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Fly-by-wire is a system that replaces the conventional manual flight controls of an aircraft with an electronic interface. The movements of flight controls are converted to electronic signals transmitted by wires and flight control computers determine how to move the actuators at each control surface to provide the ordered response, it can use mechanical flight control backup systems or use fly-by-wire controls. Improved fly-by-wire systems interpret the pilot's control inputs as a desired outcome and calculate the control surface positions required to achieve that outcome; the pilot may not be aware of all the control outputs acting to effect the outcome, only that the aircraft is reacting as expected. The fly-by-wire computers act to stabilise the aircraft and adjust the flying characteristics without the pilot's involvement and to prevent the pilot operating outside of the aircraft's safe performance envelope. Mechanical and hydro-mechanical flight control systems are heavy and require careful routing of flight control cables through the aircraft by systems of pulleys, tension cables and hydraulic pipes.

Both systems require redundant backup to deal with failures, which increases weight. Both have limited ability to compensate for changing aerodynamic conditions. Dangerous characteristics such as stalling and pilot-induced oscillation, which depend on the stability and structure of the aircraft concerned rather than the control system itself, are depending on pilot's action; the term "fly-by-wire" implies. It is used in the general sense of computer-configured controls, where a computer system is interposed between the operator and the final control actuators or surfaces; this modifies the manual inputs of the pilot in accordance with control parameters. Side-sticks or conventional flight control yokes can be used to fly FBW aircraft. A FBW aircraft can be lighter than a similar design with conventional controls; this is due to the lower overall weight of the system components and because the natural stability of the aircraft can be relaxed for a transport aircraft, more for a maneuverable fighter, which means that the stability surfaces that are part of the aircraft structure can therefore be made smaller.

These include the horizontal stabilizers that are at the rear of the fuselage. If these structures can be reduced in size, airframe weight is reduced; the advantages of FBW controls were first exploited by the military and in the commercial airline market. The Airbus series of airliners used full-authority FBW controls beginning with their A320 series, see A320 flight control. Boeing followed with their 777 and designs. A pilot commands the flight control computer to make the aircraft perform a certain action, such as pitch the aircraft up, or roll to one side, by moving the control column or sidestick; the flight control computer calculates what control surface movements will cause the plane to perform that action and issues those commands to the electronic controllers for each surface. The controllers at each surface receive these commands and move actuators attached to the control surface until it has moved to where the flight control computer commanded it to; the controllers measure the position of the flight control surface with sensors such as LVDTs.

Fly-by-wire control systems allow aircraft computers to perform tasks without pilot input. Automatic stability systems operate in this way. Gyroscopes fitted with sensors are mounted in an aircraft to sense rotation on the pitch and yaw axes. Any movement results in signals to the computer, which can automatically move control actuators to stabilize the aircraft. While traditional mechanical or hydraulic control systems fail the loss of all flight control computers renders the aircraft uncontrollable. For this reason, most fly-by-wire systems incorporate either redundant computers, some kind of mechanical or hydraulic backup or a combination of both. A "mixed" control system with mechanical backup feedbacks any rudder elevation directly to the pilot and therefore makes closed loop systems senseless. Aircraft systems may be quadruplexed to prevent loss of signals in the case of failure of one or two channels. High performance aircraft that have fly-by-wire controls may be deliberately designed to have low or negative stability in some flight regimes – rapid-reacting CCV controls can electronically stabilize the lack of natural stability.

Pre-flight safety checks of a fly-by-wire system are performed using built-in test equipment. A number of control movement steps can be automatically performed, reducing workload of the pilot or groundcrew and speeding up flight-checks; some aircraft, the Panavia Tornado for example, retain a basic hydro-mechanical backup system for limited flight control capability on losing electrical power. Servo-electrically operated control surfaces were first tested in the 1930s on the Soviet Tupolev ANT-20. Long runs of mechanical and hydraulic connections were replaced with electric servos; the first pure electronic fly-by-wire aircraft with no mechanical or hydraulic backup was the Apollo Lunar Landing Training

The Freight Hoppers

The Freight Hoppers are an American old time string band, formed in 1992. Their repertoire includes music, first recorded in the late 1920s and early 1930s, spans geographically from Mississippi to West Virginia, its members include fiddle and banjo players Barry Benjamin and Frank Lee, with Allie Burbrink on guitar and vocals and Bradley Adams on string bass. Based in the Smoky Mountains of North Carolina, The Freight Hoppers draw from rural southern music for their inspiration; the band were featured on Garrison Keillor's nationally syndicated radio show A Prairie Home Companion on National Public Radio in 1996, winning second place in the show's Talent from Towns Under 2000 contest. They recorded two albums on Rounder Records: "Where'd you come from, Where'd you go?" and "Waiting on the Gravy Train". The Freight Hoppers reformed in 2007 after a five-year hiatus during which fiddler David Bass underwent heart transplant surgery; the Freight Hoppers third album is'Mile Marker',released in 2010.

The Freight Hoppers: Where'd You Come From Where'd You Go? The Freight Hoppers: Waiting on the Gravy Train Mile Marker Biography FiddleAid Benefit for David Bass's heart transplant described on The Old-Time Herald website Freighthoppers page on David Bass wins Second place in the Old-time fiddlers contest at the 2005 Galax Fiddler's Convention Review of Where'd You Come From Where'd You Go? by Arthur Berman Article about Freighthoppers reforming and signing with Roe Records YouTube video of Bass playing with the Forge Mountain Diggers YouTube video of Bass playing with the Forge Mountain Diggers at Watermelon Park Fest in Berryville, VA YouTube video of Bass playing Backstep Cindy with the Forge Mountain Diggers YouTube video of Bass playing fiddle with the Freighthoppers YouTube video of Bass playing Sally Ann with the Freighthoppers at the Free State Music Festival in Lawrence, KS

Nakhichevan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic

The Nakhichevan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, abbreviated as Nakhichevan ASSR, was an autonomous republic within the Azerbaijan SSR, itself a republic within the Soviet Union. It was formed on 16 March 1921 and became a part of the Azerbaijan SSR proper on 9 February 1924. In the 1940s, when the Azerbaijani Latin alphabet was being replaced by Cyrillic, the previous flag was replaced by a Soviet flag with "Нахчыван МССР" in gold and a dark blue bar along the fess. In the final year of World War I, Nakhchivan was the scene of more bloodshed between Armenians and Azerbaijanis, who both laid claim to the area. By 1914, the Armenian population had decreased to 40% while the Azeri population increased to 60%. After the February Revolution, the region was under the authority of the Special Transcaucasian Committee of the Russian Provisional Government and subsequently of the short-lived Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic; when the TDFR was dissolved in May 1918, Nagorno-Karabakh and Qazakh were contested between the newly formed and short-lived states of the Democratic Republic of Armenia and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic.

In June 1918, the region came under Ottoman occupation. The Ottomans razed 45 of their villages to the ground. Under the terms of the Armistice of Mudros, the Ottomans agreed to pull their troops out of the Transcaucasus to make way for the forthcoming British military presence. Under British occupation, Sir Oliver Wardrop, British Chief Commissioner in the South Caucasus, made a border proposal to solve the conflict. According to Wardrop, Armenian claims against Azerbaijan should not go beyond the administrative borders of the former Erivan Governorate, while Azerbaijan was to be limited to the governorates of Baku and Elisabethpol; this proposal was rejected by both Azeris. As disputes between both countries continued, it soon became apparent that the fragile peace under British occupation would not last. In December 1918, with the support of Azerbaijan's Musavat Party, Jafargulu Khan Nakhchivanski declared the Republic of Aras in the Nakhchivan uyezd of the former Erivan Governorate assigned to Armenia by Wardrop.

The Armenian government did not recognize the new state and sent its troops into the region to take control of it. The conflict soon erupted into the violent Aras War. British journalist C. E. Bechhofer described the situation in April 1920: By mid-June 1919, Armenia succeeded in establishing control over Nakhchivan and the whole territory of the self-proclaimed republic; the fall of the Aras republic triggered an invasion by the regular Azerbaijani army and by the end of July, Armenian troops were forced to leave Nakhchivan City to the Azeris. Again, more violence erupted leaving some ten thousand Armenians dead and forty-five Armenian villages destroyed. Meanwhile, feeling the situation to be hopeless and unable to maintain any control over the area, the British decided to withdraw from the region in mid-1919. Still, fighting between Armenians and Azeris continued and after a series of skirmishes that took place throughout the Nakhchivan district, a cease-fire agreement was concluded. However, the cease-fire lasted only and by early March 1920, more fighting broke out in Karabakh between Karabakh Armenians and Azerbaijan's regular army.

This triggered conflicts in other areas including Nakhchivan. In July 1920, the 11th Soviet Red Army invaded and occupied the region and on 28 July, declared the Nakhchivan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic with "close ties" to the Azerbaijan SSR. In November, on the verge of taking over Armenia, the Bolsheviks, in order to attract public support, promised they would allot Nakhchivan to Armenia, along with Karabakh and Zangezur; this was fulfilled when Nariman Narimanov, leader of Bolshevik Azerbaijan issued a declaration celebrating the "victory of Soviet power in Armenia," proclaimed that both Nakhchivan and Zangezur should be awarded to the Armenian people as a sign of the Azerbaijani people's support for Armenia's fight against the former DRA government: Vladimir Lenin, although welcoming this act of "great Soviet fraternity" where "boundaries had no meaning among the family of Soviet peoples," did not agree with the motion and instead called for the people of Nakhchivan to be consulted in a referendum.

According to the formal figures of this referendum, held at the beginning of 1921, 90% of Nakhchivan's population wanted to be included in the Azerbaijan SSR "with the rights of an autonomous republic." The decision to make Nakhchivan a part of modern-day Azerbaijan was cemented 16 March 1921 in the Treaty of Moscow between Bolshevist Russia and Turkey. The agreement between the Soviet Russia and Turkey called for attachment of the former Sharur-Daralagez uyezd to Nakhchivan, thus allowing Turkey to share a border with the Azerbaijan SSR; this deal was reaffirmed on 23 October, in the Treaty of Kars. Article V of the treaty stated the following: So, on 16 March 1921 the Nakhchivan ASSR was established. On 9 February 1924, the Soviet Union placed the Nakhchivan ASSR under the jurisdiction of the Azerbaijan SSR, its constitution was adopted on 18 April 1926. As a constituent part of the Soviet Union, tensions lessened over the ethnic composition of Nakhchiv


Parigala known as the Fairy Castle, is considered one of Azerbaijan's lesser-known archeological treasures and historical mysteries. The site consists of a limestone brick structure of three rooms with a window, built 300 metres up the side of a cliff in the foothills of the Caucasus Mountains near the village of Chardaghlar in northwest Azerbaijan; the structure is believed to have been built during the Caucasian Albanian period sometime between the fourth and eighth centuries. Few visit, as it sits in a remote part of Azerbaijan and requires much effort to access; the site includes a forty-metre stairway reinforced with oak beams and a covered walkway. Local guides have erected a ladder to access the site, which requires considerable strength and mountaineering skill to access; the site is in a state of good repair, although the top of the stairway has been separated from the rock by an earthquake. Wear on the limestone suggests. Parigala is a literal translation of "Fairy Castle", Pari is a female name.

According to legend, Pari - a beautiful woman during the Genghis Khan period - became the focus of a Mongol warlord who requested permission of her father that she join his harem. Pari had other plans, she had the castle built to allow her to flee the warlord and she leaped from it to her death on the rocks below, a tale which bears some similarity to the story of Baku's Maiden Tower. It has more realistically been speculated that the structure was built as a monastery for harried monks during the early Christian period, although much archaeological research remains to be done to determine the origins of the site

Dion Knelsen

Dion Knelsen is a Canadian professional ice hockey player, playing with EHC Olten of the Swiss League. Knelsen attended the University of Alaska-Fairbanks from 2006 to 2010 and turned pro in March 2010, when signing with the Peoria Rivermen of the American Hockey League, who sent him to their ECHL affiliate, the Alaska Aces. After logging his first minutes as a professional ice hockey player in the ECHL, Knelsen opted to head to Norway for the 2010-11 season, landing a job with the Sparta Warriors, he proved his scoring touch in Norway, recording 31 goals in 59 contests en route to winning the championship. Knelsen moved to Sweden for his second year in Europe, joining HockeyAllsvenskan team Mora IK, where he spent the 2011-12 campaign, totaling 17 goals and 19 assists in 51 games, he transferred to fellow HockeyAllsvenskan side Asplöven HC prior to the 2012-13 season. In April 2013, he returned for a second stint with the Sparta Warriors, he spent three more years with the team, lighting up the league in scoring with his best output coming in the 2015-16 season when he produced a league-best 34 goals in 50 contests.

His scoring prowess drew the attention of other teams around Europe and Knelsen penned a deal with Swiss NLB team SC Rapperswil-Jona Lakers in April 2016. His older brother Brandon played one game in the ECHL with the Idaho Steelheads during the 2009–10 ECHL season. Biographical information and career statistics from, or The Internet Hockey Database

Los Volcanes Biosphere Reserve

Los Volcanes Biosphere Reserve is a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve located within the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt of south-central Mexico. The 171,774.4 hectares reserve surrounds the volcanoes of Popocatépetl and Ixtaccíhuatl and marks the biogeographical boundary between the Nearctic and Neotropic ecozones. The reserve is managed by Iztaccíhuatl Popocatépetl Zoquiapan National Park; the altitude of Los Volcanes varies between 2,589 metres above sea level and 5,452 metres above sea level. There is a marked ecosystem gradient deriving from the variations in altitude, favoring enormous specific wealth and the presence of endemic species, its diverse ecosystems consist of the pine and sacred fir of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt pine-oak forests as well as high-mountain prairies. Its geological formations are of volcanic origin with a predomination of andesitic rocks. Within the reserve, the core zone comes under federal jurisdiction, the buffer zone under each State’s land planning and a combination of ejido and small landowners.

The transition zone is the property of the ejidos and small landowners. The transition zone is the only part with human settlements, including 31,480 inhabitants and land given over to farming, stock-raising, harvesting or other uses; the Ecological Planning Programme for Popocatépetl volcano and its Area of Influence covers a surface area of 28,319,253 hectares involving 34 municipalities in three states, namely: Ixtapaluca, Cocotitlán, Tenango del Aire, Amecameca, Tepetlixpa and Ecatzingo, in the State of Mexico. This article incorporates text from a free content work. License statement: UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory, UNESCO, UNESCO. To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles, please see this how-to page. For information on reusing text from Wikipedia, please see the terms of use