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The flugelhorn is a brass instrument, pitched in B♭ but found in C. It resembles a trumpet, the tube has the same length but a wider, conical bore. A type of valved bugle, the flugelhorn was developed in Germany from a traditional English valveless bugle, with the first version sold by Heinrich Stölzel in Berlin in 1828; the valved bugle provided Adolphe Sax with the inspiration for his B♭ soprano saxhorns, on which the modern-day flugelhorn is modeled. The German word Flügel translates into English as flank. In early 18th century Germany, a ducal hunt leader known as a Flügelmeister blew the Flügelhorn, a large semicircular brass or silver valveless forerunner of the modern-day flugelhorn to direct the wings of the hunt; the flugelhorn is built in the same B ♭ pitch as many cornets. It has three piston valves and employs the same fingering system as other brass instruments, but four-piston valve and rotary valve variants exist, it can thus be played without too much trouble by trumpet and cornet players, though some adaptation to their playing style may be needed.

It is played with a more conical mouthpiece than either trumpets or cornets. The shank of the flugelhorn mouthpiece is similar in size to a cornet mouthpiece shank, standard tapered flugelhorns are interchangeable with cornets; some modern flugelhorns feature a fourth valve. This adds a useful low range that, coupled with the flugelhorn's dark sound, extends the instrument's abilities. More however, players use the fourth valve in place of the first and third valve combination, somewhat sharp. A pair of bass flugelhorns in C, called fiscorns, are played in the Catalan cobla bands which provide music for sardana dancers; the tone is fatter and regarded as more mellow and dark than the trumpet or cornet. The sound of the flugelhorn has been described as halfway between a trumpet and a French horn, whereas the cornet's sound is halfway between a trumpet and a flugelhorn; the flugelhorn is as agile as the cornet but more difficult to control in the high register, where in general it slots or locks onto notes less easily.

It is not used for aggressive or bright displays as trumpets and cornets are, but tends more towards a softer and more reflective role. The flugelhorn is a standard member of the British-style brass band, it is used in jazz, it appears in orchestral and concert band music. Famous orchestral works with flugelhorn include Igor Stravinsky's Threni, Ralph Vaughan Williams's Ninth Symphony, Michael Tippett's third symphony; the flugelhorn is sometimes substituted for the post horn in Mahler's Third Symphony, for the soprano Roman buccine in Ottorino Respighi's Pines of Rome. In HK Gruber's trumpet concerto Busking the soloist is directed to play a flugelhorn in the slow middle movement; the flugelhorn figured prominently in many of Burt Bacharach's 1960s pop song arrangements. It is featured in a solo role in Bert Kaempfert's 1962 recording of "That Happy Feeling". Flugelhorns have been used as the alto or low soprano voice in a drum and bugle corps. Another use of the flugelhorn is found in the Dutch and Belgian "Fanfareorkesten" or fanfare orchestras.

In these orchestras the flugelhorns between 10 and 20 in number, have a significant role, forming the base of the orchestra. They are pitched with sporadically an E ♭ soloist. Due to poor intonation these E♭ flugelhorns are replaced by the E♭ trumpet or cornet; the 1996 film Brassed Off features a flugelhorn performance of Rodrigo Concierto de Aranjuez, Adagio, as a key moment. The solo is played by Paul Hughes. Joe Bishop, as a member of the Woody Herman band in 1936, was one of the earliest jazz musicians to use the flugelhorn. Shorty Rogers and Kenny Baker began playing it in the early fifties, Clark Terry used it in Duke Ellington's orchestra in the mid-1950s. Chet Baker recorded several albums on the instrument in the 1960s. Miles Davis further popularized the instrument in jazz on the albums Miles Ahead and Sketches of Spain, though he did not use it much on projects. Other prominent flugelhorn players include Freddy Buzon, Freddie Hubbard, Tom Browne, Lee Morgan, Bill Dixon, Wilbur Harden, Art Farmer, Roy Hargrove, Randy Brecker, Hugh Masekela, Feya Faku, Tony Guerrero, Gary Lord, Jimmy Owens, Maynard Ferguson, Terumasa Hino, Woody Shaw, Guido Basso, Kenny Wheeler, Tom Harrell, Bill Coleman, Thad Jones, Arturo Sandoval, Lee Loughnane of the rock band Chicago, Mike Metheny, Harry Beckett, Ack van Rooyen.

Most jazz flugelhorn players use the instrument as an auxiliary to the trumpet, but in the 1970s Chuck Mangione gave up playing the trumpet and concentrated on the flugelhorn alone, notably on his jazz-pop hit song "Feels So Good". Mangione, in an interview on ABC during the 1980 Winter Olympics, for which he wrote the theme "Give It All You Got", referred to the flugelhorn as "the right baseball glove". Pop flugelhorn players include Probyn Gregory, Ronnie Wilson of the Gap Band, Rick Braun, Mic Gillette, Jeff Oster, Zach Condon of


Alakapura is a village in the southern state of Karnataka, India. It is located in the Gauribidanur taluk of Chikkaballapura district in Karnataka, it is situated 8 km away from sub-district headquarter Gauribidanur and 36 km away from district headquarter Chikkaballapura. According to Census 2011 information the location code or village code of Alakapura village is 623348.. Alakapura village is a gram panchayat. Villages comes under Alakapura gram Panchayat are Rayarekalahalli, Nandiganahalli, Doddahanumenahalli, Chikkahanumenahalli and Alakapura; the total geographical area of village is 625.59 hectares. Alakapura has a total population of 3,208 peoples with 1,555 females. There are about 734 houses in Alakapura village. Gauribidanur is nearest town to Alakapura, 8 km away. People belonging to the Alakapura village grow much maize, millet silk, etc; the major occupations of the residents of Alakapura are dairy farming. The dairy cooperative is the largest individual milk supplying cooperative in the state.

Alakapura has below types of facilities. Government higher primary School Government high School Jnanodaya Vidya Samsthe Alakapura KMF Dairy Alakapura Grocery store Alakapura Gram Panchayat Office Government Primary health center Post Office Gram Panchayat Library Alakapura Sri Channasomeshwara Swami Temple Taridalu

Heritage preservation in South Korea

The heritage preservation system of South Korea is a multi-level program aiming to preserve and cultivate Korean cultural heritage. The program is administered by the Cultural Heritage Administration, the legal framework is provided by the Cultural Heritage Protection Act of 1962, last updated in 2012; the program started in 1962 and has been extended and upgraded since then. The CHA classifies cultural heritage into five major categories and these are divided further into subcategories. Besides tangible cultural heritage, South Korea aims to preserve its intangible cultural heritage as well, including folk customs, music and handicraft; the program includes Living National Treasures, persons who possess the knowledge and skills important to pass down intangible cultural heritage to new generations. South Korea has founded several educational centers throughout the country and established a university dedicated to heritage preservation; some of the heritage properties of South Korea has been inscribed into various UNESCO lists.

As of 2014, the country has nine cultural and one natural World Heritage Sites, with 15 added to the provisional list. Although the program is considered successful by both the public and experts, there are unresolved issues regarding the system and the selection method of "living national treasure" holders; the program is administered by the Cultural Heritage Administration, the predecessor of, founded in 1945 by the American military government of Korea. It first belonged to the Ministry of Education to the Ministry of Culture. Between 1999 and 2004 it functioned as an independent agency; the CHA administers the National Palace Museum of Korea as well as various'palace offices' and'shrine offices'. It is responsible for the Royal Tombs of the Joseon Dynasty, which are part of the UNESCO World Heritage; the CHA established Korea National University of Cultural Heritage in 2000, which educates professionals for heritage preservation. Since 1999 the South Korean government founded 27 educational centers for cultivating intangible cultural heritage.

The administrator of CHA is professor of history at Korea University. The annual budget of the administration was 615 billion won in 2012; the legal framework for the heritage program is provided by the Cultural Heritage Protection Act of 1962, last updated in 2012. The legal framework of cultural heritage preservation is based on the number 961 Law of 1962, which in turn is based on the similar Japanese act of 1950; the Korean act is broader in scope extending to folklore. The act was amended in 1970 not only to include people but to support them financially. At the beginning of the program, after the Korean War, the CHA had little means to operate. Go Sangnyeol, the administrator of CHA between 1961 and 1968 set out to search for intangible cultural properties on the basis of a series of articles written by Yae Yonghae for Hankook Ilbo, as the reporter spent years in exploring the country and interviewing old masters of handicraft; the first items to be inscribed on the intangible heritage list were thus taken from Yae's articles.

Others were added based on the opinions of researchers and included winners of the annual folk tradition competitions. The recommendation of local administrations was sought. Korea introduced a unique system in the 1970s to preserve folk traditions; this was triggered by a movement called aiming to modernize life in the countryside. In an attempt to get rid of old superstitions, the movement advocated cutting down the old Zelkova trees found at village entrances, as they were believed to be'protectors' of the village according to tradition. In 1971, the songs of the haenyo, or "sea women" of Jeju Island were declared provincial intangible cultural properties. Major stakeholders of the intangible heritage program are "living national treasures" or called "holders", people who possess knowledge or skills essential for preserving Korean culture; some of these'holders' obtained significant national exposure or fame, for example Han Bongnyeo, a holder for the Korean royal court cuisine who supervises the authentic presentation of Joseon Dynasty food in historical movies and television series.

The UNESCO Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage took place in 2003 and South Korea joined the program a year later. In 2005 China declared some 1200 properties as intangible cultural heritage, with 16 items belonging to the Korean minority of the country, including the traditional wedding ceremony and nolttwigi; the CHA decided that they had to broaden the scope of intangible heritage to properties that do not have any designated'holders', like kimchi, hangul or Goryeo ginseng. The CHA opened its World Intangible Heritage Complex in Jeonju, which functions as a national centre; the complex was constructed from US$66 million. In 2017, the CHA decided to widen the range of possible cultural assets, including objects younger than 50 years, thus items like Yuna Kim's skates she wore at the 2010 Winter Olympics and the first train operated by the Seou

Poetry film

Poetry film is a subgenre of film that fuses the use of spoken word poetry, visual images, sound to create a stronger presentation and interpretation of the meaning being conveyed. This fusion of image and spoken word creates, he suggested that "a number of avant-garde film and video makers have created a synthesis of poetry and film that generates associations and metaphors neither the verbal nor the visual text would produce on its own". This genre of film was first explored in the 1920s by French Impressionists Germaine Dulac, Louis Delluc, Man Ray, Hans Richter, others. In the mid-1960s and early 1970s this genre was further explored by the Beat Generation poets Lawrence Ferlinghetti, Allen Ginsberg, Herman Berlandt, developed into a festival held annually at the Fort Mason Center in San Francisco, California. Poetry film is characterized by its nonlinear narrative style of editing, stream of consciousness flow of images and spoken words, although linear narration and editing have been used to good effect in the creation of some poetry films.

Poetry film is created as a noncommercial production, but some attempts have been made to produce commercial films. Some poetry films have been used as instructional aids in literature classes to illustrate concepts such as allusion and metaphor. In 1981, a group in Nashville, experimented with fusing spoken word and sound into what was called "poetry videos"; the concept was to create poetry videos, similar to music videos which were gaining popularity at the time, making poetry more acceptable as a commercial product. One video was produced with the assistance of the Tennessee State University communications department but was never commercially released. One of the most famous poetry films produced was aired on the Smothers Brothers Show in 1968; the film was by Lawrence Ferlinghetti and was titled the "Assassination Raga". The film fused images of death, slow sitar music, Ferlinghetti's spoken word poem about the assassination of the Kennedys. More George Aguilar has developed a TV series of poetry films called Eyestruck.

Performance Poet Hedwig Gorski was one of the first to produce and direct her video poem using state arts funding. She received an Artist's Fellowship in 2002 for media. Beginning in the 21st century the genre of poetry films making reached other parts of the world including India. Several traditional television professionals experimented with the art. In 2007 a non-profit organisation, created an exclusive platform for screening of poetry films in India; the Sadho Poetry Film Festival is a biennial international film festival in New Delhi. The first Sadho Poetry Film Festival was organised in the year 2007. Utpal Datta, Vishwajyoti Ghosh, Sidharth Pratap Singh, Parijat Kaul, Anjali Monteiro & K. P Jayasankar, Nandan Saxena & Kavita Bahl, are some of poetry film makers from India; the list of poet-poetry film makers includes Sidharth Saxena and Shashwat Mudgal from India and Tahira Rana from the UK. Utpal Datta had made his first Poetry Film'BOHUBRITTA' based on a poem by Swapna Dutta Deka, cinemotograpy is by Nagen Baishya, Editing by Aseem Sinha and Sound designing by Amrit Pritam.

The film was premiered at Annimation Film Festival. This film has been selected to Indian Panorama of International FIlm Festival of India, 2019. Mrigankasekhar Ganguly, at his 22, made first poetry film in Bengali'megh bolechhe', screened at Kolkata press club. In 2011 he directed his second poetry film'Iti Apu' recited by Soumitra Chatterjee. In 2014, he directed Stark Electric Jesus based on the poem written by Malay Roy Choudhury, it creates a language of poetry in film. Iranian director Abbas Kiarostami, is one of the most famous poetry filmmakers, who has received acclaims for his poetry films. Wees, William C. "Poetry-Films and Film Poems" in The Lux website,, retrieved on 5 March 2005 originally published in ‘Film Poems’ programme notes, April 1999 Criticism of the Poetry film BOHUBRITTA by Vishnath Review of the Poetry Film BOHUBRITTA in Assamese George Aguilar and Video Poetry Hedwig Gorski Film Performance Poem Teenager in Nova Scotia one000plateaus: an online resource for those interested in the fusion of poetry and music Sadho Poetry Film Festival


Pterostylis petrosa

Pterostylis petrosa known as the Riverina rustyhood, is a plant in the orchid family Orchidaceae and is endemic to New South Wales. It has a rosette of leaves at its base and up to eight dark brown flowers with transparent "windows", long spreading tips on the lateral sepals and a thin, insect-like labellum. Pterostylis petrosa, is a terrestrial, deciduous, herb with an underground tuber, it has a rosette of between six and ten egg-shaped leaves at the base of the flowering spike, each leaf 15–25 mm long and 6–9 mm wide. The leaves are withered by the time of flowering. Up to eight dark brown flowers with translucent panels and 30–38 mm long, 10–12 mm wide are borne on a flowering spike 90–150 mm tall; each flower is carried on the end of a thin stalk 14–20 mm long. There are between four stem leaves with their bases wrapped around the flowering spike; the dorsal sepal and petals are joined to form a hood called the "galea" over the column with the dorsal sepal having a thread-like tip 8–10 mm long.

The lateral sepals are wider than the galea. They are shallowly dished, hairy on their outer edges and taper to a thread-like tip, 14–20 mm; the labellum is brown and insect-like, 7–9 mm long and about 3 mm wide with two long hairs on the "head" end and nine to twelve shorter hairs on each side of the "body". Flowering occurs from September to November. Pterostylis petrosa was first formally described in 1983 by David Jones and Mark Clements from a specimen collected near The Rock and the description was published in Muelleria; the specific epithet is a Latin word meaning "rocky" or "stony", referring to the habitat where this orchid grows, to the type location. The Riverina rustyhood occurs in the Riverina area where it grows on a few stony hills in rock crevices and on ledges

Serge Blanchard Oba

René Serge Blanchard Oba is a Congolese politician. He is the President of the Movement for Solidarity and Development, a political party, he was the Administrator-General of the Congo Telecommunications Company from 2003 to 2008, he was a Deputy in the National Assembly of Congo-Brazzaville from 2007 to 2012. Oba was a trade union leader for a time, he was considered a protégé of Edith Sassou Bongo, President Denis Sassou Nguesso's daughter as well as the wife of Omar Bongo, the President of Gabon. Speaking on 22 January 2002, he discussed the competitive environment faced by the ONPT due to mobile phone companies as well as a revision of telephone rates, implemented earlier in the month and intended to make the ONPT more competitive. In the May 2002 parliamentary election, Oba stood as a candidate in the fifth constituency of Talangaï, a district of Brazzaville, but he and a number of other candidates were disqualified after the first round of voting by the National Election Organization Commission due to voting irregularities.

Oba was accused of orchestrating the destruction of ballot boxes. In response to CONEL's decision, Oba urged them to remain calm. In 2003, when the ONPT was split into two separate companies, Oba was appointed to head the Congo Telecommunications Company, a new company in which the state was the primary shareholder. Oba presided over the commercial launch of SOTELCO on 7 May 2003, he said on the occasion that SOTELCO planned to offer more reasonable rates. However, the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications announced on 18 June 2003 that Oba was being dismissed from his new post as Administrator-General of SOTELCO; some SOTELCO employees, pleased by the move, met on 19 June to thank President Sassou Nguesso for ending their "nightmare" and to "condemn the delaying tactics" of Oba's supporters. Reactions in the press were varied. Le Coq criticized Jean Dello, the Minister of Posts and Telecommunications, for deciding to dismiss Oba, arguing that there was no basis for the move. Meanwhile, Tam Tam d'Afrique attributed the decision to Oba's "mismanagement" and the "poisonous atmosphere" that prevailed under his leadership.

The decision to dismiss Oba proved abortive, he continued to direct the company. SOTELCO's finances were in a poor state in early 2005, but Oba anticipated that the problems would be resolved. While directing SOTELCO, Oba devoted considerable time and money to sports as well as involvement in politics, he founded a political party, the MSD, part of the Presidential Majority and loyal to President Sassou Nguesso. It held its constitutive congress at Dolisie in March 2007. Oba led the MSD as its President, while Jean-François Obembé was designated as Secretary-General and a National Convention of 476 members, as well as a Political Bureau of 159 members, were established. In an interview, Oba stressed the need for "a new discourse that focuses on the real problems of the Congolese people". In the June 2007 parliamentary election, Oba's new party performed well, winning five seats in the National Assembly. Oba stood as the MSD candidate in the fifth constituency of a district of Brazzaville. In the first round of voting, he received 47.07% of the vote against 38.31% for André Mbola, the candidate of the Congolese Labour Party.

Because Oba fell short of an outright majority, he faced Mbola in a second round of voting. Oba narrowly defeated Mbola to win the seat in the August 2007 second round, receiving 51.06% of the vote. According to Oba, his party spent more than one billion CFA francs on its 2007 election campaign; the high level of spending outraged many people. Oba denied rumors, he observed that much of the company's technical capacity had been damaged during the war and said that 22 billion CFA francs were needed to repair the telecommunications network in Brazzaville, adding that SOTELCO needed to improve services in order to remain competitive in the context of economic liberalization. Although Oba's political party had performed well in the 2007 election and he had lavished praise on Sassou Nguesso, he was not rewarded with a post in the government, the MSD did not receive a post in the Bureau of the National Assembly. Oba was dissatisfied by that outcome, feeling that his party was entitled to representation on the Bureau due to its share of seats.

At around the same time, Oba was in conflict with Judicaël Okemba, who headed a private telecommunications company, Afripa Telecom Congo. Meanwhile, SOTELCO's financial situation was continuing to deteriorate. By October 2007, the company could no longer pay its employees and was embroiled in a dispute with trade unions. In December 2007, various parties supporting Sassou Nguesso formed the Rally of the Presidential Majority, a grouping, intended to provide a basis for better organizational coordination among Sassou Nguesso's supporters. Oba's MSD refused to join the RMP. On 5 February 2008, he announced plans for a rally in Brazzaville on 16 February to express support for Sassou Nguesso's n