Biscayne Bay is a lagoon that is approximately 35 miles long and up to 8 miles wide located on the Atlantic coast of South Florida, United States. It is usually divided for purposes of discussion and analysis into three parts, North Bay, Central Bay, and South Bay and its area is 428 square miles. The drainage basin covers 938 square miles, discovered by Ponce de Leon, he landed there and was originally named Santa Marta. The North Bay of the Biscayne Bay lies between Miami Beach barrier island and Miami on the mainland, water quality has steadily improved since regular monitoring began in 1979. North Bay accounts for only 10% of the area of the bay. Central Bay is the largest part of the bay and it is separated from the Atlantic Ocean by the Safety Valve. It has been adversely affected primarily by bulkheading, urban runoff discharged by canals, South Bay is nearly as large as Central Bay, and is the least affected by human activities, although it suffers from the loss of natural fresh water flow.
South Bay is separated from the Straits of Florida by the northernmost of the Florida Keys and it is connected to Florida Bay through a few small channels. Construction began on July 22,1912, although the cost of the project was initially $75,000, the construction project faced delays and cost overruns. The budge was partially completed in 1913, the bridge was hailed as the longest wooden vehicle bridge in the world, and opened up the area as a luxury winter resort and playground. The bridge terminated at the Dixie Highway, built by Carl G. Fisher, the bridge was a toll bridge, in 1920, the toll was reduced from 20 cents each way to 15 cents one way. The bridge was torn down in 1925 and replaced with the more substantial Venetian Causeway the next year, in 1925, Biscayne Point was created in Miami Beachs north end. In 1929, a third causeway crossed Biscayne Bay at Normandy Isle, the Julia Tuttle Causeway was built in 1959. Other causeways are the John F. Kennedy and Broad causeways, the Card Sound Bridge connects the mainland in the Homestead, Florida area to the northern part of Key Largo.
In 1975, the bay was designated as an aquatic preserve. The aquatic preserve spans the entirety of Biscayne Bay from Oleta River in the north to Card Sound in the south, with the exception of the part of the bay. A second preserve was added off of Cape Florida on Key Biscayne. These two preserves are now managed by the state of Florida under the Biscayne Bay Aquatic Preserves, seven remaining houses of Biscayne Bays Stiltsville settlement are now within the boundaries of this National Park which was established in 1980
Florida /ˈflɒrᵻdə/ is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, and the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and is the largest city by area in the contiguous United States, the Miami metropolitan area is Floridas most populous urban area. The city of Tallahassee is the state capital, much of the state is at or near sea level and is characterized by sedimentary soil. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south, the American alligator, American crocodile, Florida panther, and manatee can be found in the Everglades National Park. It was a location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, the states economy relies mainly on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, the Kennedy Space Center, Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, and continues to attract celebrities and athletes. It is internationally known for golf, auto racing, by the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee, the Timucua, the Ais, the Tocobaga, the Calusa and the Tequesta. Florida was the first part of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans, the earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2,1513 and he named the region La Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is a myth, in May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land. He described seeing a wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet.
Very soon, many smokes appeared along the whole coast, billowing against the sky, the Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Spanish language, and more to Florida. Both the Spanish and French established settlements in Florida, with varying degrees of success, in 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561. Spain maintained tenuous control over the region by converting the tribes to Christianity. The area of Spanish Florida diminished with the establishment of English settlements to the north, the English attacked St. Augustine, burning the city and its cathedral to the ground several times. Florida attracted numerous Africans and African-Americans from adjacent British colonies who sought freedom from slavery, in 1738, Governor Manuel de Montiano established Fort Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose near St
Boca Raton, Florida
Boca Raton is the southernmost city in Palm Beach County, United States, first incorporated on August 2,1924 as Bocaratone, and incorporated as Boca Raton in 1925. The 2015 population estimated by the U. S. Census Bureau was 93,235, approximately 200,000 people with a Boca Raton postal address reside outside its municipal boundaries. Such areas include newer developments like West Boca Raton, as a business center, the city experiences significant daytime population increases. It is one of the wealthiest communities in South Florida, Boca Raton is located 43 miles north of Miami and is a principal city of the Miami metropolitan area, which was home to an estimated 6,012,331 people at the 2015 census. Boca Raton is home to the campus of Florida Atlantic University and the corporate headquarters of Office Depot, ADT. It is home to the Evert Tennis Academy, owned by tennis player Chris Evert. Town Center Mall, a shopping center in West Boca Raton, is the largest indoor mall in Palm Beach County. Another major attraction to the area is Boca Ratons downtown, known as Mizner Park, still today, Boca Raton has a strict development code for the size and types of commercial buildings, building signs, and advertisements that may be erected within the city limits.
No outdoor car dealerships are allowed in the municipality, additionally, no billboards are permitted, the citys only billboard was grandfathered in during annexation. The strict development code has led to major thoroughfares without large signs or advertisements in the travelers view. The original name Boca de Ratones appeared on eighteenth-century maps associated with an inlet in the Biscayne Bay area of Miami. The word ratones appears in old Spanish maritime dictionaries referring to rugged rocks or stony ground on the bottom of some ports and coastal outlets, the abridged translation defining Boca de Ratones is a shallow inlet of sharp-pointed rocks which scrape a ships cables. Residents of the city have kept the pronunciation of Boca Raton similar to its Spanish origins, in particular, the Raton in Boca Raton is pronounced as /rəˈtoʊn/ instead of /rəˈtɑːn/. The latter is a common mispronunciation by non-natives to the region, the area today known as Boca Raton was originally occupied by the Tequesta tribe, a Native American people that occupied an area along the southeastern Atlantic coast of Florida.
What Spanish voyagers called Boca de Ratones was originally located to the south, by mistake since the 19th century, mapmakers moved this location to the north and began referring to the citys lake, today known as Lake Boca Raton, as Boca Ratone Sounde. The area was largely uninhabited after the Indigenous people were cleared from the area by the Spanish and he surveyed and sold land from the canal to beyond the railroad north of what is now Palmetto Park Road. Early settlement in the area increased shortly after Henry Flaglers expansion of the Florida East Coast Railway, in the citys early history during the Florida land boom of the 1920s, several investors were interested in turning Boca Raton into a resort town. Most famously, Addison Mizner had several projects for resorts and mansions in the area and he first constructed his Administrative Buildings and a small hotel to house interested investors
Seaboard Air Line Railroad
The company was headquartered in Norfolk, until 1958, when its main offices were relocated to Richmond, Virginia. The Seaboard Air Line Railway Building in Norfolks historic Freemason District still stands and has converted to luxury apartments. At the end of 1925 SAL operated 3,929 miles of road, not including its flock of subsidiaries, from Jacksonville, Seaboard rails continued to Tampa, St. Petersburg, West Palm Beach and Miami. Its brought vacationers to Florida from the Northeast and carried southern timber and produce, especially Florida citrus crops, by June 1837 the railroad was completed to Weldon, where a connection was made with the tracks of the Wilmington and Raleigh Railroad. In 1846, after suffering financial difficulties, the P&R was reorganized as the Seaboard and Roanoke Railroad, the Raleigh and Gaston Railroad had begun construction on November 1,1836, with the first scheduled service between its endpoints beginning on March 21,1840. After the American Civil War, this was advertised as the Inland Air-Line Route, by 1853, the Roanoke and Gaston had connected with the Seaboard and Roanoke at Weldon, thus offering travelers through service on the 176-mile route from Portsmouth to Raleigh.
In the days before air travel, air line was a term for the shortest distance between two points, a straight line drawn through the air, ignoring natural obstacles. Hence, a number of 19th century railroads used air line in their titles to suggest that their routes were shorter than those of competing roads, the Seaboard never owned an airplane. In 1940 the railroad proposed the creation of Seaboard Airlines, during a spate of interest in aviation shares on Wall Street following Charles A. Prosperity returned after the war, with the efficiently managed Seaboard Road showing a profit even during the Panic of 1873, in 1871, the Raleigh and Gaston acquired the Raleigh and Augusta Air-Line Railroad, however, reached only to Hamlet, North Carolina. When the R&G and its subsidiary fell into financial straits in 1873, in 1889, the Seaboard leased the still-unfinished Georgia and Northern Railway, providing a link from Monroe, North Carolina, to Atlanta, Georgia. During its heyday in the 1890s, the system prided itself on offering excellent passenger service between Atlanta and the northeast, a daily coach and Pullman train, the S. A. L.
Express, ran from Atlanta to the Seaboard Roads depot and wharf at Portsmouth, between 1898 and 1900, Seaboard affiliate Richmond and Carolina completed the laying of track from Norlina to Richmond, thereby providing an all-Seaboard route from Atlanta to Richmond. As important as the route to the railroad hub of Atlanta was. In the last two decades of the 19th century, the pieces of the route to Florida began to fall into place. Between 1885 and 1887, the Palmetto Railroad, reorganized as the Palmetto Railway, had built southward from Hamlet, North Carolina, on the Seaboard main line, to Cheraw, in 1895, the Seaboard took control of the Palmetto Railway and extended the tracks to Columbia. Also in 1895, the Savannah and Montgomery Railway, John Skelton Williams, a son of John L. Williams, became president of the line, renaming it the Georgia and Alabama Railway. Immediately and his financial backers sought to expand into the Florida market, in 1860, the Florida and Gulf Central Railroad completed construction of a line running west from Jacksonville, Florida, to Lake City, Florida
Miami Beach, Florida
Miami Beach is a coastal resort city in Miami-Dade County, United States. It was incorporated on March 26,1915, the municipality is located on natural and man-made barrier islands between the Atlantic Ocean and Biscayne Bay, the latter of which separates the Beach from Miami. The neighborhood of South Beach, comprising the southernmost 2.5 square miles of Miami Beach, along with downtown Miami, as of the 2010 census, Miami Beach had a total population of 87,779. It has been one of Americas pre-eminent beach resorts since the early 20th century, in 1979, Miami Beachs Art Deco Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The Art Deco District is the largest collection of Art Deco architecture in the world and comprises hundreds of hotels, mediterranean, Streamline Moderne and Art Deco are all represented in the District. The Historic District is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the East, Lenox Court on the West, 6th Street on the South and Dade Boulevard along the Collins Canal to the North.
The movement to preserve the Art Deco Districts architectural heritage was led by interior designer Barbara Capitman. Miami Beach is governed by a mayor and six commissioners. Although the mayor runs commission meetings, the mayor and all commissioners have equal voting power and are elected by popular election. The mayor serves for terms of two years with a limit of three terms and commissioners serve for terms of four years and are limited to two terms. Commissioners are voted for citywide and every two years three commission seats are voted upon, a city manager is responsible for administering governmental operations. An appointed city manager is responsible for administration of the city, the City Clerk and the City Attorney are appointed officials. In 1870, a father and son and Charles Lum, the first structure to be built on this uninhabited oceanfront was the Biscayne House of Refuge, constructed in 1876 by the United States Life-Saving Service at approximately 72nd Street. Its purpose was to provide food, and a return to civilization for people who were shipwrecked, Collins family members saw the potential in developing the beach as a resort.
This effort got underway in the years of the 20th century by the Collins/Pancoast family, the Lummus brothers. Until then, the beach here was only the destination for day-trips by ferry from Miami, there were bath houses and food stands, but no hotel until Browns Hotel was built in 1915. Much of the land mass at that time was a tangled jungle of mangroves. Clearing it, deepening the channels and water bodies, and eliminating native growth almost everywhere in favor of landfill for development, was expensive
A schooner /ˈskuːnər/ is a type of sailing vessel with fore-and-aft sails on two or more masts, the foremast being shorter than the main and no taller than the mizzen if there is one. While the schooner was originally gaff-rigged, modern schooners typically carry a Bermuda rig, such vessels were first used by the Dutch in the 16th or 17th century. They were further developed in North America from the early 18th century, the most common type, with two masts, were popular in trades requiring speed and windward ability, such as slaving, blockade running, and offshore fishing. In the Chesapeake Bay area several distinctive schooner types evolved, including the Baltimore clipper, schooners were popular among pirates in the West Indies during the Golden Age of Piracy, for their speed and agility. They could sail in shallow waters, and while being smaller than other ships of the time period. Schooners first evolved in the late 17th century from a variety of small two-masted gaff-rigged vessels used in the coast, most were working craft but some pleasure yachts with schooner rigs were built for wealthy merchants and Dutch nobility.
Following the arrival of the Dutch monarch William of Orange on the British throne and this vessel, captured in a detailed Admiralty model, is the earliest fully documented schooner. Royal Transport was quickly noted for its speed and ease of handling, North American shipbuilders quickly developed a variety of schooner forms for trading and privateering. According to the language scholar Walter William Skeat, the term comes from scoon. The Dutch word schoone means nice, good looking, robinson replied, A schooner let her be. The launch is variously described as being in 1713 or 1745, naval architects such as Howard Chapelle have dismissed this invention story as a childish fable, but some language scholars feel that the legend may support a Gloucester origin of the word. Other sources state the etymology as unknown and uncertain, the first detailed definition of a schooner, describing the vessel as two-masted vessel with fore and aft gaff-rigged sails appeared in 1769 in William Falconers, Universal Dictionary of the Marine.
Although a schooner may have up to four masts, the schooner has only two, with the foremast shorter than the mainmast. There may be a bowsprit to help balance the rig, the principal issue with a schooner sail plan is how to fill the space between the two masts most effectively. Traditional schooners were rigged, and the trapezoid shape of the foresail occupied the inter-mast space to good effect, with a useful sail area. A Bermuda rigged schooner typically has four sails, a mainsail, a main staysail abaft the foremast, plus a forestaysail. An advantage of the schooner is that it is easily handled and reefed by a small crew. The main staysail will not overlap the mainsail, and so little to prepare the wind for the mainsail
The Everglades is a natural region of tropical wetlands in the southern portion of the U. S. state of Florida, comprising the southern half of a large drainage basin and part of the neotropic ecozone. The system begins near Orlando with the Kissimmee River, which discharges into the vast but shallow Lake Okeechobee. Water leaving the lake in the wet season forms a slow-moving river 60 miles wide, the Everglades experience a wide range of weather patterns, from frequent flooding in the wet season to drought in the dry season. Human habitation in the portion of the Florida peninsula dates to 15,000 years ago. Before European colonization, the region was dominated by the native Calusa, with Spanish colonization, both tribes declined gradually during the following two centuries. The Seminole formed from mostly Creek people who had been warring to the North, they assimilated other peoples and created a new culture. After being forced from northern Florida into the Everglades during the Seminole Wars of the early 19th century, migrants to the region who wanted to develop plantations first proposed draining the Everglades in 1848, but no work of this type was attempted until 1882.
Canals were constructed throughout the first half of the 20th century, in 1947, Congress formed the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control Project, which built 1,400 miles of canals and water control devices. The Miami metropolitan area grew substantially at this time and Everglades water was diverted to cities, portions of the Everglades were transformed into farmland, where the primary crop was sugarcane. Approximately 50 percent of the original Everglades has been developed as agricultural or urban areas, following this period of rapid development and environmental degradation, the ecosystem began to receive notable attention from conservation groups in the 1970s. Internationally, UNESCO and the Ramsar Convention designated the Everglades a Wetland Area of Global Importance, the construction of a large airport 6 miles north of Everglades National Park was blocked when an environmental study found that it would severely damage the South Florida ecosystem. With heightened awareness and appreciation of the region, restoration began in the 1980s with the removal of a canal that had straightened the Kissimmee River, however and sustainability concerns have remained pertinent in the region.
The deterioration of the Everglades, including water quality in Lake Okeechobee, was linked to the diminishing quality of life in South Floridas urban areas. In 2000 the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan was approved by Congress to combat these problems, to date, it is the most expensive and comprehensive environmental restoration attempt in history, but its implementation has faced political complications. The first written record of the Everglades was on Spanish maps made by cartographers who had not seen the land and they named the unknown area between the Gulf and Atlantic coasts of Florida Laguna del Espíritu Santo. The area was featured on maps for decades without having been explored, British surveyor John Gerard de Brahm, who mapped the coast of Florida in 1773, called the area River Glades. Both Marjory Stoneman Douglas and linguist Wallace McMullen suggest that cartographers substituted Ever for River, the name Everglades first appeared on a map in 1823, although it was spelled as Ever Glades as late as 1851.
The Seminole call it Pa-hay-okee, meaning Grassy Water, the region was labeled Pa-hai-okee on an American military map from 1839, although it had earlier been called Ever Glades throughout the Second Seminole War
West Palm Beach, Florida
West Palm Beach is a city in and the county seat of Palm Beach County, United States. It is one of the three cities in South Florida. The population was 100,343 at the 2010 census, the University of Florida Bureau of Economic and Business Research estimates a 2016 population of 108,896, a 7. 9% increase from 2010. It is the oldest municipality in the Miami metropolitan area, having incorporated as a city two years before Miami in November 1894. The estimated population of the Miami Metropolitan area, which all of Palm Beach County, was 6,012,331 people at the 2015 census. The beginning of the period in south Florida is marked by Juan Ponce de Leóns first contact with native people in 1513. When the Spanish arrived, there were perhaps about 20,000 Native Americans in south Florida, by 1763, when the English gained control of Florida, the native peoples had all but been wiped out through war, enslavement, or European diseases. Other native peoples from Alabama and Georgia moved into Florida in the early 18th century and they were of varied ancestry, but Europeans called them all Creeks.
In Florida, they were known as the Seminole and Miccosukee Indians, the Seminoles clashed with American settlers over land and over escaped slaves who found refuge among them. They resisted the efforts to move them to the Indian Territory west of the Mississippi. Between 1818 and 1858, three wars were fought between Seminoles and the United States government, by 1858, there were very few Seminoles remaining in Florida. The area that was to become West Palm Beach was settled in the late 1870s and 1880s by a few hundred settlers who called the vicinity Lake Worth Country and these settlers were a diverse community from different parts of the United States and the world. They included founding families such at the Potters and the Lainharts, most settlers engaged in the growing of tropical fruits and vegetables for shipment the north via Lake Worth and the Indian River. By 1890, the U. S. Census counted over 200 people settled along Lake Worth in the vicinity of what would become West Palm Beach, the area at this time boasted a hotel, the Cocoanut House, a church, and a post office.
Flagler paid two area settlers, Captain Porter and Louie Hillhouse, a sum of $45,000 for the original town site. On November 5,1894,78 people met at the Calaboose and this made West Palm Beach the first incorporated municipality in Dade County and in South Florida. The town council quickly addressed the building codes and the tents and shanties were replaced by brick, brick veneer, in 1909, Palm Beach County was formed by the Florida State Legislature and West Palm Beach became the county seat. In 1916, a new courthouse was opened, which has been painstakingly restored back to its original condition
Real estate bubble
A real estate bubble or property bubble is a type of economic bubble that occurs periodically in local or global real estate markets, typically following a land boom. A land boom is the increase in the market price of real property such as housing until they reach unsustainable levels. The financial crisis of 2007–08 was related to the bursting of real estate bubbles which had begun during the 2000s around the world, Bubbles in housing markets are more critical than stock market bubbles. Historically, equity price busts occur on average every 13 years, lasts for 2.5 years, Housing price busts are less frequent, but last nearly twice as long and lead to output losses that are twice as large. A recent laboratory experimental study shows that, compared to financial markets, real estate markets involve longer boom, as with all types of economic bubbles, disagreement exists over whether or not a real estate bubble can be identified or predicted, perhaps prevented. Speculative bubbles are persistent and increasing deviations of actual prices from their fundamental values, Bubbles can often be hard to identify, even after the fact, due to difficulty in accurately estimating intrinsic values.
In real estate, fundamentals can be estimated from rental yields or based on a regression of actual prices on a set of demand and/or supply variables. Some argue further that governments and central banks can and should take action to prevent bubbles from forming, within mainstream economics, economic bubbles, and in particular real estate bubbles, are not considered major concerns. Within some schools of economics, by contrast, real estate bubbles are considered of critical importance. The pre-dominating economic perspective is that economic bubbles result in a temporary boost in wealth, when prices increase, there is a positive wealth effect, and when they decline, there is a negative wealth effect. These effects can be smoothed by counter-cyclical monetary and fiscal policies, the ultimate effect on owners who bought before the bubble formed and did not sell is zero. Those who bought low and sold high profited, whereas those who bought high. This redistribution of wealth is of little macroeconomic significance and these are argued to cause financial and hence economic crises.
This is first argued empirically – numerous real estate bubbles have been followed by economic slumps, when the bubble bursts, the value of the property decreases but not the level of debt. The burden of repaying or defaulting on the loan depresses aggregate demand, it is argued, the crash of the Japanese asset price bubble from 1990 on has been very damaging to the Japanese economy. The crash in 2005 affected Shanghai, Chinas largest city, in comparison to the stock market bubbles, real estate bubbles take longer to deflate, prices decline slower because the real estate market is less liquid. Therefore, this focuses on housing bubbles and mentions other sectors only when their situation differs. Then U. S. Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan said in mid-2005 that at a minimum, the Economist magazine, writing at the same time, went further, saying the worldwide rise in house prices is the biggest bubble in history
South Sea Company
The South Sea Company was a British joint-stock company founded in 1711, created as a public-private partnership to consolidate and reduce the cost of national debt. The company was granted a monopoly to trade with South America. At the time it was created, Britain was involved in the War of the Spanish Succession, there was no realistic prospect that trade would take place and the company never realised any significant profit from its monopoly. The Bubble Act 1720, which forbade the creation of joint-stock companies without royal charter, was promoted by the South Sea company itself before its collapse. In Great Britain, a number of people were ruined by the share collapse. The founders of the scheme engaged in trading, using their advance knowledge of when national debt was to be consolidated to make large profits from purchasing debt in advance. Huge bribes were given to politicians to support the Acts of Parliament necessary for the scheme, Company money was used to deal in its own shares, and selected individuals purchasing shares were given loans backed by those same shares to spend on purchasing more shares.
The expectation of vast wealth from trade with South America was used to encourage the public to purchase shares, the only significant trade that did take place was in slaves, but the company failed to manage this profitably. A parliamentary enquiry was held after the crash to discover its causes, a number of politicians were disgraced, and people found to have profited unlawfully from the company had assets confiscated proportionate to their gains. The company was restructured and continued to operate for more than a century after the Bubble, the headquarters were in Threadneedle Street at the centre of the financial district in London, today the Bank of England has headquarters on Threadneedle Street. At the time of events the Bank of England was a private company dealing in national debt. In August 1710 Robert Harley was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer in a government of commission, the government at this time had become reliant on the Bank of England. This was a privately owned company, chartered 16 years previously, the government had become dissatisfied with the service it was receiving and Harley was actively seeking new ways to improve the national finances.
The committee included Harley himself, the two Auditors of the Imprests, whose task was to investigate government spending, Harleys brother Edward, Harleys first concern was to find £300,000 for the next quarters pay for the British army operating in Europe under Marlborough. This was provided by a consortium of Edward Gibbon, George Caswall. The Bank of England had been operating a state lottery on behalf of the government, but this had not been successful in 1710. This too was performing poorly, so Harley granted authority to sell tickets to John Blunt, a director of the Hollow Sword Blade Company, with sales commencing on 3 March 1711, tickets had completely sold out by the 7th. This was the first truly successful English state lottery, marketing was handled by members of the Sword Blade syndicate, Gibbon selling £200,000 of tickets and earning £4,500 commission, and Blunt selling £993,000
It stretches from West 42nd to West 47th Streets. One of the worlds busiest pedestrian areas, it is the hub of the Broadway Theater District, Times Square is one of the worlds most visited tourist attractions, drawing an estimated 50 million visitors annually. Approximately 330,000 people pass through Times Square daily, many of them tourists, the southern triangle of Times Square has no specific name, but the northernmost of the two triangles is called Father Duffy Square. Since 2008, the booth has been backed by a red, triangular set of stairs, which is used by people to sit, eat. When Manhattan Island was first settled by the Dutch, three small streams united near what is now 10th Avenue and 40th street and these three streams formed the Great Kill. From there the Great Kill wound through the low-lying Reed Valley, known for fish and waterfowl, the name was retained in a tiny hamlet, Great Kill, that became a center for carriage-making, as the upland to the south and east became known as Longacre.
Before and after the American Revolution, the area belonged to John Morin Scott, scotts manor house was at what is currently 43rd Street, surrounded by countryside used for farming and breeding horses. By 1872, the area had become the center of New Yorks horse carriage industry, the locality had not previously been given a name, and city authorities called it Longacre Square after Long Acre in London, where the horse and carriage trade was centered in that city. William Henry Vanderbilt owned and ran the American Horse Exchange there, in 1910 it became the Winter Garden Theatre. The first theater on the square, the Olympia, was built by cigar manufacturer, by the early 1890s this once sparsely settled stretch of Broadway was ablaze with electric light and thronged by crowds of middle- and upper-class theatre and cafe patrons. In 1904, New York Times publisher Adolph S. Ochs persuaded Mayor George B, mcClellan, Jr. to construct a subway station there, and the area was renamed Times Square on April 8,1904.
Just three weeks later, the first electrified advertisement appeared on the side of a bank at the corner of 46th Street, the north end became Duffy Square, and the former Horse Exchange became the Winter Garden Theatre. The New York Times, according to Nolan, moved to spacious offices west of the square in 1913. The old Times Building was named the Allied Chemical Building in 1963, now known simply as One Times Square, it is famed for the Times Square Ball drop on its roof every New Years Eve. In 1913, the Lincoln Highway Association, headed by entrepreneur Carl G. Fisher, chose the intersection of 42nd Street and Broadway to be the Eastern Terminus of the Lincoln Highway. This was the first road across the United States, which originally spanned 3,389 miles coast-to-coast through 13 states to its terminus in Lincoln Park in San Francisco. Times Square grew dramatically after World War I and it became a cultural hub full of theatres, music halls, and upscale hotels. Times Square quickly became New Yorks agora, a place to gather to await great tidings and to celebrate them, advertising grew significantly in the 1920s, growing from $25 million to $85 million over the decade
New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation.
Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange