A flowchart is a type of diagram that represents a workflow or process. A flowchart can be defined as a diagrammatic representation of an algorithm, a step-by-step approach to solving a task; the flowchart shows the steps as boxes of various kinds, their order by connecting the boxes with arrows. This diagrammatic representation illustrates a solution model to a given problem. Flowcharts are used in analyzing, documenting or managing a process or program in various fields. Flowcharts are used in documenting simple processes or programs. Like other types of diagrams, they help visualize what is going on and thereby help understand a process, also find less-obvious features within the process, like flaws and bottlenecks. There are different types of flowcharts: each type has its own set of boxes and notations; the two most common types of boxes in a flowchart are: a processing step called activity, denoted as a rectangular box. A decision denoted as a diamond. A flowchart is described as "cross-functional" when the chart is divided into different vertical or horizontal parts, to describe the control of different organizational units.
A symbol appearing in a particular part is within the control of that organizational unit. A cross-functional flowchart allows the author to locate the responsibility for performing an action or making a decision, to show the responsibility of each organizational unit for different parts of a single process. Flowcharts depict certain aspects of processes and are complemented by other types of diagram. For instance, Kaoru Ishikawa defined the flowchart as one of the seven basic tools of quality control, next to the histogram, Pareto chart, check sheet, control chart, cause-and-effect diagram, the scatter diagram. In UML, a standard concept-modeling notation used in software development, the activity diagram, a type of flowchart, is just one of many different diagram types. Nassi-Shneiderman diagrams and Drakon-charts are an alternative notation for process flow. Common alternative names include: flow chart, process flowchart, functional flowchart, process map, process chart, functional process chart, business process model, process model, process flow diagram, work flow diagram, business flow diagram.
The terms "flowchart" and "flow chart" are used interchangeably. The underlying graph structure of a flowchart is a flow graph, which abstracts away node types, their contents and other ancillary information; the first structured method for documenting process flow, the "flow process chart", was introduced by Frank and Lillian Gilbreth in the presentation "Process Charts: First Steps in Finding the One Best Way to do Work", to members of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers in 1921. The Gilbreths' tools found their way into industrial engineering curricula. In the early 1930s, an industrial engineer, Allan H. Mogensen began to train business people in the use of some of the tools of industrial engineering at his Work Simplification Conferences in Lake Placid, New York. Art Spinanger, a 1944 graduate of Mogensen's class, took the tools back to Procter and Gamble where he developed their Deliberate Methods Change Program. Ben S. Graham, another 1944 graduate, Director of Formcraft Engineering at Standard Register Industrial, applied the flow process chart to information processing with his development of the multi-flow process chart, to present multiple documents and their relationships.
In 1947, ASME adopted a symbol set derived from Gilbreth's original work as the "ASME Standard: Operation and Flow Process Charts."Douglas Hartree in 1949 explained that Herman Goldstine and John von Neumann had developed a flowchart to plan computer programs. His contemporary account was endorsed by Goldstine's personal recollections; the original programming flowcharts of Goldstine and von Neumann can be found in their unpublished report, "Planning and coding of problems for an electronic computing instrument, Part II, Volume 1", reproduced in von Neumann's collected works. The flowchart became a popular tool for describing computer algorithms, but its popularity decreased in the 1970s, when interactive computer terminals and third-generation programming languages became common tools for computer programming, since algorithms can be expressed more concisely as source code in such languages. Pseudo-code is used, which uses the common idioms of such languages without adhering to the details of a particular one.
Nowadays flowcharts are still used for describing computer algorithms. Modern techniques such as UML activity diagrams and Drakon-charts can be considered to be extensions of the flowchart. Sterneckert suggested that flowcharts can be modeled from the perspective of different user groups, that there are four general types: Document flowcharts, showing controls over a document-flow through a system Data flowcharts, showing controls over a data-flow in a system System flowcharts, showing controls at a physical or resource level Program flowchart, showing the controls in a program within a systemNotice that every type of flowchart focuses on some kind of control, rather than on the particular flow itself. However, there are some different classifications. For example, Andrew Veronis named three basic types of flowcharts: the system flowchart, the general flowchart, the detailed flowchart; that same year Marilyn Bohl stated "in practice, two kinds of flowcharts are used in solution planning: system flowcharts and program flowcharts...".
More Mark A. Fryman identified more differences: "Decision flowcharts, logic flowcharts, systems flowcharts, product flowcharts, process flowcha
Scruton is a village and civil parish in the Hambleton district of North Yorkshire, England. It is 4 miles west of Northallerton. According to the 2001 census the village had a population of 442, decreasing to 424 at the 2011 census; the name Scruton derives from a mixture of Old English and Old Norse meaning Scurfa's farm or Scurfa's settlement. Scurfa was believed to have been a Viking chieftain. Scruton is a Thankful Village, one of few English villages that lost no men in the First World War. In 1953, the last owner of the estate in Scruton, Mrs Marion Evelyn Coore and the whole 1,100-acre estate including the pub, village shop, five farms and associated houses were put up for sale; the auction was held in the Golden Lion Hotel in Northallerton. Scruton Hall was bought by a timber company for the wood within the house and after a few years in decay, was demolished in 1956. Amenities in Scruton include the pub, the village hall and the Church of England St. Radegund's church which are all venues for village activities.
St. Radegund's hosts Church of England services each week, it provides an acoustic venue for concerts and hosts other occasional village events. The mediaeval church, restored by architect George Fowler Jones in 1865, is a grade II* listed building and one of only five churches in England dedicated to St Radegund; the village hall is home to Scruton Karate Club, Scruton craft circle and keep fit and Scruton Toddler Group, activities that take place every week. It is home to monthly domino drives, frequent Scruton Society meetings, bi-monthly parish council meetings and meetings for other clubs and societies in the village. Scruton has many outdoor venues. Scruton Playing Field provides villagers with a tennis court, children's play equipment and a football pitch; the playing field is home to Scruton Football Club. Adjacent to the playing field is Scruton Cricket Club, with both seniors and juniors teams at the club and weekly coaching sessions. Scruton has an extensive network of public rights of way.
These are being maintained by the parish council with funding from North Yorkshire County Council and the support of local landowners. Scruton has many other events in its calendar including the annual Safari Supper, bi-annual Open Gardens and Scarecrow Trail and an annual Harvest Walk. Scruton railway station closed down long ago but a project, in partnership with the Wensleydale Railway and the Wensleydale Railway Trust reopened the station in spring 2014. A survey of the station in 2000 by specialist railway engineers rated Scruton station as a uniquely well preserved example of the type, now lost in England. Official website Scruton Allotments Website Scruton Karate Club Website Scruton Ladies Football Club Website YouTube Video of Scruton Railway Station YouTube video of the Scruton station platform extension
EMI Records Limited was a British record label founded by the music company of the same name in 1972 as its flagship label, launched in January 1973 as the successor to its Columbia and Parlophone record labels. The label was launched worldwide, it has a branch in India called "EMI Records India", run by director Mohit Suri. An E. M. I. Records Ltd. legal entity was created in 1956 as the record manufacturing and distribution arm of EMI in the UK. It oversaw EMI's various labels, including The Gramophone Co. Ltd. Columbia Graphophone Company, Parlophone Co. Ltd; the global success that EMI enjoyed in the 1960s exposed the fact that the company had the rights to only some of its trademarks in some parts of the world, most notably His Master's Voice and Columbia, with RCA Victor Records and the American Columbia Records owning the rights to these trademarks in North America. Complicating matters was Columbia's formation of its own operations in the UK by purchasing Oriole Records and changing its name to that of its then-parent company CBS, as CBS Records International becoming successful, a serious rival to EMI, in the UK.
In July 1965, the standalone EMI Record labels were extracted from E. M. I. Records Ltd. and folded into The Gramophone Company Ltd. On 1 July 1973, The Gramophone Co. Ltd. was renamed EMI Records Ltd. At the same time, E. M. I. Records Ltd. was wound down and its activities were absorbed into EMI Records Ltd. Earlier, on 1 January 1973, all of The Gramophone Company Ltd. pop labels had been rebranded as EMI. EMI Records signed new musical acts that became global successes: Kraftwerk, Queen, Olivia Newton-John, Iron Maiden, Kate Bush, Sheena Easton, Pink Floyd, Robbie Williams. In 1978, EMI launched EMI America Records as its second label in the United States after Capitol, in 1988, EMI America merged with sister label Manhattan Records, founded in 1984, becoming EMI Manhattan Records and EMI USA when Capitol absorbed it in 1990. In 1997, EMI Records' American division was folded into Virgin Records and Capitol. In 2010, EMI Records opened a country music division, EMI Records Nashville, which includes on its roster Troy Olsen, Alan Jackson, Kelleigh Bannen, Eric Church.
EMI Records Nashville is a sister label to the Capitol Nashville unit of Universal Music Group. Australia's most prolific artist, Slim Dusty, signed with the Columbia Graphophone Co. for Regal Zonophone Records in 1946 and remained with EMI until his death in 2003, selling over 7 million records for the label in Australia by 2007. Virgin EMI Records retains use of the EMI branding after Universal Music Group's acquisition of EMI in September 2012, but it is otherwise unrelated to the old label, defunct and renamed Parlophone Records in 2013 and is now part of Warner Music Group. EMI Christian Music Group was renamed Capitol Christian Music Group. EMI Classics was sold to Warner Music Group in February 2013. After EU regulatory approval, EMI Classics was absorbed into Warner Classics in July 2013; the reissues from EMI America and EMI Records USA are handled by UMG's Capitol Music Group, Virgin Records' American distributor and a stand-alone British distributor. US distributors of the EMI Records UK catalogue are Warner Records and Rhino Entertainment.
In Japan, Universal Music Japan did a label reorganization in February 2014, with more than half of the EMI Records Japan artists being transferred to Nayutawave Records, renaming to just EMI Records. Abbey Road Studios List of record labels