. The organ in the gallery of St Peter's has an autographed souvenir quote from a J. S. Bach Passacaglia on display, which Felix Mendelssohn gave to Mounsey on 30 September 1840 after he gave an impromptu performance on the church's organ. In the 1830s, the notable missionary William Jowett was a lecturer at the church. John Waugh List of churches and cathedrals of London List of Christopher Wren churches in London St Peter upon Cornhill from Friends of the City Churches Emporis.com UK Attraction Set of 60 photographs of St Peter upon Cornhill Church by Rex Harris 1815 Seat plan of St Peter upon Cornhill Church
Jeffrey Raymond'Jeff' McCloy is an Australian property developer, Lord Mayor of Newcastle between 2012 and 2014. He has a degree in Civil Engineering from the University of Newcastle. Before entering politics, he ran his own construction company. In 2008 he won the Hunter Business Chamber 2008 Business Person of the Year, in 2009 he won the City of Newcastle Medal. McCloy campaigned for the removal the rail line through the centre of Newcastle and, despite being nominally an independent, supported Liberal candidates in the Council ward elections. Polling day in 2012 was marked by controversy when the running mate of an opposing candidate switched sides to support McCloy. In 2012, McCloy met the Opposition Leader Tony Abbott to discuss the future of the Newcastle CBD. In 2013, he held a joint press conference with Abbott and Newcastle victims of the Bali bombings in support of Abbott's proposed legislation to assist victims of terrorism overseas. McCloy opposed rainbow crossings in support of Gay rights, referring to them as "nonsense", used council resources to remove them, despite claims they did not breach any laws.
After Lake Macquarie and Cessnock councils expressed support for the rainbow crossings, McCloy attacked Cessnock as a "bloody mess" and threatened to arrange for Lake Macquarie City Council chambers to be "chalked with half a ton of chalk". McCloy appeared at a hearing of the Independent Commission Against Corruption 14 August 2014 relating to Operation Spicer, an investigation into allegations of corrupt conduct in relation to the 2011 elections in New South Wales, he was recalled to give further evidence on Friday 12 September 2014. Tim Owen, the Liberal member for Newcastle, Andrew Cornwell, the Liberal member for Charlestown, each admitted accepting amounts of $10,000 from McCloy; as a result, both Owen and Cornwell resigned from parliament on 12 August 2014. On 17 August 2014, McCloy resigned as Lord Mayor of Newcastle, effective immediately, he said his resignation was due to ongoing controversy over his appearance before the Independent Commission Against Corruption, which he said "may effect the proper functioning" of Newcastle City Council.
In 2015, McCloy's attempts to overturn part of a New South Wales Act of Parliament, enacted to prevent developers from making political donations, were rejected by the High Court of Australia. The case was significant in Australian constitutional law, as it clarified the extent to which the Constitution of Australia provides an implied freedom of political communication, expanded on the proportionality test developed in Lange v Australian Broadcasting Corporation. In 2016, The NSW Independent Commission Against Corruption released a report on their investigation codenamed Operation Spicer. Operation Spicer was an'Investigation into NSW Liberal Party Electoral Funding for the 2011 State Election Campaign and Other Matters'. In 2011, Jeff McCloy, as a property developer, was a banned donor, to parties and candidates in state elections as state governments have jurisdiction over land appropriations etc. in Australia. McCloy not only made political donations, he made so many large cash payments to Members of Parliament that he referred to himself in the Independent Commission Against Corruption hearings as a'Walking ATM'.
The NSW Independent Commission Against Corruption sought to prove that Jeff McCloy intentionally made covert payments to state government election candidates and that McCloy was aware that his donations were illegal because of his'developer' status. It was reported by the Sydney Morning Herald that Cardiff vet Andrew Cornwell was in the middle of an operation on a dog when he was summoned outside by McCloy. McCloy handed Cornwell $10,000 in cash, cash, used to fund Cornwell's state parliament election campaign. On 30 August 2016, the Newcastle Herald reported that MCloy called Independent Commission Against Corruption'A $20m waste of time'. 47% of Fairfax's online respondents agreed with McCloy's view. McCloy described the factual findings against him as'a parking fine, a speeding fine'. Listed in the'Principal Factual Findings made by the NSW Independent Commission Against Corruption in regards to Operation Spicer are the below references to Jeff McCloy. Finding Reference Group 1: Regarding The Seat of Port Stephens Quote page 22 of the commission's report: "In 2007, Craig Baumann, the NSW Liberal Party candidate for the seat of Port Stephens, entered into an arrangement with Mr McCloy and Mr Grugeon to disguise from the Election Funding Authority the fact that companies associated with Mr McCloy and Mr Grugeon had donated $79,684 towards Mr Baumann’s 2007 NSW election campaign."
Finding Reference Group 1 Correlation with Development: Craig Baumann held the seat of Port Stephens in the NSW Parliament from 2007 to 2015. McCloy Group has developments within the Port Stephens state seat areas including The Bower and Potter's Lane Finding Reference Group 2: Regarding The State Seat of Newcastle Quote page 20 of the commission's report: "In about February 2011, Jeffrey McCloy gave Hugh Thomson $10,000 in cash as a political donation to fund Mr Owen’s 2011 election campaign for the seat of Newcastle with the intention of evading the Election Funding Act laws relating to the ban on the making of political donations by property developers and the applicable cap on political donations. Quote page 21 of the commission's report: "Mr Gallacher was responsible for proposing to Mr McCloy and Mr Grugeon an arrangement whereby each of them would contribute to the payment of Luke Grant for his work on Mr Owen’s 2011 election campaign, he did so with the intention that the Election Funding Act laws in relation to the prohibition on political donati