A cave is a hollow place in the ground, specifically a natural underground space large enough for a human to enter. Caves form naturally by the weathering of rock and often extend deep underground, the word cave can refer to much smaller openings such as sea caves, rock shelters, and grottos. A cavern is a type of cave, naturally formed in soluble rock with the ability to grow speleothems. Speleology is the science of exploration and study of all aspects of caves, visiting or exploring caves for recreation may be called caving, potholing, or spelunking. The formation and development of caves is known as speleogenesis, which can occur over the course of millions of years, caves are formed by various geologic processes and can be variable sizes. These may involve a combination of processes, erosion from water, tectonic forces, pressure. Isotopic dating techniques can be applied to cave sediments, in order to determine the timescale when geologic events may have occurred to help form and it is estimated that the maximum depth of a cave cannot be more than 3,000 metres due to the pressure of overlying rocks.
For karst caves the maximum depth is determined on the basis of the limit of karst forming processes. Most caves are formed in limestone by dissolution, solutional caves or karst caves are the most frequently occurring caves and such caves form in rock that is soluble. Most occur in limestone, but they can form in other rocks including chalk, marble, salt. Rock is dissolved by acid in groundwater that seeps through bedding planes, joints. Over geological epochs cracks expand to become caves and cave systems, the largest and most abundant solutional caves are located in limestone. Limestone dissolves under the action of rainwater and groundwater charged with H2CO3, the dissolution process produces a distinctive landform known as karst, characterized by sinkholes and underground drainage. Limestone caves are often adorned with calcium carbonate formations produced through slow precipitation and these include flowstones, stalagmites, soda straws and columns. These secondary mineral deposits in caves are called speleothems, the portions of a solutional cave that are below the water table or the local level of the groundwater will be flooded.
Lechuguilla Cave in New Mexico and nearby Carlsbad Cavern are now believed to be examples of type of solutional cave. They were formed by H2S gas rising from below, where reservoirs of oil give off sulfurous fumes and this gas mixes with ground water and forms H2SO4. The acid dissolves the limestone from below, rather than from above, caves formed at the same time as the surrounding rock are called primary caves
A grotto is a natural or artificial cave used by humans in both modern times and antiquity, and historically or prehistorically. Naturally occurring grottoes are often small caves near water that are usually flooded or liable to flood at high tide, artificial grottoes are used as garden features. The Grotta Azzurra at Capri and the grotto at the villa of Tiberius in the Bay of Naples are examples of popular natural seashore grottoes, the word grotto comes from Italian grotta, Vulgar Latin grupta, and Latin crypta. It is related by an accident to the word grotesque. The rooms had sunk underground over time, the Romans who discovered this historical monument found it very strange, a sentiment enhanced by the fact that it was uncovered from an underworld source. This led the Romans to give it the name grottesche, or grotesque, grottoes were very popular in Greek and Roman culture. Spring-fed grottoes were a feature of Apollos oracles at Delphi, the Hellenistic city of Rhodes was designed with rock-cut artificial grottoes incorporated into the city, made to look natural.
According to tradition, Praenestes sacred spring had a native nymph, the Roman emperor, filled his grotto with sculptures to create a sense of mythology, perhaps channeling Polyphemus cave in the Odyssey. The numinous quality of the grotto is still more ancient, in a grotto near Knossos in Crete, Eileithyia was venerated, even farther back in time, the immanence of the divine in a grotto is seen in the sacred caves of Lascaux. The popularity of artificial grottoes introduced Mannerist style to Italian and French gardens of the mid-16th century, two famous grottoes in the Boboli Gardens of Palazzo Pitti were begun by Vasari and completed by Ammanati and Buontalenti between 1583 and 1593. One of these grottoes originally housed the Prisoners of Michelangelo, before Boboli grotto, a garden was laid out by Niccolò Tribolo at the Medici Villa Castello, near Florence. At Pratolino, in spite of the dryness of the site, there was a Grotto of Cupid, with water tricks for the unsuspecting visitor. The Fonte di Fata Morgana at Grassina, not far from Florence, is a garden building.
It is decorated with sculptures in the Giambolognan manner, the outside of garden grottoes are often designed to look like an enormous rock, a rustic porch or a rocky overhang. Damp grottoes were cool places to retreat from the Italian sun, in Kuskovo at the Sheremetev estate there is a Summer Grotto, built in 1775. Grottoes could serve as baths, an example of this is at the Palazzo del Te, in the Casino della Grotta, courtiers once bathed in the small cascade that splashed over the pebbles and shells encrusted in the floor and walls. Grottoes have served as chapels, or at Villa Farnese at Caprarola and they were often combined with cascading fountains in Renaissance gardens. The grotto designed by Bernard Palissy for Catherine de Medicis château in Paris, there are grottoes in the gardens designed by André Le Nôtre for Versailles
A media event, known as a pseudo-event, is an event or activity conducted for the purpose of media publicity. It may include any event that is covered in the media or was hosted largely with the media in mind. Media events may center on an announcement, an anniversary. Instead of paying for advertising time, a media or pseudo-event seeks to use relations to gain media. The term is related to idea of hyperreality and thus postmodernism. A media event being a kind of planned event, it may be called inauthentic in contrast to a spontaneous one, in recognizing the differences between a pseudo-event and a spontaneous one, Boorstin states characteristics of a pseudo-event in his book titled Hidden History. He says that pseudo-events are, repeatable, intellectually planned, cause other pseudo-events, the group Ant Farm especially plays with pseudo events, though not so identified, in their works Media Burn and The Eternal Frame. A news conference is held when an organization wants members of the press to get an announcement simultaneously.
The in-person events may include interviews and show-and-tell, when Seattle Seahawks running back Marshawn Lynch dressed and left the stadium after a loss on Nov.16,2014, the NFL fined him $100,000. Sex tapes when created with the intention of being leaked are a form of pseudo event because their purpose is to generate media attention, a protest may be planned almost exclusively for the purpose of getting media attention to an issue or cause. Political conventions, or planned presentations or speeches about company earnings or political issues, are a form of media event, apple Inc. has attracted great media attention with its successive iPhone introductions. Media events became prominent when the media did, the driving of the Golden Spike in Promontory Summit, Utah in 1869 has been described as one of the first media events in the United States. Edward Bernays and his Torches of Freedom campaign in 1929 is an example of a media event that successfully influenced public opinion. Similarly, Nikita Khruschev visit to the USA in 1959 was highly influential, Media events became practical in the middle 19th century as the Morse telegraph and the expansion of daily newspapers introduced same-day news cycles.
The emergence of the led to many media stories being published Live from the media event, real-time Twitter coverage. Daniel Dayan and Elihu Katz, Media Events, The Live Broadcasting of History and Television Consumer Product Events How Mass Media Simulate Political Transparency Post Graduate Programme, Transnational Media Events from Early Modern Times to the Present
Barren County, Kentucky
Barren County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 42,173, the county was founded on December 20,1798, from parts of Warren and Green Counties. It was named for the Barrens, meadow lands that cover the northern third, Barren County is part of the Glasgow, KY Micropolitan Statistical Area, which is included in the Bowling Green-Glasgow, KY Combined Statistical Area. In 2007 Barren County was named the Best Place to Live in Rural America by Progressive Farmer Magazine, Barren County was established in 1798 from land given by Green County and Warren County. Six courthouses have served the county throughout its history, the first built of logs, Barren County, like most of south central Kentucky, was settled by the Scots-Irish, and still bears many cultural aspects that trace back to that heritage. Barren was a prohibition or dry county, until voters overturned the status in September 2016. Before the vote, there were two exceptions to laws against alcohol sales, Cave City, which voted in 2005 to become moist, and voted in 2014 to approve full package sales.
Glasgow, which approved liquor by the drink under the restrictions on November 6,2007. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 500 square miles. Barren River Lake is located in the part of the county. Barren River Lake State Resort Park is located primarily within Barren County, the population density was 78 per square mile. There were 17,095 housing units at a density of 35 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 94. 30% White,4. 09% Black or African American,0. 15% Native American,0. 41% Asian,0. 03% Pacific Islander,0. 38% from other races, and 0. 65% from two or more races. 0. 93% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,25. 60% of all households were made up of individuals and 11. 60% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the family size was 2.91. The age distribution was 24. 20% under the age of 18,8. 20% from 18 to 24,28. 80% from 25 to 44,23. 80% from 45 to 64, the median age was 38 years.
For every 100 females there were 92.70 males, for every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,240, males had a median income of $29,860 versus $21,208 for females
Cave City, Kentucky
Cave City is a home rule-class city in Barren County, Kentucky, in the United States. The population was 2,240 at the 2010 census and it is part of the Glasgow Micropolitan Statistical Area. Cave City is located in northern Barren County at 37°8′14″N 85°57′25″W, U. S. Route 31W passes through the center of the city, and Interstate 65 passes to the west of downtown, with access from Exit 53. Elizabethtown is 44 miles to the north, and Louisville is 85 miles north via I-65, bowling Green is 31 miles to the southwest, and Nashville, Tennessee, is 91 miles to the southwest via I-65. The center of Mammoth Cave National Park is 10 miles to the west via Kentucky Route 70. According to the United States Census Bureau, Cave City has an area of 4.4 square miles, of which 0.019 square miles. The site upon which Cave City stands was acquired in October 1853 by the Knob City Land Company, Quigly and Hopson, all of whom were from Louisville and envisioned the place as a resort town due to its proximity to Mammoth Cave.
The town was incorporated in 1866, originally,200 acres of what would become the town site was acquired by James Perry in a 1798 land grant. In 1811, Henry Roundtree sold the land to John Owens for $190, Owens added 142.5 acres to the tract. After his death, his executor sold his 342½ acres to Thomas T, duke, in turn, sold the entire tract to the Knob City Land Company. Duke received $6,850.00 for the land, or $20 per acre—a record amount for a sale in Barren County at that time. The first train arrived at Cave City in 1859, the town took its name from a cave within the town limits, not nearby Mammoth Cave. A small creek ran through the cave which the L&N Railroad used as a source of water, the creek was called Sink Hole Spring and was the only water supply for the town at the time. The Cave City post office was established in January 1860 and Beverly Daniel Curd appointed the first post-master and he moved the post office established in 1850 at Woodland to Cave City. The first business in Cave City was built and operated by postmaster Curd and his brother and their store was located at the corner of First and Kirtley streets.
The second person to open a business in Cave City and to build the first residence was Judge C, as of the census of 2000, there were 1,880 people,844 households, and 544 families residing in the city. The population density was 435.2 people per square mile, there were 914 housing units at an average density of 211.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 90. 74% White,7. 13% African American,0. 16% Native American,1. 12% Asian,0. 05% Pacific Islander,0. 05% from other races, and 0. 74% from two or more races
A Casket or jewelry box is a container that is usually smaller than a chest, and in the past were typically decorated. Both were the work of Schwerdfeger as cabinet maker, his assistants Michael Reyad, Mitchell Stevens, Christopher Visvis, Degault as miniature painter, caskets are often made in precious materials, such as gold, silver or ivory. In ancient East Asia, caskets often made in wood, some of these caskets could be collected as decorative boxes. Some examples have remained unburied from the late Roman Empire, the 4th century Brescia Casket, 8th century Franks Casket and 10th-11th century Veroli Casket are all in elaborately carved ivory, a popular material for luxury boxes until recent centuries. Boxes that contain or contained relics are known as reliquaries, though not all were made for this purpose. The house-shaped chasse is a common shape for reliquaries in the High Middle Ages, often in Limoges enamel
The Pulitzer Prize /ˈpʊlᵻtsər/ is an award for achievements in newspaper and online journalism and musical composition in the United States. It was established in 1917 by provisions in the will of American Joseph Pulitzer who had made his fortune as a newspaper publisher, Prizes are awarded yearly in twenty-one categories. In twenty of the categories, each receives a certificate. The winner in the service category of the journalism competition is awarded a gold medal. The Pulitzer Prize does not automatically consider all applicable works in the media, entries must fit in at least one of the specific prize categories, and cannot simply gain entrance for being literary or musical. Works can only be entered in a maximum of two categories, regardless of their properties, each year,102 jurors are selected by the Pulitzer Prize Board to serve on 20 separate juries for the 21 award categories, one jury makes recommendations for both photography awards. For each award category, a jury makes three nominations, the board selects the winner by majority vote from the nominations or bypasses the nominations and selects a different entry following a 75% majority vote.
The board can vote to issue no award, the board and journalism jurors are not paid for their work, the jurors in letters and drama receive a $2,000 honorarium for the year, and each chair receives $2,500. Anyone whose work has been submitted is called an entrant, the jury selects a group of nominated finalists and announces them, together with the winner for each category. However, some journalists who were submitted, but not nominated as finalists. For example, Bill Dedman of msnbc, Dedman wrote, To call that submission a Pulitzer nomination is like saying that Adam Sandler is an Oscar nominee if Columbia Pictures enters Thats My Boy in the Academy Awards. Many readers realize that the Oscars dont work that way—the studios dont pick the nominees and its just a way of slipping Academy Awards into a bio. The Pulitzers dont work that way, but fewer people know that, newspaper publisher Joseph Pulitzer gave money in his will to Columbia University to launch a journalism school and establish the Prize.
It allocated $250,000 to the prize and scholarships and he specified four awards in journalism, four in letters and drama, one in education, and four traveling scholarships. After his death, the first Pulitzer Prizes were awarded June 4,1917, many people have won more than one Pulitzer Prize. Nelson Harding is the person to have won a Prize in two consecutive years, the Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Cartooning in 1927 and 1928. Four prizes Robert Frost, Poetry Eugene ONeill, Drama Robert E, in rare instances, contributors to the entry are singled out in the citation in a manner analogous to individual winners. Journalism awards may be awarded to individuals or newspapers or newspaper staffs, Awards are made in categories relating to journalism, arts and fiction
The Courier-Journal, locally called The Courier or The C-J, is the main newspaper for the city of Louisville, United States. According to the 1999 Editor & Publisher International Yearbook, the paper is the 48th-largest daily paper in the U. S. the Courier-Journal was created from the merger of several newspapers introduced in Kentucky in the 19th century. Pioneer paper The Focus of Politics and Literature, was founded in 1826 in Louisville when the city was a settlement of less than 7,000 individuals. In 1830 a new newspaper, The Louisville Daily Journal, began distribution in the city and, in 1832, absorbed The Focus of Politics and Literature. The Journal was an organ of the Whig Party and edited by George D. Prentice, Prentice would edit the Journal for more than 40 years. In 1844, another newspaper, the Louisville Morning Courier was founded in Louisville by Walter Newman Haldeman, the Courier was suppressed by the Union and had to move to Nashville, but returned to Louisville after the war.
In 1868, an ailing Prentice persuaded the 28-year-old Henry Watterson to come edit for the Journal, during secret negotiations in 1868, The Journal and the Courier merged and the first edition of The Courier-Journal was delivered to Louisvillians on Sunday morning, November 8,1868. Henry Watterson, the son of a Tennessee congressman, had written for Harpers Magazine and he became nationally known for his work as The Courier-Journal emerged as the regions leading paper. He supported the Democratic Party and pushed for the industrialization of Kentucky and he attracted controversy for attempting to prove that Christopher Marlowe had actually written the works of Shakespeare. He won a Pulitzer Prize in 1917 for editorials demanding the United States enter World War I, the Courier-Journal founded a companion afternoon edition of the paper, The Louisville Times, in May 1884. In 1896, Watterson and Haldeman opposed Democratic presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan over his support of Free Silver coinage and this unpopular decision upset readers and advertisers, many of whom pulled their support for The Courier-Journal.
Kentucky voted for the Republican candidate in 1896, the first time in state history, only the popularity of The Louisville Times, which had no strong editorial reputation, saved the newspaper company from bankruptcy. The Courier supported Bryan in future elections, Haldeman had owned the papers until his death in 1902, and by 1917 they were owned by his son and Henry Watterson. On August 8,1918, Robert Worth Bingham purchased two-thirds interest in the newspapers, the liberal Bingham clashed with longtime editor Watterson, who remained on board, but was in the twilight of his career. Wattersons editorials opposing the League of Nations appeared alongside Binghams favoring it, I have always regarded the newspapers owned by me as a public trust and have endeavored so to conduct them as to render the greatest public service. As publisher, Bingham set the tone for his editorial pages, and pushed for improved education, support of African Americans. During Barry Bingham, Sr. s tenure, the paper was considered Kentuckys Newspaper of Record, in 1971, Barry Bingham, Jr. succeeded his father as the newspapers editor and publisher.
The Binghams were well-liked owners popularly credited with being more concerned with publishing quality journalism than making heavy profits, Barry Bingham Jr. sought to free the papers from conflicts of interests, and through The Louisville Times, experimented with new ideas such as signed editorials
KDKA is a Class A radio station and operated by CBS Radio and licensed to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Its studios are located at the combined CBS Radio Pittsburgh facility in the Foster Plaza on Holiday Drive in Green Tree, the stations programming is carried over KDKA-FMs 93.7 HD2 digital subchannel. Its nighttime signal covers much of eastern North America, during the war, Westinghouse received government contracts to develop radio transmitters and receivers for military use. They used recently developed vacuum tube equipment that was capable of audio communication, previous spark gap transmitters could only be used to transmit the dots-and-dashes of Morse code. At the time of the entry of the United States into World War I in April 1917, with the end of the war, the government contracts were canceled. However, Westinghouse moved aggressively to establish itself as a national and international provider of radio communication, the effort to establish Westinghouses radio industry presence was led by company vice president H. P.
Davis. However, because of the competitive advantage RCA had in international and marine communications, in September 1920, a newspaper report noted that a new high-power station, to operate under a special or commercial license, is being installed at the Westinghouse plant in East Pittsburgh. This Limited Commercial grant was consistent with the practice being followed at this time. At this time, radio stations in the United States were regulated by the Department of Commerces Bureau of Navigation, beginning with the introduction of licensing in late 1912, the standard practice had been to assign call letters starting with W to radio stations in the eastern United States. Although the original policy was restored a few later, KDKA was permitted to keep its non-standard call sign. Prior to World War I, Frank Conrad had operated an experimental radiotelegraph station, following the war, the U. S. government again allowed the operation of civilian radio stations, and Conrad revived 8XK, which was located in a detached two-story garage at his residence.
He used the knowledge gained during the period to upgrade his station to begin making audio transmissions. On October 17,1919 Conrad made the first of what would become a series of entertainment broadcasts. H. P. Davis held a meeting with his radio cabinet. On August 31,1920, the Detroit News, whose Detroit News Radiophone began making daily broadcasts on August 20, had broadcast local primary election results. Westinghouses preparations included the construction of a shack and antenna system on the roof of the nine story K Building at the East Pittsburgh Works in Turtle Creek, Pennsylvania. Frank Conrad had originally planned to broadcast the results over 8XK, in cooperation with the American Radio Relay League. He and Donald G. Little had primary responsibility for constructing a 100 watt vacuum-tube transmitter, a telephoned temporary authorization was received to operate under the call sign of 8ZZ
Caving — traditionally known as spelunking in the United States and Canada and potholing in the United Kingdom and Ireland — is the recreational pastime of exploring wild cave systems. In contrast, speleology is the study of caves and the cave environment. Cave diving is a distinct, and more hazardous, sub-speciality undertaken by a minority of technically proficient cavers. Sometimes categorized as a sport, it is not commonly considered as such by long-time enthusiasts. Many caving skills overlap with those involved in canyoning, Caving is often undertaken for the enjoyment of the outdoor activity or for physical exercise, as well as original exploration, similar to mountaineering or diving. Physical or biological science is an important goal for some cavers, virgin cave systems comprise some of the last unexplored regions on Earth and much effort is put into trying to locate and survey them. In well-explored regions, the most accessible caves have already been explored, Caving, in certain areas, has been utilized as a form of eco and adventure tourism.
Tour companies have established a leading and guiding tours into. Depending on the type of cave and the type of tour, in many areas, there are tours led through lava tubes by a guiding service. Some however consider the assistance cavers give each other as a team sport activity. Too much emphasis on the labeling of caving as a sport can narrow the goals of caving as a whole, Caving often puts the needs and welfare of a cave before those of the active participants. Clay Perry, an American caver of the 1940s, wrote about a group of men and this group referred to themselves as spelunkers, a term derived from the Latin spēlunca cave, den, itself from the Greek σπῆλυγξ spēlynks cave. This is regarded as the first use of the word in the Americas, throughout the 1950s, spelunking was the general term used for exploring caves in US English. It was used freely, without any positive or negative connotations, in the 1960s, the terms spelunking and spelunker began to be considered déclassé among experienced enthusiasts.
This sentiment is exemplified by bumper stickers and T-shirts displayed by some cavers, Cavers rescue spelunkers, outside the caving community and spelunkers predominately remain neutral terms referring to the practice and practitioners, without any respect to skill level. Potholing refers to the act of exploring potholes, a word originating in the north of England for predominantly vertical caves, the base term caving comes from the Latin cavea or caverna, meaning simply, a cave. He developed his own based on ropes and metallic ladders. Martel visited Kentucky and notably Mammoth Cave National Park in October 1912, robert de Joly, Guy de Lavaur and Norbert Casteret were prominent figures of that time, surveying mostly caves in Southwest France
Logan County, Kentucky
Logan County is a county located in the southwest Pennyroyal area of the U. S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 26,835, the county is named for Benjamin Logan, who had been second in command of the Kentucky militia during the Revolutionary War and was a leader in the efforts to make Kentucky a state. Created from Lincoln on September 1,1792, Logan was the 13th Kentucky county in order of formation, the settlement of Logan Court House was made the county seat at its incorporation under the name Russellville. Future President Andrew Jackson fought a duel with pistols against Charles Dickinson at Harrisons Mill in Logan County on May 30,1806, Jackson was seriously wounded and Dickinson was killed. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 557 square miles. The population density was 48 per square mile, there were 11,875 housing units at an average density of 21 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 90. 70% White,7. 62% Black or African American,0.
21% Native American,0. 17% Asian,0. 01% Pacific Islander,0. 33% from other races, and 0. 96% from two or more races. 1. 08% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,25. 00% of all households were made up of individuals and 11. 40% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the family size was 2.96. In the county, the population was out with 25. 70% under the age of 18,8. 40% from 18 to 24,28. 50% from 25 to 44,23. 60% from 45 to 64. The median age was 37 years, for every 100 females there were 93.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.40 males, the median income for a household in the county was $32,474, and the median income for a family was $39,307. Males had an income of $29,750 versus $20,265 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,962, about 10. 80% of families and 15. 50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20. 50% of those under age 18 and 18. 60% of those age 65 or over