King John (play)
King John, a history play by William Shakespeare, dramatises the reign of John, King of England, son of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine and father of Henry III of England. It is believed to have written in the mid-1590s but was not published until it appeared in the First Folio in 1623. John adjudicates an inheritance dispute between Robert Faulconbridge and his older brother Philip the Bastard, during which it becomes apparent that Philip is the son of King Richard I. Queen Eleanor, mother to both Richard and John, recognises the family resemblance and suggests that he renounce his claim to the Falconbridge land in exchange for a knighthood, John knights the Bastard under the name Richard. In France, King Philip and his forces besiege the English-ruled town of Angiers, Philip is supported by Austria, who is believed to have killed King Richard. The English contingent arrives, Eleanor trades insults with Constance, Arthurs mother, Kings Philip and John stake their claims in front of Angiers citizens, but to no avail, their representative says that they will support the rightful king, whoever that turns out to be.
The French and English armies clash, but no clear victor emerges, each army dispatches a herald claiming victory, but Angiers citizens continue to refuse to recognize either claimant because neither army has proven victorious. Though a furious Constance accuses Philip of abandoning Arthur, cardinal Pandolf arrives from Rome bearing a formal accusation that John has disobeyed the pope and appointed an archbishop contrary to his desires. John refuses to recant, whereupon he is excommunicated, Pandolf pledges his support for Louis, though Philip is hesitant, having just established family ties with John. Pandolf brings him round by pointing out that his links to the church are older and firmer, war breaks out, Austria is beheaded by the Bastard in revenge for his fathers death, and both Angiers and Arthur are captured by the English. Eleanor is left in charge of English possessions in France, while the Bastard is sent to collect funds from English monasteries, John orders Hubert to kill Arthur.
Pandolf suggests to Louis that he now has as strong a claim to the English throne as Arthur, Hubert finds himself unable to kill Arthur. John agrees, but is wrong-footed by Huberts announcement that Arthur is dead, the nobles, believing he was murdered, defect to Louis side. The Bastard reports that the monasteries are unhappy about Johns attempt to seize their gold, Hubert has a furious argument with John, during which he reveals that Arthur is still alive. John, sends him to report the news to the nobles, Arthur dies jumping from a castle wall. The nobles believe he was murdered by John, and refuse to believe Huberts entreaties, John attempts to make a deal with Pandolf, swearing allegiance to the Pope in exchange for Pandolfs negotiating with the French on his behalf. John orders the Bastard, one of his few remaining loyal subjects, while Johns former noblemen swear allegiance to Louis, Pandolf explains Johns scheme, but Louis refuses to be taken in by it. The Bastard arrives with the English army and threatens Louis, war breaks out with substantial losses on each side, including Louis reinforcements, who are drowned during the sea crossing
Florida cracker architecture
Florida architecture is a style of woodframe home used somewhat widely in the 19th century in Florida, United States, and still popular with some developers as a source of design themes. Florida homes are characterized by metal roofs, raised floors, large porch areas, bensen House in Grant, Florida Plumb House in Clearwater, Florida Winchester Symphony House in Eau Gallie, Florida Valle, Erick. Archived from the original on 2006-05-19, exploring Florida, A Social Studies Resource for Students and Teachers. Florida Center for Instructional Technology, College of Education, University of South Florida, cracker House at A History of Central Florida Podcast
Ben Hill Griffin Jr.
Ben Hill Griffin Jr. was a prominent American businessman, citrus grower and philanthropist who was a native and resident of Florida. Griffin was an alumnus of the University of Florida, a legislator, a one-time candidate for governor. Several of Griffins grandchildren remain active in Florida politics, Griffin is the subject of the final chapter of John McPhees work of creative nonfiction Oranges. Griffin was born during a hurricane in the town of Tiger Bay, near Fort Meade. He attended Frostproof High School in Frostproof, where he was responsible for starting the school football program in 1929. After graduating from school, Griffin studied economics and agriculture at the University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida. In 1933, Griffin left the University of Florida after three years earning a degree to find a job during the Great Depression. In 1961, Griffin was named to the board of directors of Atlantic Land & Improvement Company, Inc. the land-holding subsidiary of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad and commonly known as Alico.
Alico, Inc. became a publicly traded corporation engaged in fruit and sod production, cattle ranching. Griffin acquired a majority of the stock of Alico in 1972. Griffin was executive officer of Ben Hill Griffin, Inc. a family-owned business with citrus. In 1989, the year before his death, he was ranked 261st on the Forbes 400 list of richest Americans. Griffin, a conservative Democrat, was a member of the Florida Legislature for twelve years in the Florida Senate. In 1974, he lost the Democratic Party primary race for Governor of Florida to Reubin Askew, in 1989, Florida Field, the universitys football stadium, was officially renamed Ben Hill Griffin Stadium at Florida Field. Floyd Hall, one of the universitys academic buildings, was restored due in part to Griffins donations and was renamed Griffin-Floyd Hall upon its reopening in 1992. For his support of the Florida Gators sports programs, Griffin was inducted into the University of Florida Athletic Hall of Fame as a letter winner in 1982.
Alico Arena, FGCUs indoor sports arena, is named for the company, the elementary school in his hometown of Frostproof is named for Griffin. When Griffin died in 1990, he was survived by his wife Eleanor, a son, four daughters, and one of FGCUs primary academic buildings, Griffin Hall, is named for him
University Press of Florida
The University Press of Florida is the scholarly publishing arm of the State University System of Florida, representing Floridas twelve state universities. It is located in Gainesville near the University of Florida, one of the major research institutions. It is overseen by the Florida Board of Governors and publishes works from and its predecessor was the University of Florida Press. UPF has published almost 2,500 volumes with a staff of 41, a member of the Association of American University Presses, UPF ranks in the top-third of member presses for sales and new title production. As UPFs predecessor, the University of Florida Press, began to build a publishing program, other public universities in Florida took notice. To avoid replication of efforts among the campuses, the Florida Board of Regents established a decentralized, featuring independent editorial and financial controls on each of the state systems nine campuses, this structure brought all of the states public universities into the publishing process.
By the early 1990s a need became apparent for one central authority that could refocus and unify the consortium’s publishing program, throughout the changes in organization, the press has maintained its status as the premier publisher of scholarly and general interest books in the state of Florida. Others have been named to Amazon. com’s best-seller list and chosen for book clubs, in 2006, UPF was hailed as a publishing powerhouse by the Gainesville Sun. Current publications by UPF can be found on the UPF website, UPF publishes Orange Grove Texts Plus which are Open Access textbooks, and are available in an Open Access repository powered by the SobekCM Open Source software. State University System of Florida Florida Board of Governors University Press of Florida
Seven Years' War
The Seven Years War was a war fought between 1754 and 1763, the main conflict occurring in the seven-year period from 1756 to 1763. It involved every European great power of the time except the Ottoman Empire and spanned five continents, affecting Europe, the Americas, West Africa and the Philippines. The conflict split Europe into two coalitions, led by the Kingdom of Great Britain on one side and the Kingdom of France on the other. Meanwhile, in India, the Mughal Empire, with the support of the French, faced with this sudden turn of events, Britain aligned herself with Prussia, in a series of political manoeuvres known as the Diplomatic Revolution. Conflict between Great Britain and France broke out in 1754–1756 when the British attacked disputed French positions in North America, rising power Prussia was struggling with Austria for dominance within and outside the Holy Roman Empire in central Europe. In 1756, the major powers switched partners, realizing that war was imminent, Prussia preemptively struck Saxony and quickly overran it.
The result caused uproar across Europe, because of Austrias alliance with France to recapture Silesia, which had been lost in a previous war, Prussia formed an alliance with Britain. Reluctantly, by following the diet, most of the states of the empire joined Austrias cause. The Anglo-Prussian alliance was joined by smaller German states, seeking to re-gain Pomerania joined the coalition, seeing its chance when virtually all of Europe opposed Prussia. Spain, bound by the Pacte de Famille, intervened on behalf of France, the Russian Empire was originally aligned with Austria, fearing Prussias ambition on the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, but switched sides upon the succession of Tsar Peter III in 1762. Naples and Savoy, although sided with the Franco-Spanish alliance, like Sweden, Russia concluded a separate peace with Prussia. The war ended with the Treaty of Paris between France and Great Britain and the Treaty of Hubertusburg between Saxony and Prussia, in 1763. The Native American tribes were excluded from the settlement, a subsequent conflict, Prussia emerged as a new European great power.
Although Austria failed to retrieve the territory of Silesia from Prussia its military prowess was noted by the other powers. The involvement of Portugal and Sweden did not return them to their status as great powers. France was deprived of many of its colonies and had saddled itself with heavy war debts that its inefficient financial system could barely handle. Spain lost Florida but gained French Louisiana and regained control of its colonies, e. g. Cuba and the Philippines and Spain avenged their defeat in 1778 when the American Revolutionary War broke out, with hopes of destroying Britains dominance once and for all. The Seven Years War was perhaps the first true world war, having taken place almost 160 years before World War I and it was characterized in Europe by sieges and the arson of towns as well as open battles with heavy losses
Houses use a range of different roofing systems to keep precipitation such as rain from getting into the dwelling space. Houses may have doors or locks to secure the dwelling space, most conventional modern houses in Western cultures will contain one or more bedrooms and bathrooms, a kitchen or cooking area, and a living room. A house may have a dining room, or the eating area may be integrated into another room. Some large houses in North America have a recreation room, in traditional agriculture-oriented societies, domestic animals such as chickens or larger livestock may share part of the house with humans. The social unit that lives in a house is known as a household, most commonly, a household is a family unit of some kind, although households may be other social groups, such as roommates or, in a rooming house, unconnected individuals. Some houses only have a space for one family or similar-sized group. A house may be accompanied by outbuildings, such as a garage for vehicles or a shed for gardening equipment, a house may have a backyard or frontyard, which serve as additional areas where inhabitants can relax or eat.
The English word house derives directly from the Old English Hus meaning dwelling, home, the house itself gave rise to the letter B through an early Proto-Semitic hieroglyphic symbol depicting a house. The symbol was called bayt, bet or beth in various related languages, and became beta, architects of houses design rooms to meet the needs of the people who will live in the house. Such designing, known as design, has become a popular subject in universities. Feng shui can mean the aura in or around a dwelling, making it comparable to the real-estate sales concept of indoor-outdoor flow, the square footage of a house in the United States reports the area of living space, excluding the garage and other non-living spaces. The square metres figure of a house in Europe reports the area of the enclosing the home. The number of floors or levels making up the house can affect the square footage of a home, many houses have several large rooms with specialized functions and several very small rooms for other various reasons.
These may include an area, a sleeping area, and separate or combined washing. Some larger properties may feature such as a spa room, indoor pool, indoor basketball court. In traditional agriculture-oriented societies, domestic animals such as chickens or larger livestock often share part of the house with human beings, most conventional modern houses will at least contain a bedroom, kitchen or cooking area, and a living room. Little is known about the earliest origin of the house and its interior, roman architect Vitruvius theories have claimed the first form of architecture as a frame of timber branches finished in mud, known as the primitive hut. Philip Tabor states the contribution of 17th century Dutch houses as the foundation of houses today, as far as the idea of the home is concerned, the home of the home is the Netherlands
While an estimated 36 million Americans reported Irish ancestry in 2006, and 6 million reported Scottish ancestry, an additional 5.4 million identified more specifically with Scotch-Irish ancestry. The term Scotch-Irish is used primarily in the United States, with people in Great Britain or Ireland who are of a similar ancestry identifying as Ulster Scots people and these included 200,000 Scottish Presbyterians who settled in Ireland between 1608-1697. Many English-born settlers of this period were Presbyterians, although the denomination is today most strongly identified with Scotland, when King Charles I attempted to force these Presbyterians into the Church of England in the 1630s, many chose to re-emigrate to North America where religious liberty was greater. Later attempts to force the Church of Englands control over dissident Protestants in Ireland were to lead to further waves of emigration to the trans-Atlantic colonies, the term Scotch-Irish is first known to have been used to refer to a people living in Northeastern Ireland.
In a letter of April 14,1573, in reference to Ulster, Elizabeth I of England wrote, We are given to understand that a nobleman named Sorley Boy and others, who be of the Scotch-Irish race. This term continued in usage for over a century before the earliest known American reference appeared in a Maryland affidavit in 1689/90, Scotch-Irish is an Americanism, rarely used in England, Ireland or Scotland. Smaller numbers of migrants came from Wales and the southeast of England, and others were Protestant religious refugees from Flanders, the German Palatinate. What united these different national groups was a base of Calvinist religious beliefs and that said, the large ethnic Scottish element in the Plantation of Ulster gave the settlements a Scottish character. Upon arrival in North America, these migrants at first usually identified simply as Irish, at first, the two groups had little interaction in America, as the Scots-Irish had become settled decades earlier, primarily in the backcountry of the Appalachian region.
Many of the new Irish migrants went to the interior in the 19th century, attracted to jobs on large-scale infrastructure projects such as canals, the usage Scots-Irish developed in the late 19th century as a relatively recent version of the term. The word Scotch was the favored adjective for things of Scotland, including people, until the early 19th century and it was never properly used as a noun. People in Scotland refer to themselves as Scots, as a noun, although referenced by Merriam-Webster dictionaries as having first appeared in 1744, the American term Scotch-Irish is undoubtedly older. An affidavit of William Patent, dated March 15,1689, in a case against a Mr. Matthew Scarbrough in Somerset County, Maryland and it was no more sin to kill me to kill a dogg, or any Scotch Irish dogg. Leyburn cites the following as early American uses of the term before 1744, another Church of England clergyman from Lewes, commented in 1723 that great numbers of Irish have transplanted themselves and their families from the north of Ireland.
The Oxford English Dictionary says the first use of the term Scotch-Irish came in Pennsylvania in 1744,1744 W. MARSHE Jrnl,21 June in Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society. 177, The inhabitants are chiefly High-Dutch, Scotch-Irish, some few English families and its citations include examples after that into the late 19th century. In Albions Seed, Four British Folkways in America, historian David Hackett Fischer asserts and it is true that many sailed from the province of Ulster. Part of much larger flow which drew from the lowlands of Scotland, the north of England, Many scholars call these people Scotch-Irish
A settler is a person who has migrated to an area and established a permanent residence there, often to colonize the area. Settlers are generally from a culture, as opposed to nomads who share. Settlements are often built on land already claimed or owned by another group, many times settlers are backed by governments or large countries. One can witness how settlers very often occupied land previously home to long-established peoples, the word settler was not originally usually used in relation to free labour immigrants, such as slaves, indentured labourers, or convicts. In United States history it refers to people who helped to settle new lands. In this usage, pioneers are usually among the first to an area, whereas settlers can arrive after first settlement and this correlates with the work of military pioneers who were tasked with construction of camps before the main body of troops would arrive at the designated campsite. In Imperial Russia, the government invited Russians or foreign nationals to settle in sparsely populated lands, see, e. g.
articles Slavo-Serbia, Volga German, Russians in Kazakhstan. In the Middle East, there are a number of references to various squatter, among those, Iraq – the Arabization program of the Baath Party in the late 1970s in North Iraq, which aimed at settling Arab populations instead of Kurds following the Second Iraqi-Kurdish War. Israel – Israelis who moved to areas captured during the Six-Day War in 1967 are termed Israeli settlers, in recent Israeli settlers have been settling in Palestinian territory such as the Gaza Strip and West Bank. However, this has caused political unrest and many settlers are forcibly removed from their settlements by the Israeli government, Syria – In recent times, Arab settlers have moved in large numbers to ethnic minority areas, such as northeast Syria. Women and children experience violence in these highly dangerous ares because of the conflict, many natives face displacement when new settlements are established. During 1948 Palestine war, in which Israel was created, over 750,000 Palestinians were displaced from their homes, oftentimes fences or walls are built preventing the natives from traveling back onto the land.
Settlements make it difficult for native people to continue their work. For example, if the settlers take part of the land which the trees grow on the natives no longer have access to those olive trees. Many are met with violence when they try to get the things they need from the land, settlers in hypothetical societies, such as on other planets, often feature in science fiction or fantasy fiction and/or video games. Mascot for Texas Womans University, more specifically called the Pioneer. The colony concerned is sometimes controlled by the government of a home country
Florida Cracker Trail
The Florida Cracker Trail runs from just east of Bradenton, and ends in Fort Pierce, a total distance of approximately 120 miles. In years past, this route was used for cattle and horses. Today it includes parts of State Road 66, State Road 64, on November 20,2000, the Florida Cracker Trail was selected as a Community Millennium Trail. An annual Cracker Trail ride is now held the last full week in February of each year, the ride begins at a site just east of Bradenton and ends with a parade through downtown Ft. Pierce, Florida, a total of approximately 120 miles. Each days ride is approximately 15 to 20 miles in length, the purpose of the ride is to draw attention to Floridas horse and cattle heritage. Florida cracker Cracker Florida Cracker Trail Association Florida Greenways and Trails Multimedia story about the Florida Cracker Trail
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Americas where Romance languages are predominant. It is therefore broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America—though it usually excludes French Canada and it has an area of approximately 19,197,000 km2, almost 13% of the Earths land surface area. As of 2015, its population was estimated at more than 626 million and in 2014, Latin America had a combined nominal GDP of 5,573,397 million USD and a GDP PPP of 7,531,585 million USD. The term Latin America was first used in 1861 in La revue des races Latines, a further investigation of the concept of Latin America is by Michel Gobat in the American Historical Review. The term was first used in Paris in an 1856 conference by the Chilean politician Francisco Bilbao and this term was used in 1861 by French scholars in La revue des races Latines, a magazine dedicated to the Pan-Latinism movement. Latin America is, defined as all parts of the Americas that were once part of the Spanish.
By this definition, Latin America is coterminous with Ibero-America and this definition emphasizes a similar socioeconomic history of the region, which was characterized by formal or informal colonialism, rather than cultural aspects. As such, some sources avoid this oversimplification by using the phrase Latin America, the distinction between Latin America and Anglo-America is a convention based on the predominant languages in the Americas by which Romance-language and English-speaking cultures are distinguished. Latin America can be subdivided into several subregions based on geography, demographics and it may be subdivided on linguistic grounds into Hispanic America, Portuguese America and French America. *, Not a sovereign state The concept of Latin America has been criticized by a number of intellectuals, the earliest known settlement was identified at Monte Verde, near Puerto Montt in Southern Chile. Its occupation dates to some 14,000 years ago and there is disputed evidence of even earlier occupation.
Over the course of millennia, people spread to all parts of the continents, by the first millennium CE, South Americas vast rainforests, mountains and coasts were the home of tens of millions of people. Some groups formed more permanent settlements such as the Chibcha and the Tairona groups and these groups are in the circum Caribbean region. The Chibchas of Colombia, the Quechuas and Aymaras of Bolivia, the region was home to many indigenous peoples and advanced civilizations, including the Aztecs, Toltecs and Inca. The Aztec empire was ultimately the most powerful civilization known throughout the Americas, with the arrival of the Europeans following Christopher Columbus voyages, the indigenous elites, such as the Incas and Aztecs, lost power to the heavy European invasion. Hernándo Cortés seized the Aztec elites power with the help of local groups who had favored the Aztec elite, epidemics of diseases brought by the Europeans, such as smallpox and measles, wiped out a large portion of the indigenous population.
Historians cannot determine the number of natives who died due to European diseases, due to the lack of written records, specific numbers are hard to verify. Many of the survivors were forced to work in European plantations, intermixing between the indigenous peoples and the European colonists was very common, and, by the end of the colonial period, people of mixed ancestry formed majorities in several colonies
By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem.
This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula.
The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growth