1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
Llano Estacado translated as Staked Plains, is a region in the Southwestern United States that encompasses parts of eastern New Mexico and northwestern Texas. One of the largest mesas or tablelands on the North American continent, the elevation rises from 3,000 feet in the southeast to over 5,000 feet in the northwest, sloping uniformly at about 10 feet per mile; the Llano Estacado lies at the southern end of the Western High Plains ecoregion of the Great Plains of North America. The Canadian River forms the Llano's northern boundary, separating it from the rest of the High Plains. To the east, the Caprock Escarpment, a precipitous cliff about 300 feet high, lies between the Llano and the red Permian plains of Texas; the Llano has no natural southern boundary, instead blending into the Edwards Plateau near Big Spring, Texas. This geographic area stretches about 250 miles north to south, 150 miles east to west, a total area of some 37,500 square miles, larger than Indiana and 12 other states.
It covers all or part of 33 Texas counties and four New Mexico counties. Some years, a National Weather Service dust storm warning is issued in parts of Texas due to a dust storm originating from the area or from the adjacent lower part of the Southwestern Tablelands ecological region; the landscape is dotted by numerous small playa lakes, depressions that seasonally fill with water and provide habitat for waterfowl. The Llano Estacado has a "cold semiarid" climate, characterized by long, hot summers and cold winters. Rainfall is low. High summer temperatures mean most of the small amount of precipitation is lost to evaporation, making dryland farming difficult; the Texas State Historical Society states it covers all or part of 33 Texas counties, six fewer than as depicted by a US Geological Survey map, four New Mexico counties. As depicted by a US Geological Survey map, the Llano Estacado includes all or part of these Texas counties: It includes all or part of the following New Mexico counties: Curry Lea Quay Roosevelt Several interstate highways serve the Llano Estacado.
Interstate 40 crosses the northern portion from east of Amarillo to New Mexico. Interstate 27 runs north-south between Amarillo and Lubbock, while Interstate 20 passes through the southern portion of the Llano Estacado west of Midland and Odessa. Spanish conquistador Francisco Coronado, the first European to traverse this "sea of grass" in 1541, described it as follows: I reached some plains so vast, that I did not find their limit anywhere I went, although I traveled over them for more than 300 leagues... with no more land marks than if we had been swallowed up by the sea... There was not bit of rising ground, nor a tree, nor a shrub, nor anything to go by. In the early 18th century, the Comanches expanded their territory into the Llano Estacado, displacing the Apaches who had lived there; the region became part of the Comancheria, a Comanche stronghold until the final defeat of the tribe in the late 19th century. The Comanche war trail extended from Llano Estacado to the Rio Grande into Chihuahua, "the trail ran southwesterly through Big Spring to the Horsehead Crossing of the Pecos River forked southward to the Comanche Springs where it divided, one part of the trail crossing the great river near Boquillas and the other at Presidio."Rachel Plummer, while a captive of the Comanche in 1836, mentioned the "table lands between Austin and Santa Fe".
Robert Neighbors and Rip Ford, guided by Buffalo Hump, blazed the "upper route" trail from San Antonio to El Paso in 1849 for emigrants during the California Gold Rush, "... travelling across an elevated plateau covered by rock..."After his 1852 expedition to explore the headwaters of the Red and Colorado Rivers, General Randolph Marcy wrote: " a tree, shrub, or any other herbage to intercept the vision... the total absence of water causes all animals to shun it: the Indians do not venture to cross it except at two or three places." In his report for the United States Army: When we were upon the high table-land, a view presented itself as boundless as the ocean. Not a tree, shrub, or any other object, either animate or inanimate, relieved the dreary monotony of the prospect; the great Sahara of North America. It is a region as vast and trackless as the ocean—a land where no man, either savage or civilized permanently abides... a treeless, desolate waste of uninhabitable solitude, which always has been, must continue uninhabited forever.
During the 1854 Marcy-Neighbors expedition, Dr. George Getz Shumard noted, "Beyond the mountain appeared a line of high bluffs which in the distance looked like clouds floating upon the horizon."Herman Lehmann was captured by the Apache in 1870 and described the Llano Estacado as "the country was open, but not a desert". Robert G. Carter described it in 1871 while pursuing Quanah Parker with Ranald S. Mackenzie, "... all were over and out of the canyon upon what appeared to be a vast illimitable expanse of prairie. As far as the eye could reach, not a bush or tree, a twig or stone, not an object of any kind or a living thing, was in sight, it stretched out before us-one uninterrupted plain, only to be compared to the ocean in its vastness."In August 1872, Mackenzie was the first to successf
Texas State Highway 207
State Highway 207 or SH 207 is a state Highway that runs from Post, Texas through the South Plains and Texas Panhandle to the Texas/Oklahoma state line. The highway was designated on July 31, 1934 between Floydada and Ralls. By 1939, the designation was extended south to Garden City. On August 1, 1938, a section from Post to Garden City was designated. On October 24, 1938, the section from Ralls to Post was added. On February 21, 1939, SH 207 extended north to Silverton. On August 27, 1940, the section of SH 207 from Big Spring to Garden City was cancelled. On February 4, 1941, the section of SH 207 from Gail to 8 miles north of Big Spring was cancelled. On March 6, 1941, the section of SH 207 from 8 miles north of Big Spring to Big Spring and the section of SH 207 from Post to Gail was cancelled. On February 28, 1945, the section of SH 207 from Ralls to Post was cancelled and transferred to FM 122. On October 10, 1947, the section of SH 207 from Ralls to Floydada was transferred to US 62, leaving only the section between Silverton and Floydada.
On September 1, 1965, the route was extended north and south along its current route, replacing FM 122 south to Post, the portion of FM 284 north to Claude, a portion of the rerouted SH 15 to Sperman, SH 282 to the Oklahoma border. Photos of West Texas and the Llano Estacado
White River (Texas)
The White River is an intermittent stream in the South Plains of Texas and a tributary of the Brazos River of the United States. It rises 8 miles west of Floydada in southwestern Floyd County at the confluence of Callahan and Runningwater Draws. From there, it runs southeast for 62 miles to its mouth on the Salt Fork of the Brazos River in northwestern Kent County. Besides these two headwaters, which rise near Hale Center and in Curry County, New Mexico, respectively. Other tributaries include Pete and Davidson Creeks; the White River drains an area of 1,690 sq mi. The river runs through Blanco Canyon. On October 9, 1871, Col. Ranald S. Mackenzie fought Quanah Parker in the Battle of Blanco Canyon on the river. South of the canyon, in far southeastern Crosby County, it was dammed in 1963 to create a lake, the White River Reservoir, which provides water for the towns of Post, Spur and Ralls; the river was known to Spanish hunters and traders in Eastern New Mexico long before Anglo settlers arrived.
The river has been called the "Blanco Fork of Brazos River" or the "White Fork of Brazos River."Local anecdotes suggest the river level has been declining due to local pumping and depletion of the Ogallala Aquifer: "you could catch fish in it until 1955.... Today the water is 80 feet down." Where U. S. Route 82 crosses the White River, a roadside rest area with facilities and hiking trails is maintained by the Texas Department of Transportation; the central focal point of this park is Silver Falls where a spring-fed White River used to cascade over sandstone ledges. Springs that once flowed into the White River issued from the Ogallala Aquifer, tapped by the numerous farming operations on the Llano Estacado. According to annual depth to water level measurements obtained by the High Plains Underground Water District, the water table beneath the Llano Estacado has declined at a rate of −0.8 ft per year over the last decade. Over the twenty-year period from 1987 to 2007, the water table dropped a total of 18.6 ft across the District.
As a result of this depletion, the once gushing springs along this stretch of the White River have either dried or have been reduced to seeps. Lacking a steady base flow, the White River has ceased to flow and, Silver Falls is dry unless a strong thunderstorm happens to pass across the watershed; the White River has been known by various names in the past. Alternate names include the Freshwater Fork, Blanco Fork or White Fork of the Brazos River and Rio Blanco. According to a 1964 decision by the United States Board on Geographical Names, the proper name for this ephemeral stream is the White River. List of rivers of Texas Blanco Canyon Mount Blanco Yellow House Canyon Double Mountain Fork Brazos River North Fork Double Mountain Fork Brazos River U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: White River Public domain photos of the Llano Estacado
U.S. Route 70
U. S. Route 70 is an east–west United States highway that runs for 2,385 miles from eastern North Carolina to east-central Arizona; as can be derived from its number, it is a major east–west highway of the Southern and Southwestern United States. It ran from coast to coast, with the current Eastern terminus near the Atlantic Ocean in North Carolina, the former Western terminus near the Pacific Ocean in California. Before the completion of the Interstate system, U. S. Highway 70 was sometimes referred to as the "Broadway of America", due to its status as one of the main east–west thoroughfares in the nation, it was promoted as the "Treasure Trail" by the U. S. Highway 70 Association as of 1951. U. S. 70 begins in Globe at a junction with U. S. Route 60, concurrent with State Route 77. SR 77 splits off east of town. U. S. 70 enters the San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation and runs southeast for 17 miles to Peridot, where it crosses Indian Route 9. It has no other highway junctions until Safford, where it begins a ten-mile overlap with U.
S. 191. U. S. 70 runs an additional 37 mi. before crossing into New Mexico east of Franklin. After entering the state of New Mexico, U. S. 70 heads southeast. Five miles after crossing the state line, it serves as the southern terminus for New Mexico State Road 92. U. S. 70 does not have another highway junction for 21 mi, where it meets State Roads 464 and 90 three miles north of Lordsburg. At Lordsburg, U. S. 70 joins with Interstate 10 eastbound, splitting off in Las Cruces, becoming Picacho Avenue in Las Cruces. When Picacho Avenue meets Main Street, US 70 follows. U. S. 70 crosses Interstate 25, has been upgraded at this point to a controlled access highway until entering the foothills of the Organ Mountains. As a divided highway, U. S. 70 crosses the Organ Mountains via San Augustin Pass, descends to the valley floor of the Tularosa Basin, next crosses the White Sands Missile Range. Overhead missile tests can close the highway for a few hours; the road passes the entrance to the White Sands National Monument, shortly after that passes the southern end of Holloman Air Force Base.
It turns northbound, picks up a concurrency with U. S. 54 upon entering Alamogordo. On the north end of Alamogordo, US54/US70 intersects the beginning of U. S. Route 82 near La Luz; the concurrency with US 54 lasts until Tularosa, the highway remains divided until US 70 and US 54 diverge. After splitting off to the northeast, U. S. 70 enters the Lincoln National Forest. The road runs across the Mescalero Apache Indian Reservation and near the resort town of Ruidoso. In Hondo, it begins another concurrency, this time with U. S. 380. U. S. 70 bypasses Roswell to the northwest, together with U. S. 285. U. S. 70 heads off to the northeast, running through Portales and Clovis before entering Texas at Texico. From mile 170.6 to mile 197.25 on US 70 the speed limit is posted at 75 mph across White Sands Missile Range. Just longer than a standard marathon. US 70 is the only non-interstate in New Mexico to receive a speed limit of 75 miles per hour. U. S. 70 enters Texas joins with U. S. 60 and U. S. 84. U. S. 60 splits off to the northeast in Farwell, just over the state line.
U. S. 70/84 angle southeast to Muleshoe, where the two routes split. U. S. 70 heads due east, meeting U. S. 385 at Springlake, having an interchange with Interstate 27 in Plainview. U. S. 70 arcs toward the south to begin a concurrency with US 62 in Floydada. The two routes head east to Paducah, where US 62 splits off to the north to join with U. S. 83. U. S. 70 proceeds to Vernon, where it overlaps U. S. 287 and U. S. 183. Near Oklaunion, U. S. 70/183 split off to the north to cross the Red River into Oklahoma. The route through Texas was cosigned with Texas State Highway 28 before 1939. SH 28 was designated in 1919 as a route from Muleshoe to Olney with a spur, SH 28A, from SH 28 at Crowell east to the Oklahoma border. In 1922, the route split in Benjamin, going east to Olney. In 1926, The portion from Crowell to Sagerton became SH 51, while the portion from Benjamin to Olney became SH 24. SH 28 was instead rerouted over SH 28A to end at the Oklahoma border. By 1939, the route was cancelled due to US 70.
U. S. 183 splits away from U. S. 70 three miles north of the state line, in the town of Davidson. It has an interchange with I-44, serving as the southern terminus of the H. E. Bailey Turnpike, one mile west of the town of Randlett. U. S. 70 passes south of Waurika. U. S. 70 becomes a four-lane divided highway near Wilson and runs through Lone Grove before entering the city of Ardmore, where it heads south on Interstate 35, bypassing the central business district. US-70 serves as the southern terminus of U. S. 177 in Madill. U. S.70 heads to Durant, where it has an interchange with the U. S. 69/75 freeway. East of Soper, U. S.70 joins with U. S.271. The two routes approach Hugo, where they serve as the southern terminus of the Indian Nation Turnpike. U. S. 271 splits off at this interchange, continuing the freeway southbound from the turnpike. U. S. 70 heads through downtown Hugo. It bypasses Idabel to the north, it meets U. S. 259 and State Highway 3 northeast of town and overlaps them into Broken Bow, forming a wrong-way concurrency with SH-3.
U. S. 70 splits off to the east in Broken Bow before leaving the state. U. S. 70 enters Arkansas eight miles west of De Queen, cros
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
Plainview is a city in and the county seat of Hale County, United States. The population was 22,194 at the 2010 census. Plainview is located on the Llano Estacado. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 13.8 square miles, all land. According to the Köppen climate classification system, Plainview has a semi-arid climate, abbreviated "BSk" on climate maps; as of the census of 2000, there were 22,336 people, 7,626 households, 5,666 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,621.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 8,471 housing units at an average density of 614.8/sq mi. The racial distribution within the city was 63.21% White, 5.87% African American, 1.13% Native American, 0.43% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 26.53% from other races, 2.77% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 49.83% of the population. There were 7,626 households of which 40.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.2% were married couples living together, 13.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.7% were non-families.
22.7% of all households were composed of single individuals, 11.2% were households of persons 65 years of age or older living alone. The average household size was 2.82, the average family size is four. In the city, the population was 31.0% under the age of 18, 11.5% aged from 18 to 24, 26.0% from 25 to 44, 18.0% from 45 to 64, 13.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.7 males. The median income per household was $31,551, the median income per family was $35,215. Males had a median income of $26,434 versus $19,888 for females; the per capita income for the city was $13,791. About 15.0% of families and 19.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.1% of those under age 18, 14.8% of those aged 65 or over. In 2009, the Texas Department of State Health Services ordered the recall of all products produced by a processing facility near Plainview owned by Peanut Corporation of America.
Rodents and feathers in the plant had been found in the facilities products. The closure was not related to closures PCA plants due to salmonella concerns. A Cargill beef processing plant the largest employer in the city, closed in 2013 due to lack of incoming animals. A result of the 2010–2012 drought; the closure created challenges for the city, as an estimated 2,300 employees and their families relocated. The Texas Department of Criminal Justice Region V office is located in Plainview; the current Region V headquarters opened in 1996 in a former Bank of America building. The city is served by the Plainview Independent School District, which enrolls 5,585 students as of 2018; the district attracts transfer students from surrounding school districts. Due to the PISD's size compared to surrounding districts, many of the district's schools provide extensive support for disabled students and students with special needs not available at other schools outside the district, in addition to more specialized courses.
The mascot for the Plainview High School is a grey English bulldog nicknamed "Big Red". Wayland Baptist University, a private four-year coeducational Baptist university, is based in the city. In 1908, when the school was founded, the campus was more than one mile from the city limit; the Museum of the Llano Estacado, which opened in 1976, is located on the university grounds. The museum is home to a permanent exhibit featuring artifacts from the Plainview Site, fossilized remains of a mammoth known as the Imperial Mammoth. An extension of South Plains College serves the residents of the city; the Plainview Herald the Plainview Daily Herald, is the city's only remaining newspaper. It was acquired from local owners by Hearst Communications in 1979, it is among the oldest newspapers in Texas still in publication. It became computer paginated in 1994, the same year it began publishing an online edition. Customers in the city are served by the Lubbock Avalanche-Journal, which reports on news from Plainview.
Eight radio stations broadcast from Plainview, including KVOP, the oldest radio station in the city. KVOP's callsign meant "Voice of Plainview"; the city is within the Lubbock television market. Due to the terrain, television stations based in Amarillo can be received over-the-air, either directly or via repeaters north of the city. Prior to 1993 all stations broadcast from Lubbock and Amarillo markets were retransmitted by the local cable operator. After changes were made to must-cary rules by the FCC only stations from Lubbock are available to cable and digital satellite customers in the city; the Steve Martin film Leap of Faith was filmed around Plainview. Several residents were hired as extras for the film; until 2016, a water tower east of downtown bore the name and mascot of the fictional town in which the movie is based: Rustwater Bengals. An episode of Vice falsely portrayed the city as a ghost town in a documentary feature called "Deliver Us from Drought", despite 22,000 residents still living in the city at the time of filming.
The feature used locations in the city, many of, closed or abandoned for years, as examples of rural flight following a drought crisis. The Vice feature followed the template of a documentary short "Dry and Drier in West Texas", broadcast on Showtime. Both documentaries portrayed residents of the city as excessively religious. James H. Clark, founder of Silicon Graphics and other companies. Jimmy Dean, singer and entrepreneur, host of The Jimmy Dean Show. Bob Dorough