Stop motion is an animated-film making technique in which objects are physically manipulated in small increments between individually photographed frames so that they will appear to exhibit independent motion when the series of frames is played back as a fast sequence. Dolls with movable joints or clay figures are used in stop motion for their ease of repositioning. Stop-motion animation using plasticine figures is called clay animation or "clay-mation". Not all stop motion, requires figures or models: stop-motion films can be made using humans, household appliances, other objects for comedic effect. Stop motion using humans is sometimes referred to as pixilate animation; the term "stop motion," relating to the animation technique, is spelled with a hyphen as "stop-motion." Both orthographical variants and without the hyphen, are correct, but the hyphenated one has a second meaning, unrelated to animation or cinema: "a device for automatically stopping a machine or engine when something has gone wrong".
Stop motion should not be confused with the time-lapse technique in which still photographs of a live scene are taken at regular intervals and combined to make a continuous film. Time lapse is a technique whereby the frequency at which film frames are captured is much lower than that used to view the sequence; when played at normal speed, time appears to be moving faster. Stop-motion animation has a long history in film, it was used to show objects moving as if by magic, but by animation. The first instance of the stop-motion technique can be credited to Albert E. Smith and J. Stuart Blackton for Vitagraph's The Humpty Dumpty Circus, in which a toy circus of acrobats and animals comes to life. In 1902, the film Fun in a Bakery Shop used the stop trick technique in the "lightning sculpting" sequence. French trick film maestro Georges Méliès used stop-motion animation once to produce moving title-card letters in one of his short films, a number of his special effects are based on stop-motion photography.
In 1907, The Haunted Hotel is a new stop-motion film by J. Stuart Blackton, was a resounding success when released. Segundo de Chomón, from Spain, released El Hotel Eléctrico that same year, used similar techniques as the Blackton film. In 1908, A Sculptor's Welsh Rarebit Nightmare was released, as was The Sculptor's Nightmare, a film by Billy Bitzer. Italian animator Roméo Bossetti impressed audiences with his object animation tour-de-force, The Automatic Moving Company in 1912; the great European pioneer of stop motion was Wladyslaw Starewicz, who animated The Beautiful Lukanida, The Battle of the Stag Beetles, The Ant and the Grasshopper. One of the earliest clay animation films was Modelling Extraordinary, which impressed audiences in 1912. December 1916 brought the first of Willie Hopkins' 54 episodes of "Miracles in Mud" to the big screen. In December 1916, the first woman animator, Helena Smith Dayton, began experimenting with clay stop motion, she would release her first film in an adaptation of William Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet.
In the turn of the century, there was another well known animator known as Willis O' Brien. His work on The Lost World is well known, but he is most admired for his work on King Kong, a milestone of his films made possible by stop-motion animation. O'Brien's protege and eventual successor in Hollywood was Ray Harryhausen. After learning under O'Brien on the film Mighty Joe Young, Harryhausen would go on to create the effects for a string of successful and memorable films over the next three decades; these included The Beast from 20,000 Fathoms, It Came from Beneath the Sea and the Argonauts, The Golden Voyage of Sinbad and Clash of the Titans. In a 1940 promotional film, Autolite, an automotive parts supplier, featured stop-motion animation of its products marching past Autolite factories to the tune of Franz Schubert's Military March. An abbreviated version of this sequence was used in television ads for Autolite those on the 1950s CBS program Suspense, which Autolite sponsored. In the 1960s and 1970s, independent clay animator Eliot Noyes Jr. refined the technique of "free-form" clay animation with his Oscar-nominated 1965 film Clay.
Noyes used stop motion to animate sand lying on glass for his musical animated film Sandman. Stop motion was used by Rankin/Bass Productions on some of their television programs and feature films including The New Adventures of Pinocchio, Willy McBean and his Magic Machine and most notably seasonal/holiday favorites like Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer, Mad Monster Party?, The Little Drummer Boy, Santa Claus is Comin' to Town and Here Comes Peter Cottontail. Under the name of "Animagic", the stop-motion works of Rankin/Bass were supervised by Tadahito Mochinaga at his MOM Production in Tokyo, Japan. In 1975, filmmaker and clay animation experimenter Will Vinton joined with sculptor Bob Gardiner to create an experimental film called Closed Mondays which became the world's first stop-motion film to win an Oscar. Will Vinton followed with several other successful short film experiments including The Great Cognito and Rip Van Winkle which were each nominated for Academy Awards. In 1977, Vinton made a documentary about this process and his style of animation which he dubbed "claymation".
Soon after this documentary, the term was trademarked by Vinton to differentiate his team's work from others who had been, or were beginning to do, "clay ani
A hedgehog is any of the spiny mammals of the subfamily Erinaceinae, in the eulipotyphlan family Erinaceidae. There are seventeen species of hedgehog in five genera found through parts of Europe and Africa, in New Zealand by introduction. There are no living species native to the Americas. Hedgehogs share distant ancestry with shrews, with gymnures being the intermediate link, they have changed little over the last 15 million years. Like many of the first mammals, they have adapted to a nocturnal way of life, their spiny protection resembles that of the unrelated porcupines, which are rodents, echidnas, a type of monotreme. The name hedgehog came into use around the year 1450, derived from the Middle English heyghoge, from heyg, because it frequents hedgerows, hoge, from its piglike snout. Other names include urchin and furze-pig. Hedgehogs are recognized by their spines, which are hollow hairs made stiff with keratin, their spines are not poisonous or barbed and unlike the quills of a porcupine, do not detach from their bodies.
However, the immature animal's spines fall out as they are replaced with adult spines. This is called "quilling". Spines can shed when the animal is diseased or under extreme stress. A defense that all species of hedgehogs possess is the ability to roll into a tight ball, causing all of the spines to point outwards; the hedgehog's back contains two large muscles. When the creature is rolled into a ball, the quills on the back protect the tucked face and belly, which are not quilled. Since the effectiveness of this strategy depends on the number of spines, some desert hedgehogs that evolved to carry less weight are more to flee or attack, ramming an intruder with the spines; the various species are prey to different predators: while forest hedgehogs are prey to birds and ferrets, smaller species like the long-eared hedgehog are prey to foxes and mongooses. Hedgehogs are nocturnal, though some species can be active during the day. Hedgehogs sleep for a large portion of the day under bushes, rocks, or most in dens dug in the ground, with varying habits among the species.
All wild hedgehogs can hibernate, though not all do, depending on temperature and abundance of food. Hedgehogs are vocal and communicate through a combination of grunts, snuffles and/or squeals, depending on species. Hedgehogs perform a ritual called anointing; when the animal encounters a new scent, it will lick and bite the source form a scented froth in its mouth and paste it on its spines with its tongue. The purpose of this habit is unknown, but some experts believe anointing camouflages the hedgehog with the new scent of the area and provides a possible poison or source of infection to predators poked by their spines. Anointing is sometimes called anting because of a similar behavior in birds. Like opossums and moles, hedgehogs have some natural immunity against some snake venom through the protein erinacin in the animal's muscular system, although it is available only in small amounts and a viper bite may still be fatal. In addition, hedgehogs are one of four known mammalian groups with mutations that protect against another snake venom, α-neurotoxin.
Pigs, honey badgers and hedgehogs all have mutations in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor that prevent the snake venom α-neurotoxin from binding, though those mutations developed separately and independently. The olfactory regions have not been studied in the hedgehog. In mammals, the olfactory part of the brain is covered by neopallium; this difficulty is not insurmountable. Tests have suggested. Although traditionally classified in the now abandoned order Insectivora, hedgehogs are omnivorous, they feed on insects, snails and toads, bird eggs, mushrooms, grass roots, berries and watermelons. Berries constitute a major part of an Afghan hedgehog's diet in early spring after hibernation. During hibernation, the body temperature of a hedgehog can decrease to about 2 °C; when the animal awakes from hibernation, the body temperature rises from 2–5 °C back to its normal 30–35 °C body temperature. Depending on the species, the gestation period is 35–58 days; the average litter is 5 -- 6 for smaller ones.
As with many animals, it is not unusual for an adult male hedgehog to kill newborn males. Hedgehogs have a long lifespan for their size. Larger species of hedgehogs live 4–7 years in the wild, smaller species live 2–4 years, compared to a mouse at 2 years and a large rat at 3–5 years. Lack of predators and controlled diet contribute to a longer lifespan in captivity. Hedgehogs are born blind with a protective membrane covering their quills, which dries and shrinks over the next several hours; the quills emerge through the skin after they have been cleaned. Hedgehog bones have been found in the pellets of the European eagle owl. In Britain, the main predator is the badger. European hedgehog populations in the United Kingdom are lower in areas where badgers are numerous, British hedgehog rescue societies will not release hedgehogs into known badger territories. Badgers compete with hedgehogs for food; the most common p
Maria Bird was born Mary Edith Bird on 24 August 1891 in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa and died in the village where she lived for most of her life, Kent, England on 25 August 1979, aged 88. She is a descendant of Francis Bird the sculptor and Colonel Christopher Bird, Colonial Secretary at Cape Town Castle, her mother brought her children from South Africa to the UK to be educated and Maria attended a Scottish convent. Following school, she studied the Dalcroze Eurhythmics music and dance method under Émile Jaques-Dalcroze in Dessau. Maria Bird helped found BBC Children's Television with her collaborator and partner Freda Lingstrom with whom she set up Westerham Arts, the production company commissioned by the BBC to produce TV pieces including The Woodentops and Ben the Flower Pot Men and Andy Pandy. Westerham Arts was based in Chartwell Cottage, it neighbours the Chartwell Estate. Maria and Freda built a shed in their garden. In addition to TV production she was a writer and musician. Maria Bird Biography at IMdb
Magpies are birds of the Corvidae family. The black and white Eurasian magpie is considered one of the most intelligent animals in the world and one of only a few non-mammal species able to recognize itself in a mirror test. In addition to other members of the genus Pica, corvids considered as magpies are in the genera Cissa. Magpies of the genus Pica are found in temperate regions of Europe and western North America, with populations present in Tibet and high elevation areas of India, i.e. Ladakh and Pakistan. Magpies of the genus Cyanopica are found in East Asia and the Iberian peninsula; the birds called. According to some studies, magpies do not form the monophyletic group they are traditionally believed to be—a long tail has elongated independently in multiple lineages of corvid birds. Among the traditional magpies, there appear to be two distinct lineages. One consists of Holarctic species with black/white colouration and is closely related to crows and Eurasian jays; the other contains several species from South to East Asia with vivid colouration, predominantly green or blue.
The azure-winged magpie and the Iberian magpie thought to constitute a single species with a most peculiar distribution, have been shown to be two distinct species and classified as the genus Cyanopica. Other research has cast doubt on the taxonomy of the Pica magpies, since it appears that P. hudsonia and P. nuttalli may not be different species, whereas the Korean race of P. pica is genetically distinct from the other Eurasian forms. Either the North American and remaining Eurasian forms are accepted as three or four separate species, or there exists only a single species, Pica pica. Holarctic magpies Genus Pica Eurasian magpie, Pica pica Black-billed magpie, Pica hudsonia Yellow-billed magpie, Pica nuttalli Asir magpie, Pica asirensis Maghreb magpie, Pica mauritanica Korean magpie, Pica sericea Oriental magpies Genus Urocissa Taiwan blue magpie, Urocissa caerulea Red-billed blue magpie, Urocissa erythrorhyncha Yellow-billed blue magpie, Urocissa flavirostris White-winged magpie, Urocissa whiteheadi Sri Lanka blue magpie, Urocissa ornata Genus Cissa Common green magpie, Cissa chinensis Indochinese green magpie, Cissa hypoleuca Javan green magpie, Cissa thalassina Bornean green magpie, Cissa jefferyiAzure-winged magpies Genus Cyanopica Azure-winged magpie, Cyanopica cyanus Iberian magpie, Cyanopica cooki The black magpie, Platysmurus leucopterus, is a treepie.
Treepies are a distinct group of corvids externally similar to magpies. The Australian magpie, Gymnorhina tibicen, is conspicuously “pied”, with black and white plumage reminiscent of a European magpie, it is a member of not a corvid. In East Asian culture, magpie is a popular kind of bird, it is a symbol of good fortune. Magpie is a common subject in Chinese painting, it is often found in traditional Chinese poetry and couplets. In addition, in the folklore of China, all the magpies of the Qixi Festival every year will fly to the Tianhe River, set up a bridge, the separation of the Cowherd and the Weaver Girl will meet, so in the Chinese culture, the bridge becomes a relationship between men and women; the Korean magpie is a national bird and national symbol of Korea, sometimes referred to as Asian magpie or Chinese magpie. Magpies have an important place in the birth myth of Ai Xinjue Luo Bukuri Yushun, the ancestor of the Qing Dynasty. Ericson, Per G. P.. Journal of Avian Biology 36: 222–234. Lee, Sang-im.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 29: 250–257. Song, S.. G. P.. "Complete taxon sampling of the avian genus Pica reveals ancient relictual populations and synchronous Late-Pleistocene demographic expansion across the Northern Hemisphere". Journal of Avian Biology. Doi:10.1111/jav.01612. Magpie videos and sounds on the Internet Bird Collection
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, it employs over 20,950 staff in total. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed-contract staff are included; the BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, charged to all British households and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up; the fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has funded the BBC World Service, which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, online services in Arabic and Persian.
Around a quarter of BBC revenues come from its commercial arm BBC Studios Ltd, which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. From its inception, through the Second World War, to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British culture, it is known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both. Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920, it was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts.
But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast; the company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform and entertain"; the financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee.
The Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired; the BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee. By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise.
The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis; the crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the Government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently; the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives in a manner of its own choosing; the resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment
The tomato is the edible red, berry of the plant Solanum lycopersicum known as a tomato plant. The species originated in western South America; the Nahuatl word tomatl gave rise to the Spanish word tomate, from which the English word tomato derived. Its use as a cultivated food may have originated with the indigenous peoples of Mexico; the Spanish encountered the tomato from their contact with the Aztec during the Spanish colonization of the Americas and brought it to Europe. From there, the tomato was introduced to other parts of the European-colonized world during the 16th century; the tomato is consumed in diverse ways, raw or cooked, in many dishes, sauces and drinks. While tomatoes are fruits — botanically classified as berries — they are used as a vegetable ingredient or side dish. Numerous varieties of the tomato plant are grown in temperate climates across the world, with greenhouses allowing for the production of tomatoes throughout all seasons of the year. Tomato plants grow to 1–3 meters in height.
They are vines that have a weak stem that sprawls and needs support. Indeterminate tomato plants are cultivated as annuals. Determinate, or bush, plants are annuals that stop growing at a certain height and produce a crop all at once; the size of the tomato varies according to the cultivar, with a range of 0.5–4 inches in width. The word "tomato" comes from the Spanish tomate, which in turn comes from the Nahuatl word tomatl, meaning "the swelling fruit"; the native Mexican tomatillo is tomate. When Aztecs started to cultivate the Andean fruit to be larger and red, they called the new species xitomatl; the scientific species epithet lycopersicum is interpreted from Latin in the 1753 book, Species Plantarum, as "wolfpeach", where wolf is from lyco and peach is from persicum. The usual pronunciations of "tomato" are and; the word's dual pronunciations were immortalized in Ira and George Gershwin's 1937 song "Let's Call the Whole Thing Off" and have become a symbol for nitpicking pronunciation disputes.
In this capacity, it has become an American and British slang term: saying "" when presented with two choices can mean "What's the difference?" or "It's all the same to me". Botanically, a tomato is a fruit—a berry, consisting of the ovary, together with its seeds, of a flowering plant. However, the tomato is considered a "culinary vegetable" because it has a much lower sugar content than culinary fruits. Tomatoes are not the only food source with this ambiguity; this has led to legal dispute in the United States. In 1887, U. S. tariff laws that imposed a duty on vegetables, but not on fruit, caused the tomato's status to become a matter of legal importance. The U. S. Supreme Court settled this controversy on May 10, 1893, by declaring that the tomato is a vegetable, based on the popular definition that classifies vegetables by use—they are served with dinner and not dessert; the holding of this case applies only to the interpretation of the Tariff of 1883, the court did not purport to reclassify the tomato for botanical or other purposes.
Tomato plants are vines decumbent growing 180 cm or more above the ground if supported, although erect bush varieties have been bred 100 cm tall or shorter. Indeterminate types are "tender" perennials, dying annually in temperate climates, although they can live up to three years in a greenhouse in some cases. Determinate types are annual in all climates. Tomato plants are dicots, grow as a series of branching stems, with a terminal bud at the tip that does the actual growing; when that tip stops growing, whether because of pruning or flowering, lateral buds take over and grow into other functional, vines. Tomato vines are pubescent, meaning covered with fine short hairs; these hairs facilitate the vining process, turning into roots wherever the plant is in contact with the ground and moisture if the vine's connection to its original root has been damaged or severed. Most tomato plants have compound leaves, are called regular leaf plants, but some cultivars have simple leaves known as potato leaf style because of their resemblance to that particular relative.
Of RL plants, there are variations, such as rugose leaves, which are grooved, variegated, angora leaves, which have additional colors where a genetic mutation causes chlorophyll to be excluded from some portions of the leaves. The leaves are 10–25 cm long, odd pinnate, with five to 9 leaflets on petioles, each leaflet up to 8 cm long, with a serrated margin, their flowers, appearing on the apical meristem, have the anthers fused along the edges, forming a column surrounding the pistil's style. Flowers in domestic cultivars can be self-fertilizing; the flowers are 1–2 cm across, with five pointed lobes on the corolla. Tomato fruit is classified as a berry; as a true fruit, it develops from the ovary of the plant after fertilization, its flesh comprising
Tortoises are reptile species of the family Testudinidae of the order Testudines. They are distinguished from other turtles by being land-dwelling, while many other turtle species are at least aquatic. However, like other turtles, tortoises have a shell to protect from other threats; the shell in tortoises is hard, like other members of the suborder Cryptodira, they retract their necks and heads directly backwards into the shell to protect them. Tortoises are unique among vertebrates in that the pectoral and pelvic girdles are inside the ribcage rather than outside. Tortoises can vary in dimension from a few centimeters to two meters, they are diurnal animals with tendencies to be crepuscular depending on the ambient temperatures. They are reclusive animals. Tortoises are the longest living land animal in the world, although the longest living species of tortoise is a matter of debate. Galápagos tortoises are noted to live over 150 years, but an Aldabra giant tortoise named Adwaita may have been the longest living at an estimated 255 years.
In general, most tortoise species can live 80–150 years. Differences exist in usage of the common terms turtle and terrapin, depending on the variety of English being used; these terms do not reflect precise biological or taxonomic distinctions. The American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists uses "turtle" to describe all species of the order Testudines, regardless of whether they are land-dwelling or sea-dwelling, uses "tortoise" as a more specific term for slow-moving terrestrial species. General American usage agrees. In America, for example, the members of the genus Terrapene dwell on land, yet are referred to as box turtles rather than tortoises. British usage, by contrast, tends not to use "turtle" as a generic term for all members of the order, applies the term "tortoises" broadly to all land-dwelling members of the order Testudines, regardless of whether they are members of the family Testudinidae. In Britain, terrapin is used to refer to a larger group of semiaquatic turtles than the restricted meaning in America.
Australian usage is different from both British usage. Land tortoises are not native to Australia, yet traditionally freshwater turtles have been called "tortoises" in Australia; some Australian experts disapprove of this usage—believing that the term tortoises is "better confined to purely terrestrial animals with different habits and needs, none of which are found in this country"—and promote the use of the term "freshwater turtle" to describe Australia's aquatic members of the order Testudines because it avoids misleading use of the word "tortoise" and is a useful distinction from marine turtles. Most species of tortoises lay small clutch sizes exceeding 20 eggs, many species have clutch sizes of only 1–2 eggs. Incubation is characteristically long in most species, the average incubation period are between 100 and 160 days. Egg-laying occurs at night, after which the mother tortoise covers her clutch with sand and organic material; the eggs are left unattended, depending on the species, take from 60 to 120 days to incubate.
The size of the egg depends on the size of the mother and can be estimated by examining the width of the cloacal opening between the carapace and plastron. The plastron of a female tortoise has a noticeable V-shaped notch below the tail which facilitates passing the eggs. Upon completion of the incubation period, a formed hatchling uses an egg tooth to break out of its shell, it begins a life of survival on its own. They are hatched with an embryonic egg sac which serves as a source of nutrition for the first three to seven days until they have the strength and mobility to find food. Juvenile tortoises require a different balance of nutrients than adults, so may eat foods which a more mature tortoise would not. For example, the young of a herbivorous species will consume worms or insect larvae for additional protein; the number of concentric rings on the carapace, much like the cross-section of a tree, can sometimes give a clue to how old the animal is, since the growth depends on the accessibility of food and water, a tortoise that has access to plenty of forage with no seasonal variation will have no noticeable rings.
Moreover, some tortoises grow more than one ring per season, in some others, due to wear, some rings are no longer visible. Tortoises have one of the longest lifespans of any animal, some individuals are known to have lived longer than 150 years; because of this, they symbolize longevity in some cultures, such as China. The oldest tortoise recorded, one of the oldest individual animals recorded, was Tu'i Malila, presented to the Tongan royal family by the British explorer Captain Cook shortly after its birth in 1777. Tu'i Malila remained in the care of the Tongan royal family until its death by natural causes on May 19, 1965, at the age of 188; the record for the longest-lived vertebrate is exceeded only by one other, a koi named Hanako whose death on July 17, 1977, ended a 226-year lifespan. The Alipore Zoo in India was the home to Adwaita, which zoo officials claimed was the oldest living animal until