Fluorocarbons, sometimes referred to as perfluorocarbons or PFCs, are speaking, organofluorine compounds with the formula CxFy, i.e. they contain only carbon and fluorine, though the terminology is not followed. Compounds with the prefix perfluoro- are hydrocarbons, including those with heteroatoms, wherein all C-H bonds have been replaced by C-F bonds. Fluorocarbons can be perfluoroalkanes and fluoroalkynes and perfluoroaromatic compounds. Fluorocarbons and their derivatives are used as fluoropolymers, refrigerants and anesthetics. Perfluorocarbons or PFCs are speaking, organofluorine compounds with the formula CxFy, i.e. they contain only carbon and fluorine, though the terminology is not followed. Compounds with the prefix perfluoro- are hydrocarbons, including those with heteroatoms, wherein all C-H bonds have been replaced by C-F bonds. Fluorocarbons can be divided into perfluoroalkanes and fluoroalkynes or perfluoroaromatic compounds. Perfluoroalkanes are stable because of the strength of the carbon–fluorine bond, one of the strongest in organic chemistry.
Its strength is a result of the electronegativity of fluorine imparting partial ionic character through partial charges on the carbon and fluorine atoms, which shorten and strengthen the bond through favorable covalent interactions. Additionally, multiple carbon–fluorine bonds increase the strength and stability of other nearby carbon–fluorine bonds on the same geminal carbon, as the carbon has a higher positive partial charge. Furthermore, multiple carbon–fluorine bonds strengthen the "skeletal" carbon–carbon bonds from the inductive effect. Therefore, saturated fluorocarbons are more chemically and thermally stable than their corresponding hydrocarbon counterparts, indeed any other organic compound, they are susceptible to attack by strong reductants, e.g. Birch reduction and specialized organometallic complexes. Fluorocarbons have high density, up to over twice that of water, they are miscible with some hydrocarbons. They have low solubility in water, water has a low solubility in them, they have low refractive indices.
As the high electronegativity of fluorine reduces the polarizability of the atom, fluorocarbons are only weakly susceptible to the fleeting dipoles that form the basis of the London dispersion force. As a result, fluorocarbons have low intermolecular attractive forces and are lipophobic in addition to being hydrophobic and non-polar. Reflecting the weak intermolecular forces these compounds exhibit low viscosities when compared to liquids of similar boiling points, low surface tension and low heats of vaporization; the low attractive forces in fluorocarbon liquids make them compressible and able to dissolve gas well. Smaller fluorocarbons are volatile. There are five perfluoroalkane gases: tetrafluoromethane, octafluoropropane, perfluoro-n-butane and perfluoro-iso-butane. Nearly all other fluoroalkanes are liquids. Fluorocarbons have low surface energies and high dielectric strengths. Perfluoroalkanes In the 1960s there was a lot of interest in fluorocarbons as anesthetics; the research did not produce any anesthetics, but the research included tests on the issue of flammability, showed that the tested fluorocarbons were not flammable in air in any proportion, though most of the tests were in pure oxygen or pure nitrous oxide.
In 1993, 3M considered fluorocarbons as fire extinguishants to replace CFCs. This extinguishing effect has been attributed to their high heat capacity, which takes heat away from the fire, it has been suggested that an atmosphere containing a significant percentage of perfluorocarbons on a space station or similar would prevent fires altogether. When combustion does occur, toxic fumes result, including carbonyl fluoride, carbon monoxide, hydrogen fluoride. Perfluorocarbons dissolve high volumes of gases; the high solubility of gases is attributed to the weak intermolecular interactions in these fluorocarbon fluids. The table shows values for the mole fraction, x1, of nitrogen dissolved, calculated from the Blood–gas partition coefficient, at 298.15 K, 0.101325 M Pa. The development of the fluorocarbon industry coincided with World War II. Prior to that, fluorocarbons were prepared by reaction of fluorine with the hydrocarbon, i.e. direct fluorination. Because C-C bonds are cleaved by fluorine, direct fluorination affords smaller perfluorocarbons, such as tetrafluoromethane and octafluoropropane.
A major breakthrough that allowed the large scale manufacture of fluorocarbons was the Fowler process. In this process, cobalt trifluoride is used as the source of fluorine. Illustrative is the synthesis of perfluorohexane: C6H14 + 28 CoF3 → C6F14 + 14 HF + 28 CoF2The resulting cobalt difluoride is regenerated, sometimes in a separate reactor: 2 CoF2 + F2 → 2 CoF3Industrially, both steps are combined, for example in the manufacture of the Flutec range of fluorocarbons by F2 chemicals Ltd, using a vertical stirred bed reactor, with hydrocarbon introduced at the bottom, fluorine introduced halfway up the reactor; the fluorocarbon vapor is recovered from the top. Electrochemical fluorination involves electrolysis of a substrate dissolved in hydrogen fluoride; as fluorine is itself manufactured by the electrolysis of hydrogen fluoride
David Milton Stalls is a former American football defensive end in the National Football League for the Dallas Cowboys, Tampa Bay Buccaneers, Los Angeles Raiders. He was a member of the Denver Gold in the United States Football League, he played college football at the University of Northern Colorado. Stalls attended Taft High School and did not start playing football until ninth grade, because he used to focus on ice hockey instead. After not receiving much interest and writing letters to 40 prospective schools, he received a scholarship offer from the Division II University of Northern Colorado, he was a four-year starter at defensive tackle and received third-team Little All-American honors in 1975. In 1997, he was inducted into the University of Northern Colorado Athletic Hall of Fame. Stalls was selected in the seventh round of the 1977 NFL Draft by the Dallas Cowboys; as a rookie he was a core special teams player. In 1978, he was used as a pass-rush specialist at left defensive tackle in place of Jethro Pugh or Larry Cole and emerged as a key reserve, registering 4 unofficial sacks.
In 1979, he started the first 12 games at left defensive tackle ahead of former first-round draft choice Larry Bethea, until being replaced by Cole, after the Cowboys traded for John Dutton who would play left defensive end. He finished with 5 unofficial sacks. In 1980, Ed "Too Tall" Jones unretired and the Cowboys opened training camp with 8 quality defensive linemen, when they kept seven; the team decided to retain Bethea and Bruce Thornton instead, on August 6, Stalls was traded to the Tampa Bay Buccaneers in exchange for a 1981 seventh round pick and a 1982 fourth round pick. In 1980, the Tampa Bay Buccaneers traded for Stalls to replace an injured defensive end Wally Chambers, he appeared in 15 games with 3 starts. In 1981, he was a backup end and defensive tackle used on passing downs, until injuries to Lee Roy Selmon and Bill Kollar's season ending knee injury, forced him to start 9 games at left defensive end. In the 1982 strike shortened season, he led the team in sacks ahead of the future hall of famer Selmon.
The next year, he had a contract holdout during training camp and asked for the Buccaneers to trade him to the Denver Broncos, in order to pursue his veterinarian interests in the offseason. Complicating matters was a tense relationship with head coach John McKay and the team's ownership, because of his NFL players' union activities. Stalls ended up renegotiating his contract after the Broncos didn't accept giving up a fourth-round draft choice as part of the trade, he reported to the team and had to pay $40,000 in fines for missing time. On October 18, he was waived after the Buccaneers were notified that he signed a future services contract with the Denver Gold of the United States Football League. On November 10, 1983, needing help on the defensive line, the Los Angeles Raiders signed Stalls to a short-term contract after the Denver Gold agreed to loan him. Although he didn't have the size, he was used as a pass-rushing nose tackle where his quickness created mismatches en route to the Raiders winning Super Bowl XVIII.
Stalls took two weeks off after the Super Bowl to physically recover from the grind of the NFL season and joined training camp in February. In 1984, he led the team in sacks with 12.5 but his production started to decline halfway through the season because of his body exhaustion. On May 18, he announced his retirement to concentrate in his next career. After sitting out the previous year attending veterinary school at Colorado State University, he was signed by the Los Angeles Raiders as a free agent on July 21, 1985; the team used him again. He was released on October 3. After football, he experienced many careers such as marine biology at California State University, veterinary medical studies at Colorado State University, investment banking at Boettcher & Company and Stern Brothers, sales at MCI Telecommunications, youth advocacy with the Center for the New West, senior management with the City of Denver's Recreation Department, founder & executive director of The Spot, executive director of Aspen Youth Experience, President/CEO of Big Brothers Big Sisters of Colorado, the founder & executive director of the Street Fraternity in Denver, Colorado.
Dave Stalls: A Player for All Seasons It's Time to Come Back: Although Dave Stalls Didn't Know It, the Raiders Weren't Finished With Him Former UNC football player works to treat brain injuries, help others
Fox California Theater, renamed the Bob Hope Theatre in 2004, is a commercial building in Stockton, California built in 1930. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1979; the site hosted T&D Photoplay, the first theater in Stockton. Fox West Coast Theaters leased T&D Photoplay and renamed it The California in 1921; the building was demolished in 1929 and a new theater was built. The theater has a two-story rotunda with a circular mezzanine, a theater with mezzanine seating and a capacity for 2500 people, a 90 by 30 feet stage, 70 feet high, a lower level with choir rooms, band rooms and dressing rooms; the theater opened on October 1930, showing Spencer Tracy in Up the River. 20,000 people attended the opening celebration. The Fox Theater closed in 1973. In 1979, Madeleine Lawton and Edward C. Merlo purchased the building, nominated it to the National Register of Historic Places; the building was donated to the city in 2000. Restoration of the Fox California Theater was funded by Alex G. Spanos who requested that it be renamed the Bob Hope Theatre in honor of his close friend Bob Hope.
Additional funds were provided by grants from the United States Congress and from the state's California Bob Hope Heritage Fund. Renovations included a 1,200 square feet Italian marble floor mosaic; the original chandelier and tile in the exterior lobby were preserved. As part of the renovation, a 1928 Robert Morton theater organ, used to accompany silent movies in Seattle's Fox Theater was restored by Friends of the Fox, a volunteer organization for preserving the theater, the Sierra Chapter of the American Theatre Organ Society; the refurbished organ made its concert debut in the Bob Hope Theatre in 2005 and is played during classic movie showings. The refurbished theater reopened in September 2004 with a performance by Jerry Seinfeld. Video tour by Visit Stockton Friends of the Fox
Yeshiva Ohel Moshe is a Bensonhurst-based, Modern Orthodox co-ed day school, opened in 1927 or 1928, a time when most Brooklyn-based Jewish education was via Talmud Torah. It expanded under the leadership of the late Rabbi Eliyahu Machlis, who led Ohel Moshe, both the school and the synagogue housed in the same building, for "almost 40 years." Ohel Moshe started as school for boys in the Jewish Community House, with a Dr Zuckerbrau as principal. In 1933, Rabbi Moshe Berman took over responsibility for the school, it obtained a New York State Regents charter in 1935. At the time, the chairman of the school's board was Rabbi Nachman Ebin, rabbi of nearby Congregation Sons of Israel, principal of its Talmud Torah, an early leader in centralized kosher supervision for the city. There were 400 students in 1954, at which time the English principal was Dr. Morris M. RubensIn 1963, a co-ed class of 41 students graduated; the school, whose 1998 student enrollment was 300, operates Kiruv/outreach programs, has students "from Russia to Albania, from Israel to Iran, from Syria to neighboring communities in Brooklyn."Celebration of the school's 90th anniversary included the completion of the writing of a Sefer Torah.
In the 1970s, in cooperation with JEP, Agudath Israel of America arranged for 100 youngsters from the former Soviet Union to participate in a summer day camp program housed at Yeshiva Ohel Moshe. The families of fifty of them agreed to switch their children from public school to yeshiva. Ohel Moshe agreed to accept "the majority of these youngsters." This was an example of what Rabbi Machlis' son Mordechai wrote about his father, that "Rav Machlis referred to his yeshiva as an elementary school for ba’alei teshuvah." Family members continue to make the school what it is. Rabbi Eliyahu MachlisThe late Rabbi Eliyahu Machlis served as Rosh Yeshiva and Dean of the yeshiva and rabbi and spiritual leader of the Ohel Moshe congregation until his passing in 1990. Prior positions held by Rabbi Eliyahu Machlis include: elementary school principal, Hebrew Academy of Cleveland spiritual mentor of a Talmud Torah program in East Flatbush Rabbi of a shul in Staten IslandRebbetzin Sora MachlisRebbetzin Sora Machlis, late wife of Rabbi Eliyahu Machlis, served for many years as English Principal.
Rebbetzin Shifra StoneRebbetzin Shifra Stone, her daughter, is the present General Studies Principal. Rabbi Dov MachlisRabbi Dov Machlis, the youngest of Rebbetzin Stone's three brothers, is the present Menahel; the Yartzeits of Rabbi and Rebbetzin Machlis are 21 Teves and 17 Tamuz, respectively
Jockeys is an American documentary sports reality television series that premiered on February 6, 2009 on Animal Planet. The series chronicles the professional lives of jockeys during the famous thirty-day Oak Tree Meet at Santa Anita Park. First and second season episodes aired on Friday nights; the second season, which premiered on August 21, 2009 added Corey Nakatani and Garrett Gomez to the featured jockeys while Jon Court departed to race in Kentucky. The taglines of the show are: "Win or Die Trying" for season 1 and "To Win It All You Have to Risk It All" for season 2."Stronger" by Kanye West is used as the theme song. Mike E. Smith – A veteran and Hall of Fame jockey Chantal Sutherland – Her move from Canada to California to continue her relationship with Mike Smith serves as a dramatic subplot in the series. Sutherland's struggles. Joe Talamo – A young and successful jockey; the series chronicles. Aaron Gryder – A veteran hard-working family man who has never won the big race but continues to press on.
Jon Court – A 30-year veteran still chasing his dreams. Kayla Stra – A young Australian trying to break into the US racing world. Alex Solis – Solis is trying to recover from a broken back injury. Corey Nakatani – Breaks his collarbone in a fall early in the Oak Tree Meet in Season 1, his comeback his chronicled in Season 2. Garrett Gomez – Featured in the various episodes in Season 1 and was introduced as the nation's hottest jockey, he becomes a featured jockey in Season 2. Iggy Puglisi – While not billed as a featured jockey in the series, Puglisi is a major focus in Season 2's second episode as he attempts to come back from a broken back injury. Brandon Meier – Brandon is the son of successful jockey Randall Meier. Gary Stevens – Featured in various episodes, he rides in the Jockey Living Legends race Sandy Hawley – Hawley wins the Jockey Living Legends race aboard Tribal Chief. Julie Krone – Featured in the Jockey Living Legends episode, Krone's status as the world's best female jockey is juxtaposed against Chantal's storyline.
Angel Cordero Jr – Featured in the Jockey Living Legends episode. Pat Day, featured in the Jockey Living Legends episode. Rafael Bejarano – Featured in various episodes. Eibar Coa, cameos in the first two episodes. Edgar Prado – Cameos in the first two episodes. Official website Jockeys on IMDb Jockeys at TV.com
Matti Breschel is a Danish retired professional road racing cyclist, who competed between 2005 and 2019 for the Rabobank, Tinkoff–Saxo, Astana and EF Education First teams. Born in Ballerup, Breschel got his breakthrough with small Danish Team PH, finishing 6th at the U/23 Cycling World Championship in Verona in 2004 where he helped fellow Dane Mads Christensen finish 3rd, he won the bronze medal at the Danish National Road Racing Championship during the summer of 2004. He turned professional for the 2005 season in Denmark based Team CSC, where he signed a two-year contract. At the press conference, regarding his choice to join Team CSC in October 2004, he stated that he wished to adjust to the rigors of professional cycling, saying "I hope to get in the team, but in the beginning I just want to learn the game and to learn the races. Somewhere I know that I'm in for a beating." Under tutelage of seasoned veteran Lars Michaelsen, Breschel would start the season in the Tour of Qatar, where the two riders finished side by side, Breschel conceding the final victory to Michaelsen.
They would ride a number of classics and smaller races together, Breschel finished in a number of secondary placings, just missing the victory podiums. For the start of the 2006 season, he once again showed himself in Tour of Qatar, finishing as the best young rider of the race for the second year in a row, he showed his good form in March with a third-place finish in Le Samyn, being beaten only by Philippe Gilbert in the bunch sprint of the peloton, a few days he sprinted his way to second place at stage 2 of the Driedaagse van West-Vlaanderen where he was second only to world class sprinter Robbie McEwen. For the third, last, stage of the race, Breschel would once more sprint against McEwen, with the winner taking the overall victory of the race, this time with the effect that both riders crashed. Breschel broke his vertebrae in two places and McEwen was de-classed in the race, he came back with thunder and lightning in 2007 and came in an impressive 14th at the Paris–Roubaix, which his team-mate Stuart O'Grady won.
After recovering he won his first victory as a professional in stage 2 of Danmark Rundt in August 2007. This was the first Danish stage win in five years of this national tour. In 2008 his best season came and he got his first big international breakthrough when he on 8 June 2008, won the Philadelphia International Championship known as the Commerce Bank International Championship in Philadelphia, PA where he outsprinted all contenders in a little bunch sprint after a long and hard race. A couple of weeks he went on to take another impressive victory when he won the 2nd stage of Ster Elektrotoer, a stage finishing on the feared Cauberg and won the overall points jersey, he maintained his good form through the season and came in 2nd in the Danish Road Racing Championship, only beaten by his teammate Nicki Sørensen. In August he won two stages at Tour of Denmark and led the overall classification until the final time trial securing him a total fifth place. After all a impressive season for the young gun the biggest scalp came on 21 September where he won the last stage of the Vuelta a España in Madrid in a convincing way only a few days after he came in second in the 17th stage of the Vuelta a España.
Only a week Breschel rode impressively at the world cycling championships finishing 3rd and getting a bronze medal. Breschel had his best cobbled classics campaign in 2009, he managed to finish 6th at the Tour of 9th at the Paris-Roubaix. In June he became the Danish National Road Race Champion, he won stages in the Tour de Suisse, Volta a Catalunya, Tour de Luxembourg and Post Danmark Rundt, he managed to finish 2nd at the Vattenfall Cyclassics. During the 2010 season Breschel suffered from bad luck. Breschel won Dwars door Vlaanderen and put in strong performances in Gent–Wevelgem and Ronde Vlaanderen, but suffered mechanical defects in both races, he signed for Rabobank for the 2012 seasons. In the 2012 Paris–Roubaix he was troubled by a knee injury; however a week before that, he had finished 9th at the Tour of Flanders. He was on the podium at the Gent-Wevelgem. Breschel left Rabobank at the end of the 2012 season, joined the Danish team Saxo–Tinkoff on a two-year contract from the 2013 season onwards.
In his return to the former Team CSC squad, Breschel managed to pick up four stage wins at the Danmark Rundt – two each in 2013 and 2015. He won 2 stages and the overall at the Tour de Luxembourg. Breschel signed for Cannondale for the 2016 season, he abandoned the race on stage 14 after crashing. His best results in the season 5th at the GP du canton d'Argovie and 6th at Heistse Pijl. Breschel did not have the best year at Astana, his best result was 12th at Dwaars door Vlaanderen, a race he had won in 2010. Breschel returned to the EF Education First–Drapac p/b Cannondale team after a year in Astana colors, he finished 9th on a wet stage 5 in the Paris-Nice. At the Milan-San Remo, Breschel sprinted home in 12th position, he announced his retirement on 18 August 2019, effective from the end of the season, due to psoriatic arthritis. Team Saxo Bank profile Matti Breschel at Cycling Archives Matti Breschel's profile on Cycling Base