Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States. It began as a British colony in 1733, the last and southernmost of the original Thirteen Colonies to be established. Named after King George II of Great Britain, the Province of Georgia covered the area from South Carolina south to Spanish Florida and west to French Louisiana at the Mississippi River. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788. In 1802–1804, western Georgia was split to the Mississippi Territory, which split to form Alabama with part of former West Florida in 1819. Georgia declared its secession from the Union on January 19, 1861, was one of the original seven Confederate states, it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870. Georgia is the 8th most populous of the 50 United States. From 2007 to 2008, 14 of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Empire State of the South. Atlanta, the state's capital and most populous city, has been named a global city.
Atlanta's metropolitan area contains about 55% of the population of the entire state. Georgia is bordered to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, to the northeast by South Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by Florida, to the west by Alabama; the state's northernmost part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. The Piedmont extends through the central part of the state from the foothills of the Blue Ridge to the Fall Line, where the rivers cascade down in elevation to the coastal plain of the state's southern part. Georgia's highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level. Of the states east of the Mississippi River, Georgia is the largest in land area. Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures; the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12, 1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II.
The Trustees implemented an elaborate plan for the colony's settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan, which envisioned an agrarian society of yeoman farmers and prohibited slavery. The colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins' Ear. In 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a crown colony, with a governor appointed by the king; the Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence. The State of Georgia's first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24, 1778, was the 4th state to ratify the United States Constitution on January 2, 1788. In 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains leading to the Georgia Gold Rush and establishment of a federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued in operation until 1861.
The resulting influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to take land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgia's tribes. Despite the Supreme Court's ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that U. S. states were not permitted to redraw Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched federal troops to gather the tribes and deport them west of the Mississippi; this forced relocation, known as the Trail of Tears, led to the death of over 4,000 Cherokees. In early 1861, Georgia became a major theater of the Civil War. Major battles took place at Chickamauga, Kennesaw Mountain, Atlanta. In December 1864, a large swath of the state from Atlanta to Savannah was destroyed during General William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea. 18,253 Georgian soldiers died in service one of every five who served.
In 1870, following the Reconstruction Era, Georgia became the last Confederate state to be restored to the Union. With white Democrats having regained power in the state legislature, they passed a poll tax in 1877, which disenfranchised many poor blacks and whites, preventing them from registering. In 1908, the state established a white primary, they constituted 46.7% of the state's population in 1900, but the proportion of Georgia's population, African American dropped thereafter to 28% due to tens of thousands leaving the state during the Great Migration. According to the Equal Justice Institute's 2015 report on lynching in the United States, Georgia had 531 deaths, the second-highest total of these extralegal executions of any state in the South; the overwhelming number of victims were male. Political disfranchisement persisted through the mid-1960s, until after Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. An Atlanta-born Baptist minister, part of the educated middle class that had developed in Atlanta's African-American community, Martin Luther King, Jr. emerged as a national leader in the civil rights movement.
King joining with others to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in Atlanta in 1957 to provide political leadership for the Civil Rights Movement across the South. By the 1960s, the proportion of
A mineral is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound that occurs in pure form. A rock may consist of a single mineral, or may be an aggregate of two or more different minerals, spacially segregated into distinct phases. Compounds that occur only in living beings are excluded, but some minerals are biogenic and/or are organic compounds in the sense of chemistry. Moreover, living beings synthesize inorganic minerals that occur in rocks. In geology and mineralogy, the term "mineral" is reserved for mineral species: crystalline compounds with a well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure. Minerals without a definite crystalline structure, such as opal or obsidian, are more properly called mineraloids. If a chemical compound may occur with different crystal structures, each structure is considered different mineral species. Thus, for example and stishovite are two different minerals consisting of the same compound, silicon dioxide; the International Mineralogical Association is the world's premier standard body for the definition and nomenclature of mineral species.
As of November 2018, the IMA recognizes 5,413 official mineral species. Out of more than 5,500 proposed or traditional ones; the chemical composition of a named mineral species may vary somewhat by the inclusion of small amounts of impurities. Specific varieties of a species sometimes have official names of their own. For example, amethyst is a purple variety of the mineral species quartz; some mineral species can have variable proportions of two or more chemical elements that occupy equivalent positions in the mineral's structure. Sometimes a mineral with variable composition is split into separate species, more or less arbitrarily, forming a mineral group. Besides the essential chemical composition and crystal structure, the description of a mineral species includes its common physical properties such as habit, lustre, colour, tenacity, fracture, specific gravity, fluorescence, radioactivity, as well as its taste or smell and its reaction to acid. Minerals are classified by key chemical constituents.
Silicate minerals comprise 90% of the Earth's crust. Other important mineral groups include the native elements, oxides, carbonates and phosphates. One definition of a mineral encompasses the following criteria: Formed by a natural process. Stable or metastable at room temperature. In the simplest sense, this means. Classical examples of exceptions to this rule include native mercury, which crystallizes at −39 °C, water ice, solid only below 0 °C. Modern advances have included extensive study of liquid crystals, which extensively involve mineralogy. Represented by a chemical formula. Minerals are chemical compounds, as such they can be described by fixed or a variable formula. Many mineral groups and species are composed of a solid solution. For example, the olivine group is described by the variable formula 2SiO4, a solid solution of two end-member species, magnesium-rich forsterite and iron-rich fayalite, which are described by a fixed chemical formula. Mineral species themselves could have a variable composition, such as the sulfide mackinawite, 9S8, a ferrous sulfide, but has a significant nickel impurity, reflected in its formula.
Ordered atomic arrangement. This means crystalline. An ordered atomic arrangement gives rise to a variety of macroscopic physical properties, such as crystal form and cleavage. There have been several recent proposals to classify amorphous substances as minerals; the formal definition of a mineral approved by the IMA in 1995: "A mineral is an element or chemical compound, crystalline and, formed as a result of geological processes." Abiogenic. Biogenic substances are explicitly excluded by the IMA: "Biogenic substances are chemical compounds produced by biological processes without a geological component and are not regarded as minerals. However, if geological processes were involved in the genesis of the compound the product can be accepted as a mineral."The first three general characteristics are less debated than the last two. Mineral classification schemes and their definitions are evolving to match recent advances in mineral science. Recent changes have included the addition of an organic class, in both the new Dana and the Strunz classification schemes.
The organic class includes a rare group of minerals with hydrocarbons. The IMA Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names adopted in 2009 a hierarchical scheme for the naming and classification of mineral groups and group names and established seven commissions and four working groups to review and classify minerals into an official listing of their published names. According to these new r
Gunns Plains Cave
Gunns Plains Cave is a limestone show cave, near Gunns Plains in the North West of Tasmania, twenty kilometres from Ulverstone. The cave was first entered in 1906 by a local Gunns Plains man, Bill Woodhouse, while hunting for possums. A possum eluded him down a hole; this opening served as the original entrance to the cave and early tourists needed to descend by rope from it, three stories to the cave floor. 54 steps were constructed from concrete, leading from the natural cave floor to a new entrance cut into the hillside. This steep and narrow staircase still exists in its entirety and remains the only public entrance and exit to the cave Because candlelight and torchlight were troublesome and fixture lighting was installed throughout to illuminate the walking track and the cave's unique features. In 2003 the system was updated to be of more benefit to visitors; as of 2004 the cave is maintained on behalf of the Tasmania Parks and Wildlife Service by Geoff and Patricia Deer, who lease the rights to manage the cave.
There are daily tours. The cave tour was re-lit using LED lighting in 2008; the public section of the cave is well lit and is for the most part a simple walk. Many beautiful cave formations are present, such as stalactites, helictites and a large array of dazzling flowstone are present in the public section of the cave. A further one kilometre of wild cave was mapped in the early 20th century, but is more difficult to access; the cave is a host to an assortment of wildlife. The cave is inhabited by the endangered Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Crayfish, freshwater fish and eels. Glow worms can be found with their silk threads dangling from the ceiling. Cave crickets and spiders are present. Gunns Plains List of caves in Australia Show cave Tasmania Parks and Wildlife Service: Gunns Plains Cave Australian Speleological Federation, a national environmental organisation promoting the protection of Australia's unique cave systems
Forestville Mystery Cave State Park
Forestville Mystery Cave State Park is a state park in Minnesota. It contains the village of Forestville, restored to a 19th-century appearance; the Minnesota Historical Society operates it as a historic site. Below ground the park contains Mystery Cave, the state's longest cave, open to the public; the park is between Preston, Minnesota. The park is in the Driftless Area, noted for its karst topography, which includes sinkholes and caves; the park is about 5 miles from Mystery Cave and occupies 3,170 acres, with camping, interpretive programs, hiking, cross-country skiing trails, cold water streams and excellent trout fishing. The cave includes stalactites and underground pools, is a constant 48 °F, it has over 13 miles of passages in two rock layers and is being resurveyed and remapped by volunteers. About 450 million years ago sedimentary rocks were deposited as the land was intermittently covered by shallow seas that transgressed and regressed. Over the eons the alternating deposits of mud and oceanic debris were compressed to form limestone and sandstone layers.
Today these layers are 1,300 feet above sea level. Within the last 500,000 to 1,000,000 years, flood waters dissolved along fractures in the limestone bedrock to create most of the cave. Acidic rainwater sculpted the land above and around the cave, creating thousands of sinkholes and other karst features in the surrounding county; the park contains a range of wildlife, from rare species such as glacial snails and timber rattlesnakes to common species such as deer, beaver, two species of fox, opossum and four species of squirrels. Coyotes howl at dusk. Numerous reptiles and amphibians are present. At least 175 species of birds have been recorded; the South Branch of the Root River contains brown trout, brook trout, rainbow trout. The Minnesota Historical Society operates Historic Forestville as a living museum set in 1899. Costumed interpreters portray Forestville residents and go about daily activities in the general store, kitchen and barn. Forestville was a rural trade center in the 1800s that declined after the railroad was built elsewhere in 1868.
Thomas Meighen, son of one of the town's founders, owned the entire village by 1890, including the general store, the local residents worked on his property for housing and credit in the store. Admission to Historic Forestville is separate from the caves. Historic Forestville is open from May through October. Forestville/Mystery Cave State Park Minnesota Historical Society: Historic Forestville
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Calthemite is a secondary deposit, derived from concrete, mortar or other calcareous material outside the cave environment. Calthemites grow on or under, man-made structures and mimic the shapes and forms of cave speleothems, such as stalactites, flowstone etc. Calthemite is derived from the Latin calx "lime" + Latin < Greek théma, "deposit" meaning ‘something laid down’, the Latin –ita < Greek -itēs – used as a suffix indicating a mineral or rock. The term "speleothem", due to its definition can only be used to describe secondary deposits in caves and does not include secondary deposits outside the cave environment. Degrading concrete has been the focus of many studies and the most obvious sign is calcium-rich leachate seeping from a concrete structure. Calthemite stalactites can form on concrete structures and "artificial caves" lined with concrete faster than those in limestone, marble or dolomite caves; this is because the majority of calthemites are created by chemical reactions which are different to normal "speleothem" chemistry.
Calthemites are the result of hyperalkaline solution seeping through a calcareous man-made structure until it comes into contact with the atmosphere on the underside of the structure, where carbon dioxide from the surrounding air facilitates the reactions to deposit calcium carbonate as a secondary deposit. CO2 is the reactant as opposed to speleothem chemistry, it is most that the majority of calcium carbonate creating calthemites in shapes which, mimicking speleothems, is precipitated from solution as calcite as opposed to the other, less stable, polymorphs of aragonite and vaterite. Calthemites are composed of calcium carbonate, predominantly coloured white, but may be coloured red, orange or yellow due to iron oxide being transported by the leachate and deposited along with the CaCO3. Copper oxide from copper pipes may cause calthemites to be coloured blue. Calthemites may contain minerals such as gypsum; the definition of calthemites includes secondary deposits which may occur in manmade mines and tunnels with no concrete lining, where the secondary deposit is derived from limestone, dolomite or other calcareous natural rock into which the cavity has been created.
In this instance the chemistry is the same as that which creates speleothems in natural limestone caves below. It has been suggested the deposition of calthemite formations are one example of a natural process which has not occurred prior to the human modification of the Earth's surface, therefore represents a unique process of the Anthropocene; the way stalactites form on concrete is due to different chemistry than those that form in limestone caves and is the result of the presence of calcium oxide in cement. Concrete is made from aggregate and cement; when water is added to the mix, the calcium oxide in the cement reacts with water to form calcium hydroxide, which under the right conditions can further dissociate to form calcium and hydroxide ions. All of the following chemical reactions are reversible and several may occur at a specific location within a concrete structure, influenced by leachate solution pH; the chemical formula is: CaO + H2O ↔ Ca2 ↔ Ca2+ + 2OH−.......................................
Calcium hydroxide will react with any free CO2 to form calcium carbonate. The solution is pH 9 - 10.3, however this will depend on what other chemical reactions are occurring at the same time within the concrete. Ca2 + CO2 ↔ CaCO3 + H2O............................................................. This reaction occurs in newly poured concrete as it sets, to precipitate CaCO3 within the mix, until all available CO2 in the mix has been used up. Additional CO2 from the atmosphere will continue to react penetrating just a few millimetres from the concrete surface; because the atmospheric CO2 can’t penetrate far into the concrete, there remains free Ca2 within the set concrete structure. Any external water source which can penetrate the micro cracks and air voids in set concrete will carry the free Ca2 in solution to the underside of the structure; when the Ca2 solution comes in contact with the atmosphere, CO2 diffuses into the solution drops and over time the reaction deposits calcium carbonate to create straw shaped stalactites similar to those in caves.
This is where the chemistry becomes a bit complicated, due to the presence of soluble potassium and sodium hydroxides in new concrete, which supports a higher solution alkalinity of about pH 13.2 – 13.4, the predominant carbon species is CO32− and the leachate becomes saturated with Ca2+. The following chemical formulae will most be occurring, responsible for the deposition of CaCO3 to create stalactites under concrete structures. OH− + CO2 ↔ HCO3− ↔ CO32− + H+....................................... Ca2+ + CO32− ↔ CaCO3.......................................................................... As the soluble potassium and sodium hydroxides, are leached out of the concrete along the seepage path, the solution pH will fall to pH ≤12.5. Below about pH 10.3, the more dominant chemical reaction will become. The leachate solution pH, influences which dominant carbonate species are present, so at any one time there may be one or more different chem
Bacon is a type of salt-cured pork. Bacon is prepared from several different cuts of meat from the pork belly or from back cuts, which have less fat than the belly, it is used as a minor ingredient to flavour dishes. Bacon is used for barding and larding roasts game, including venison and pheasant; the word is derived from the Old High German bacho, meaning "buttock", "ham" or "side of bacon", is cognate with the Old French bacon. Meat from other animals, such as beef, chicken, goat, or turkey, may be cut, cured, or otherwise prepared to resemble bacon, may be referred to as, for example, "turkey bacon"; such use is common in areas with significant Jewish and Muslim populations as both religions prohibit the consumption of pork. Vegetarian bacons such as "soy bacon" exist and attract vegetarians and vegans. Bacon is cured through either a process of injecting with or soaking in brine, known as wet curing, or using plain crystal salt, known as dry curing. Bacon brine has added curing ingredients, most notably sodium nitrite, which speed the curing and stabilize color.
Fresh bacon may be dried for weeks or months in cold air, or it may be smoked or boiled. Fresh and dried bacon are cooked before eating by pan frying. Boiled bacon is ready to eat, as is some smoked bacon. Differing flavours can be achieved by using various types of wood, or less common fuels such as corn cobs or peat; this process can take up to eighteen hours, depending on the intensity of the flavour desired. The Virginia Housewife, thought to be one of the earliest American cookbooks, gives no indication that bacon is not smoked, though it gives no advice on flavouring, noting only that care should be taken lest the fire get too hot. In early American history, the curing and smoking of bacon seems to have been one of the few food-preparation processes not divided by gender. Bacon is distinguished from other salt-cured pork by differences in the cuts of meat used and in the brine or dry packing; the terms "ham" and "bacon" referred to different cuts of meat that were brined or packed identically together in the same barrel.
Today, ham is defined as coming from the hind portion of the pig and brine for curing ham includes a greater amount of sugar, while bacon is less sweet, though ingredients such as brown sugar or maple syrup are used for flavor. Bacon is similar to salt pork, which in modern times is prepared from similar cuts, but salt pork is never smoked, has a much higher salt content. For safety, bacon may be treated to prevent trichinosis, caused by Trichinella, a parasitic roundworm which can be destroyed by heating, drying, or smoking. Sodium polyphosphates, such as sodium triphosphate, may be added to make the product easier to slice and to reduce spattering when the bacon is pan-fried. Varieties differ depending on the primal cut. Different cuts of pork are used for making bacon depending on local preferences. Side bacon, or streaky bacon, comes from the pork belly, it has long alternating layers of muscle running parallel to the rind. This is the most common form of bacon in the United States. Pancetta is an Italian form of side bacon, sold unsmoked.
It is rolled up into cylinders after curing, is known for having a strong flavour. Back bacon contains meat from the loin in the middle of the back of the pig, it is a leaner cut, with less fat compared to side bacon. Most bacon consumed in the United Kingdom and Ireland is back bacon. Collar bacon is taken from the back of a pig near the head. Cottage bacon is made from the lean meat from a boneless pork shoulder, tied into an oval shape. Jowl bacon is smoked cheeks of pork. Guanciale is an Italian jowl bacon, seasoned and dry cured but not smoked; the inclusion of skin with a cut of bacon, known as the'bacon rind', though is less common in the English-speaking world. Bacon is served with eggs and sausages as part of a full breakfast; the most common form sold is middle bacon, which includes some of the streaky, fatty section of side bacon along with a portion of the loin of back bacon. In response to increasing consumer diet-consciousness, some supermarkets offer the loin section only; this is sold as short cut bacon and is priced higher than middle bacon.
Both varieties are available with the rind removed. In Canada, the term bacon on its own refers to side bacon. Canadian-style back bacon is a lean cut from the eye of the pork loin with little surrounding fat. Peameal bacon is an unsmoked back bacon, coated in fine-ground cornmeal. Bacon is eaten in breakfasts, such as with cooked eggs or pancakes. Maple syrup is used as a flavouring while curing bacon in Canada; some of the meanings of bacon overlap with the German-language term Speck. Germans use the term bacon explicitly for Frühstücksspeck which are smoked pork slices. Traditional German cold cuts favor ham over bacon, however "Wammerl" remains popular in Bavaria. Small bacon cubes have been a rather important ingredient of various southern German dishes, they are used for adding flavor to soups and salads and for speck dumplings and various noodle and potato dishes. Instead of preparing them at home from larger slices, they have been sold ready made as convenience foods as "B