Flour is a powder made by grinding raw grains, beans, nuts, or seeds. It is used to make many different foods. Cereal flour is the main ingredient of bread, a staple food for most cultures. Wheat flour is one of the most important ingredients in Oceanic, South American, North American, Middle Eastern, North Indian and North African cultures, is the defining ingredient in their styles of breads and pastries. Wheat is the most common base for flour. Corn flour has been important in Mesoamerican cuisine since ancient times and remains a staple in the Americas. Rye flour is a constituent of bread in central Europe. Cereal flour consists either of the endosperm and bran together or of the endosperm alone. Meal is either differentiable from flour as having coarser particle size or is synonymous with flour. For example, the word cornmeal connotes a grittier texture whereas corn flour connotes fine powder, although there is no codified dividing line; the English word "flour" is a variant of the word "flower" and both words derive from the Old French fleur or flour, which had the literal meaning "blossom", a figurative meaning "the finest".
The phrase "fleur de farine" meant "the finest part of the meal", since flour resulted from the elimination of coarse and unwanted matter from the grain during milling. The earliest archaeological evidence for wheat seeds crushed between simple millstones to make flour dates to 6000 BC; the Romans were the first to grind seeds on cone mills. In 1879, at the beginning of the Industrial Era, the first steam mill was erected in London. In the 1930s, some flour began to be enriched with iron, niacin and riboflavin. In the 1940s, mills started to enrich flour and folic acid was added to the list in the 1990s. An important problem of the industrial revolution was the preservation of flour. Transportation distances and a slow distribution system collided with natural shelf life; the reason for the limited shelf life is the fatty acids of the germ, which react from the moment they are exposed to oxygen. This occurs. Depending on climate and grain quality, this process takes six to nine months. In the late 19th century, this process was too short for an industrial production and distribution cycle.
As vitamins and amino acids were or unknown in the late 19th century, removing the germ was an effective solution. Without the germ, flour cannot become rancid. Degermed flour became standard. Degermation started in densely populated areas and took one generation to reach the countryside. Heat-processed flour is flour where the germ is first separated from the endosperm and bran processed with steam, dry heat or microwave and blended into flour again. Milling of flour is accomplished by grinding grain between stones or steel wheels. Today, "stone-ground" means that the grain has been ground in a mill in which a revolving stone wheel turns over a stationary stone wheel, vertically or horizontally with the grain in between. Roller mills soon replaced stone grist mills as the production of flour has driven technological development, as attempts to make gristmills more productive and less labor-intensive led to the watermill and windmill; these terms are now applied more broadly to uses of water and wind power for purposes other than milling.
More the Unifine mill, an impact-type mill, was developed in the mid-20th century. Home users have begun grinding their own flour from organic wheat berries on a variety of electric flour mills; the grinding process is not much different from grinding coffee but the mills are larger. This provides fresh flour with the benefits of wheat fiber without spoilage. Modern farm equipment allows livestock farmers to do some or all of their own milling when it comes time to convert their own grain crops to coarse meal for livestock feed; this capability is economically important because the profit margins are thin enough in commercial farming that saving expenses is vital to staying in business. Flour contains a high proportion of starches, which are a subset of complex carbohydrates known as polysaccharides; the kinds of flour used in cooking include all-purpose flour, self-rising flour, cake flour including bleached flour. The higher the protein content the harder and stronger the flour, the more it will produce crusty or chewy breads.
The lower the protein the softer the flour, better for cakes and pie crusts. "Bleached flour" is any refined flour with a whitening agent added. "Refined flour" has had the germ and bran removed and is referred to as "white flour". Bleached flour is artificially aged using a maturing agent, or both. A bleaching agent would affect only the carotenoids in the flour. A maturing agent may either weaken gluten development; the four most common additives used as bleaching/maturing agents in the US are: Potassium bromate, listed as an ingredient, is a maturing agent that strengthens gluten development. It does not bleach. Benzoyl peroxide does not act as a maturing agent, it has no effect on gluten. Ascorbic acid is listed as an ingredient, either as an indication that the flour was matured using ascorbic acid or that a small amount is added as a dough enhancer, it is a maturing agent that does not bleach. Chlorine gas is used as a maturing agent, it weakens gluten development and oxidizes sta
Colorado Ballet encompasses a 31-member professional performing ballet company, a studio company for advanced dance students, an Academy, an education and outreach department. Based in downtown Denver, Colorado Ballet serves more than 125,000 patrons each year; the professional company performs at the Ellie Caulkins Opera House in the Denver Performing Arts Complex and one show each year at the Robert and Judi Newman Center for Performing Arts at the University of Denver. Colorado Ballet performs contemporary dance works; the Colorado Ballet Orchestra performs with the Company at the Ellie Caulkins Opera House, either at three or four productions a year. With an annual operating budget exceeding $7.8 million, the company employs more than 150 people on either a full-time or part-time basis during the year. Colorado Ballet received the 2009 Colorado Masterpieces Award; as part of the award, Colorado Ballet toured Colorado in the 2009–2010 season as a part of American Masterpieces: Three Centuries of Artistic Genius initiative, funded by the Colorado Council on the Arts.
Colorado Ballet has performed at the Vail International Dance Festival in 2011, 2015 and 2017. In 2013, Colorado Ballet purchased a building in Denver's Art District on Santa Fe; the company moved to its new location in August 2014. In 1961, Lillian Covillo and Freidann Parker established Colorado Concert Ballet to showcase talented students they had been teaching at their ballet school, their first production, The Nutcracker, played to sold-out houses in Denver's Bonfils Theatre. By 1968, the Company hit the road for its first tour of the state. By 1976, Colorado Concert Ballet produced 33 performances of The Nutcracker and three other productions that season. By October of that year, Colorado Concert ballet achieved full professional status with a total roster of eight professional dancers. Two years the Board of Trustees changed the Company’s name to Colorado Ballet. In 1987, Parker and Covillo conducted a nationwide search, at their own expense, for a new artistic director. With their choice of Martin Fredmann, they changed the course of Colorado Ballet.
That year, a lagging economy in Denver forced Colorado Ballet to look at an emerging national trend among dance companies and as a result entered into an alliance with Tampa Ballet. Colorado Ballet and Tampa Ballet joined forces, performing 18 weeks in Denver; the partnership remained successful for three years, in 1990, the Board of Trustees decided to the dissolve the alliance and move the Company permanently to Denver. In 1993, Colorado Ballet made its New York debut to favorable reviews. In 1995, the Company formed Colorado Ballet II, now known as Colorado Ballet’s Studio Company. By the time the Company celebrated its 40th anniversary in the early 2000s, the organization’s annual budget had grown to $5.1 million, with 30 professional dancers, 20 apprentices and an Academy with 250 students. In March 2006, Gil Boggs, former principal dancer with American Ballet Theatre, was hired as the new artistic director. After more than two decades of leasing a space near the Colorado State Capitol, Colorado Ballet purchased a building at the north end of Denver’s Art District on Santa Fe in 2013.
The Company renovated the space and moved into its new home in August 2014. During the 2016-2017 season, Colorado Ballet’s ticketing revenue exceeded more than $4 million for the first time and more than 87,000 people watched Colorado Ballet’s productions. In December 2016, Colorado Ballet's The Nutcracker was named the best-loved Nutcracker in the 10th Annual Goldstar National Nutcracker Award contest, winning this coveted honor in a field that included more than 80 other productions throughout the U. S; the artistic leadership of the Colorado Ballet includes: Artistic Director: Gil Boggs, former principal dancer of American Ballet Theatre Ballet Mistresses: Lorita Travaglia, Sandra Brown Music Director/Principal Conductor: Adam Flatt Associate Conductor: Catherine Sailer Company Pianist: Natalia Arefieva Academy Principal: Erica Fischbach Colorado Ballet consists of 33 professional dancers from around the world: Dana Benton Chandra Kuykendall Domenico Luciano Yosvani Ramos Asuka Sasaki Morgan Buchanan Francisco Estevez Tracy Jones Christophor Moulton Kevin Gaël Thomas The Studio Company is a pre-professional training program.
The program is designed to offer young dancers training and experience working with the professional company. Colorado Ballet's 2018-2019 season will open on October 5, 2018. Sleeping Beauty The Nutcracker The Wizard of Oz Tour de Force Ballet MasterWorks: Carmina Burana Colorado Ballet's 2017-2018 season opened on October 6, 2017. Dracula The Nutcracker Romeo and Juliet Ballet Director's Choice Colorado Ballet's 2016-2017 season opened on October 7, 2016. Swan Lake (choreography after Marius Petipa and Lev Ivanov set and updated by former American Ballet Theatre principals Amanda McKerrow and John Gardner and
Karaoke is a British television drama written by Dennis Potter with the knowledge that he was dying from cancer of the pancreas. It forms the first half of a pair with the serial Cold Lazarus; the two plays were filmed as a single production by the same team. The series was said to be inspired by Potter's working relationship with Louise Germaine. Both plays were unique in being co-productions between the BBC and rival broadcaster Channel 4, something Potter had expressly requested before his death; the show was first aired on BBC1 in April 1996 on Sunday evenings, with a repeat on Channel 4 the following day. The series stars Albert Finney, Richard E. Grant, Hywel Bennett, Roy Hudd and Julie Christie and features Saffron Burrows and Keeley Hawes in two early screen appearances; the principal character of Karaoke is Daniel Feeld, an English playwright in late middle-age, working on the television production of his latest play, itself entitled Karaoke. The play concerns the relationship between a young woman, Sandra Sollars, her boyfriend Peter Beasley and Arthur'Pig' Mailion, the owner of the sleazy karaoke/hostess bar where Sandra works.
One evening, while sitting in a restaurant, Feeld becomes convinced that a couple at a nearby table who resemble the fictional Sandra and Peter are repeating lines of dialogue from the play. Daniel encounters the young woman and discovers that her name is indeed Sandra, that she works in a club owned by one Arthur Mailion, he relates the coincidence to a frightened Sandra. Daniel subsequently relates the story to his agent Ben Baglin and producer Anna Griffiths, who assume that Daniel's apparent paranoia is due to his worsening health through heavy drinking and smoking. Daniel discovers a credit card in Sandra's handbag. After using the card to determine her address, he visits her home in order to return the bag, but first removes the pistol, he discovers that Sandra was carrying the pistol because of her intention to avenge a savage attack on her mother carried out by Mailion years earlier. Disturbed by the possibility that the death of the fictional Sandra in his play may come true in real life, Daniel decides to change his play.
Meanwhile, having discovered the existence of the real Mailion, Anna discusses with the play's director, Nick Balmer the possibility of changing Mailion's name in order to avoid litigation. Nick has been conducting an affair with Linda Langer, the actress who plays Sandra in the film version of Karaoke, but is the intended victim of a blackmail plot hatched by Linda and Mailion, he dismisses the attempt, is beaten up by Mailion's thugs, confesses all to his wife, Lady Balmer, with whom he is reconciled. Daniel told he has only weeks to live, he changes his will, leaving his body to an experimental cryogenics laboratory, offering a generous portion of his estate to Sandra and her mother, on the condition that Sandra ceases working at the club and renounces her intention to kill Mailion. Sandra agrees. One night, he leaves the hospital, taking the pistol with him, visits Mailion's club, where he performs a striking version of "Pennies from Heaven" before shooting Mailion dead in his office and arranging an alibi with the unsuspecting Baglin to cover up the murder.
Karaoke on IMDb