"Kanariya" is a song recorded by Japanese recording artist Ayumi Hamasaki for her second studio album, Loveppears. It was released by Avex Trax in Japan and Hong Kong on December 8, 1999, through Avex USA in North America in early 2000; the recording served as Hamasaki's second limited edition single, with limited physical units of 300,000 copies. The track was written by Hamasaki herself, while production was handled by long-time collaborator Max Matsuura. Two versions of "Kanariya" were made available for consumption—a radio edit produced by American disc jockey Jonathan Peters, the album version composed by Yasuhiko Hoshino. Lyrically, the song was written in third person perspective. Upon its release, "Kanariya" received mixed reviews from music critics, with some of them praising the original and radio edit, but criticizing the remixes. Commercially, the single experienced success in Japan, peaking at number one on the Oricon Singles Chart and TBS' Count Down TV chart, it sold just below its 300,000 restricted copies, was certified Gold by the Recording Industry Association of Japan for shipments of 200,000 units.
An accompanying music video for the recording was directed by Wataru Takeishi, with it portraying Hamasaki in a dark laboratory surrounded by keyboards and electronic devices. To promote the single, it appeared on several remix and greatest hits compilation albums released by Hamasaki. "Kanariya" was written by Hamasaki herself, while production was handled by long-time collaborator Max Matsuura. Two versions of "Kanariya" were made available for consumption—a radio edit produced by disc jockey Jonathan Peters, the album version composed by Yasuhiko Hoshino. Peters' remix of the track portrays a dance composition, a genre that influenced Hamasaki's second studio album, Loveppears; the song includes musical elements of house and techno. "Kanariya"'s instrumentation consists of keyboards played by Peters. The track's album version was included as a hidden track with another album entry, "Who...", has been described by members of CD Journal as a pop recording with instrumentation of guitars and a drum kit.
Lyrically, the recording was written in third person perspective, a trait, shared with the rest of the album's tracks. The song was released by Avex Trax in Japan and Hong Kong on December 8, 1999 as a CD single, serving as Hamasaki's second limited edition single with limited physical units of 300,000 copies; the physical format of "Karariya" featured a total of thirteen tracks, of which eleven were remixes and an a cappella of the track incorporating a remix for Hamasaki's tracks "Two of Us" and "From the Letter". While the former appeared on her debut studio album, A Song for ××, the latter was included as a B-side track for her single "Depend on You". On June 12, 2000, "Kanariya" was distributed in North America through Avex USA as a 12" inch vinyl, including three remixes managed by Peters; the single's artwork was photographed by Japanese photographer Toru Kumazawa, featured Hamasaki sitting in a circular pod with rhinestones on her face. The physical version of "Kanariya" failed to include a booklet, which resulted in the cover sleeve being immolated as a picture disc, featuring an emphasised plastic sheet with information on the single.
Upon its release, "Kanariya" received mixed reviews from music critics. A reviewer from Jame World was favourable to the album version of the song, acclaiming the R&B approach and Hamasaki's vocal abilities; when reviewing the CD single, the website stated, "For fans of remixes, it is a great release – however, if you want substantial music with variety and professionalism, you should look elsewhere." A member of CD Journal was positive towards the original and radio edit of the single, but criticized the remixes and labelled the sound "tired". Commercially, the single experienced success in Japan, it debuted at number one on the Oricon Singles Chart, selling 248,070 units in its first week of availability. "Kanariya" lasted six weeks within the top 200, marking one of Hamasaki's lowest-spanning singles on that chart. It opened atop on the Count Down TV chart hosted by Tokyo Broadcasting System, lasting four weeks within the top 100. By the end of 1999, the recording sold over 289,200 units in Japan, but failed to be included on Oricon's Annual Chart for unknown reasons.
The subsequent year, "Karariya" was ranked at number 92 behind five other singles released by Hamasaki. It peaked at number 84 on TBS' Annual Chart in 1999. In February 2000, the track was certified Gold by the Recording Industry Association of Japan for shipments of 200,000 units; as of July 2016, "Kanariya" has been listed as the singer's 29th best-selling single based on Oricon Style's database. An accompanying music video for the single was directed by Wataru Takeishi, uses a shorten version of Peters' remix; the visual portrays Hamasaki in a dark laboratory, being surrounded by keyboards, electronic devices and a black bird. Throughout the music video, several people start to wear headphones and follow Hamasaki, with them starting to listen to the song and observing TV monitors of the singer; each person, including Hamasaki, wears black eye shadow on one eye, a code on their hand. Over the clip, the singer is seen singing to the recording in the laboratory, with interspersed scenes portraying her wearing the outfit used for the single's artwork.
The music video was included on several DVD compilations released by Hamasaki, includingA Clips, A Complete Box Set, the digital release of A Clips Complete."Kanariya" has been promoted through compilation albums relea
A Complete: All Singles
A Complete: All Singles is a greatest hits album by Japanese singer Ayumi Hamasaki, released on September 10, 2008 to commemorate her tenth anniversary with Avex Trax. It compiles all of Hamasaki's singles from 1998 to 2008, with one new track; the album was promoted with one single, new track "Mirrorcle World". Released on April 8, 2008, it debuted at number one in Japan, selling over 250,000 copies and receiving a platinum certification, Hamasaki's first single to do so since "Blue Bird" in 2006; the album's track listing omits two of Hamasaki's singles, these being "A Song Is Born" and "Together When...". The first press of the album came in a special box along with a forty-eight-page photobook that includes unreleased alternate single covers; the album was released in 3CD + DVD formats. A Complete debuted at number one with first-week sales of 538,876 copies. In its 38-week chart run, it sold 852,259 copies in Japan, it became her best-selling album since understood, was certified 3x Platinum for shipments of 750,000 copies to stores.
In Taiwan and China, it became the best-selling Japanese album of 2008. A Complete was the eighth best-selling album of 2008 in Japan and the third best-selling by a female artist, behind Namie Amuro's Best Fiction and Utada Hikaru's Heart Station. A Complete includes all of Hamasaki's A-side single tracks since her first single "Poker Face" up to "Mirrorcle World". Many tracks on the album have been remastered such as "M", "Audience", "Poker Face", "To Be". Shortly after the release of A Complete Hamasaki announced that the Taiwanese version will include a Chinese version of "Who...". The album sold 538,876 copies by the end of the first week, debuting at #1 making it Hamasaki's first release to sell over 500,000 copies since My Story except understood's combined first and second week sales due to Oricon's 51-week rule. A Complete debuted at #7 in Taiwan in its first official week of release and climbed to #2 in its second week, with 7.61% off all album and single sales. However, A Complete maintained the top position on Taiwan's G-MUSIC chart with over 50.74% of all Japanese albums and singles sale in Taiwan.
It remained top on Taiwan's Japanese Pop Chart for 5 weeks. Hamasaki was scheduled to appear in magazines Sweet, Bea's Up, Vivi and Beatfreak to promote the album. Additionally, she held a promotional campaign in which those who ordered the album online received a gift. All tracks are single mixes except songs. All lyrics written by Ayumi Hamasaki. Oricon Sales Chart
Super Eurobeat Presents Ayu-ro Mix
The Super Eurobeat Presents Ayu-ro Mix remix album was released by Ayumi Hamasaki on February 16, 2000. The album became the second highest selling remix album in Japan of 2000 with 650,000 copies sold; the album became Hamasaki's longest charting remix album with over 31 weeks on the chart. It is the 4th best selling remix album in Japan and the 7th best selling remix album worldwide of all time. Fly High Remixed by Dave Rodgers Appears Remixed by Sergio Dall'ora & Luca Degani Boys & Girls Remixed by Sergio Dall'ora & Luca Degani Depend on You Remixed by Dave Rodgers & Alberto Contini Monochrome Remixed by Bratt Sinclaire Too Late Remixed by Dave Rodgers & Alberto Contini Trauma Remixed by Dave Rodgers & Alberto Contini Trust Remixed by Sergio Dall'ora & Luca Degani Whatever Remixed by Laurent Newfield End Roll Remixed by Laurent Newfield Poker Face Remixed by Dave Rodgers & Alberto Contini You Remixed by Bratt Sinclaire To Be Remixed by Dave Rodgers immature Remixed by Laurent Newfield kanariya Remixed by Laurent NewfieldCopies sold: 650,000+ 800,000 Ayu-ro Mix is an album in the Super Eurobeat Presents: J-Euro series launched in 2000, along with Euro Every Little Thing featuring Every Little Thing, Hyper Euro MAX featuring MAX, Euro Global featuring globe, Euro "Dream" Land featuring Dream, the successor Ayu-ro Mix 2.
Several tracks on the album were included on J-Euro Best and J-Euro Non-Stop Best. Super Eurobeat Presents Ayu-ro Mix 2 is a remix album, consisting of recordings by Japanese singer Ayumi Hamasaki remixed by various eurobeat producers from Italy, released in the late 2001 by Avex Trax. Like its predecessor Ayu-ro Mix, the album is an issue in the Super Eurobeat Presents: J-Euro series launched in 2000, along with Euro Every Little Thing featuring Every Little Thing, Hyper Euro MAX featuring MAX, Euro Global featuring globe, Euro "Dream" Land featuring Dream. Several tracks on the album can be found on J-Euro Non-Stop Best, it is Hamasaki's only remix album to reach the #1 spot on the chart. The album sold a total of 435,760 copies by the end of its chart run. Audience "Euro-Power Mix" – remixed by Dave Rodgers Evolution "Time Is Pop Mix" – remixed by Luca Degani and Sergio Dall'ora Seasons "A Eurobeat Mix" – remixed by Luca Degani and Sergio Dall'ora Duty "Power Mind Mix" – remixed by Laurent Newfield Vogue "Traditional Mix" – remixed by Dave Rodgers M "Sweet Heart Mix" - remixed by Laurent Newfield Never Ever "Eurobeat Mix" – remixed by Dave Rodgers Endless Sorrow "A Aggressive Mix" – remixed by Luca Degani and Sergio Dall'ora Far Away "ayu-ro Extended Mix" – remixed by Bratt Sinclaire Surreal "Time A Go-Go Mix" – remixed by Luca Degani and Sergio Dall'ora Appears "Melodic Extended Mix" – remixed by Luca Degani and Sergio Dall'ora Kanariya "Sweet Mix" – remixed by Laurent Newfield Immature "Power Mix" - remixed by Laurent Newfield Unite!
"Euro-Power Mix" – remixed by Dave Rodgers SUPER EUROBEAT presents ayu-ro mix information at Avex Network. SUPER EUROBEAT presents ayu-ro mix information at Oricon. List of best-selling remix albums worldwide
A phonograph record is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove. The groove starts near the periphery and ends near the center of the disc. At first, the discs were made from shellac. In recent decades, records have sometimes been called vinyl records, or vinyl; the phonograph disc record was the primary medium used for music reproduction throughout the 20th century. It had co-existed with the phonograph cylinder from the late 1880s and had superseded it by around 1912. Records retained the largest market share when new formats such as the compact cassette were mass-marketed. By the 1980s, digital media, in the form of the compact disc, had gained a larger market share, the vinyl record left the mainstream in 1991. Since the 1990s, records continue to be manufactured and sold on a smaller scale, are used by disc jockeys and released by artists in dance music genres, listened to by a growing niche market of audiophiles; the phonograph record has made a notable niche resurgence in the early 21st century – 9.2 million records were sold in the U.
S. in 2014, a 260% increase since 2009. In the UK sales have increased five-fold from 2009 to 2014; as of 2017, 48 record pressing facilities remain worldwide, 18 in the United States and 30 in other countries. The increased popularity of vinyl has led to the investment in new and modern record-pressing machines. Only two producers of lacquers remain: Apollo Masters in California, MDC in Japan. Phonograph records are described by their diameter in inches, the rotational speed in revolutions per minute at which they are played, their time capacity, determined by their diameter and speed. Vinyl records may be scratched or warped if stored incorrectly but if they are not exposed to high heat, carelessly handled or broken, a vinyl record has the potential to last for centuries; the large cover are valued by collectors and artists for the space given for visual expression when it comes to the long play vinyl LP. The phonautograph, patented by Léon Scott in 1857, used a vibrating diaphragm and stylus to graphically record sound waves as tracings on sheets of paper, purely for visual analysis and without any intent of playing them back.
In the 2000s, these tracings were first scanned by audio engineers and digitally converted into audible sound. Phonautograms of singing and speech made by Scott in 1860 were played back as sound for the first time in 2008. Along with a tuning fork tone and unintelligible snippets recorded as early as 1857, these are the earliest known recordings of sound. In 1877, Thomas Edison invented the phonograph. Unlike the phonautograph, it could both record and reproduce sound. Despite the similarity of name, there is no documentary evidence that Edison's phonograph was based on Scott's phonautograph. Edison first tried recording sound on a wax-impregnated paper tape, with the idea of creating a "telephone repeater" analogous to the telegraph repeater he had been working on. Although the visible results made him confident that sound could be physically recorded and reproduced, his notes do not indicate that he reproduced sound before his first experiment in which he used tinfoil as a recording medium several months later.
The tinfoil was wrapped around a grooved metal cylinder and a sound-vibrated stylus indented the tinfoil while the cylinder was rotated. The recording could be played back immediately; the Scientific American article that introduced the tinfoil phonograph to the public mentioned Marey and Barlow as well as Scott as creators of devices for recording but not reproducing sound. Edison invented variations of the phonograph that used tape and disc formats. Numerous applications for the phonograph were envisioned, but although it enjoyed a brief vogue as a startling novelty at public demonstrations, the tinfoil phonograph proved too crude to be put to any practical use. A decade Edison developed a improved phonograph that used a hollow wax cylinder instead of a foil sheet; this proved to be both a better-sounding and far more useful and durable device. The wax phonograph cylinder created the recorded sound market at the end of the 1880s and dominated it through the early years of the 20th century. Lateral-cut disc records were developed in the United States by Emile Berliner, who named his system the "gramophone", distinguishing it from Edison's wax cylinder "phonograph" and American Graphophone's wax cylinder "graphophone".
Berliner's earliest discs, first marketed in 1889, only in Europe, were 12.5 cm in diameter, were played with a small hand-propelled machine. Both the records and the machine were adequate only for use as a toy or curiosity, due to the limited sound quality. In the United States in 1894, under the Berliner Gramophone trademark, Berliner started marketing records of 7 inches diameter with somewhat more substantial entertainment value, along with somewhat more substantial gramophones to play them. Berliner's records had poor sound quality compared to wax cylinders, but his manufacturing associate Eldridge R. Johnson improved it. Abandoning Berliner's "Gramophone" tradem
Music journalism is media criticism and reporting about music topics, including popular music, classical music and traditional music. Journalists began writing about music in the eighteenth century, providing commentary on what is now regarded as classical music. In the 1960s, music journalism began more prominently covering popular music like rock and pop after the breakthrough of The Beatles. With the rise of the internet in the 2000s, music criticism developed an large online presence with music bloggers, aspiring music critics, established critics supplementing print media online. Music journalism today includes reviews of songs and live concerts, profiles of recording artists, reporting of artist news and music events. Music journalism has its roots in classical music criticism, which has traditionally comprised the study, discussion and interpretation of music, composed and notated in a score and the evaluation of the performance of classical songs and pieces, such as symphonies and concertos.
Before about the 1840s, reporting on music was either done by musical journals, such as the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung and the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik, in London journals such as The Musical Times. An influential English 19th-century music critic, for example, was James William Davison of The Times; the composer Hector Berlioz wrote reviews and criticisms for the Paris press of the 1830s and 1840s. Modern art music journalism is informed by music theory consideration of the many diverse elements of a musical piece or performance, including its form and style, for performance, standards of technique and expression; these standards were expressed, for example, in journals such as Neue Zeitschrift für Musik founded by Robert Schumann, are continued today in the columns of serious newspapers and journals such as The Musical Times. Several factors—including growth of education, the influence of the Romantic movement and in music, among others—led to an increasing interest in music among non-specialist journals, an increase in the number of critics by profession of varying degrees of competence and integrity.
The 1840s could be considered a turning point, in that music critics after the 1840s were not practicing musicians. However, counterexamples include Alfred Brendel, Charles Rosen, Paul Hindemith, Ernst Krenek. In the early 1980s, a decline in the quantity of classical criticism began occurring "when classical-music criticism visibly started to disappear" from the media. At that time, magazines such as Time and Vanity Fair employed classical music critics, but by the early 1990s, classical critics were dropped in many magazines, in part due to "a decline of interest in classical music among younger people". Of concern in classical music journalism was how American reviewers can write about ethnic and folk music from cultures other than their own, such as Indian ragas and traditional Japanese works. In 1990, the World Music Institute interviewed four New York Times music critics who came up with the following criteria on how to approach ethnic music: A review should relate the music to other kinds of music that readers know, to help them understand better what the program was about.
"The performers be treated as human beings and their music be treated as human activity rather than a mystical or mysterious phenomenon." The review should show an understanding of the music's cultural intentions. A key finding in a 2005 study of arts journalism in America was that the profile of the "average classical music critic is a white, 52-year old male, with a graduate degree". Demographics indicated that the group was 74% male, 92% white, 64% had earned a graduate degree. One critic of the study pointed out that because all newspapers were included, including low-circulation regional papers, the female representation of 26% misrepresented the actual scarcity, in that the "large US papers, which are the ones that influence public opinion, have no women classical music critics", with the notable exceptions of Anne Midgette in the New York Times and Wynne Delacoma in the Chicago Sun-Times. In 2007, The New York Times wrote that classical music criticism, which it characterized as "a high-minded endeavor, around at least as long as newspapers", had undergone "a series of hits in recent months" with the elimination, downgrading, or redefinition of critics' jobs at newspapers in Atlanta and elsewhere, citing New York magazine's Peter G. Davis, "one of the most respected voices of the craft, said he had been forced out after 26 years".
Viewing "robust analysis and reportage as vital to the health of the art form", The New York Times stated in 2007 that it continued to maintain "a staff of three full-time classical music critics and three freelancers", noting that classical music criticism had become available on blogs, that a number of other major newspapers "still have full-time classical music critics", including the Los Angeles Times, The Washington Post, The Baltimore Sun, The Philadelphia Inquirer, The Boston Globe. Music writers only started "treating pop and rock music seriously" in 1964 "after the breakthrough of the Beatles". In their
Tokyo Broadcasting System
Tokyo Broadcasting System Holdings, Inc. TBS Holdings, Inc. or TBSHD, is a stockholding company in Japan. It is a parent company of a television network named Tokyo Broadcasting System Television, Inc. and radio network named TBS Radio & Communications, Inc.. TBS Television, Inc. has a 28-affiliate news network called JNN, as well as a 34-affiliate radio network called JRN which TBS Radio & Communications, Inc. has. TBS produced the Takeshi's Castle game show and is the home to the many Ultraman series programs and Sasuke, whose format would inspire similar programs outside Japan; the headquarters of TBSHD, TBS, TBS Radio, BS-TBS and C-TBS - TBS Broadcasting Center, 3-6, Akasaka Gochome, Tokyo, Japan TBS Midoriyama Studio - 2100, Aoba-ku, Japan TBSHD Kansai Branch Office - HERBIS OSAKA Office Tower, 5-25, Umeda Nihome, Kita-ku, Japan TBSHD Nagoya Branch Office - Sakaemachi Building, 23-31, Nishiki Sanchome, Naka-ku, Japan HoldingsTokyo Broadcasting System Holdings, Inc. BroadcastingTokyo Broadcasting System Television, Inc.
TBS Radio & Communications, Inc. BS-TBS, Inc. C-TBS, Inc. TBS Service, Inc. TBS-Vision, Inc. ACS, Inc. Akasaka Video Center Co. Ltd. Tokyo Broadcasting System International, Inc. TBS TriMedia, Inc. TC Entertainment, Inc. Dreamax Television Akasaka Graphics Art, Inc. F&F, Inc. Telecom Sounds Procam Co. Ltd. Jasc VuCast Nichion, Inc. Real Estate BusinessesMidoriyama Studio City TBS Planning, etc. May 1951 - Radio Tokyo was founded in Kasumigaseki, Tokyo, Japan. December 25, 1951 - KRT started radio broadcasting from Yurakucho, Chiyoda and the frequency changed to 950 kHz. April 1955 - KRT started TV broadcasting from Akasaka-Hitotsukicho, Tokyo. November 29, 1960 - KRT was renamed Tokyo Broadcasting System and the headquarters and radio studio were moved to Akasaka Media Building in Akasaka. 1971 - TBS Radio's transmitter power was increased to 100 kW. March 31, 1975 - Asahi Broadcasting Corporation dropped out JNN and Mainichi Broadcasting System joined the news network due to ownership issues with ABC. Since MBS has been an affiliated TV station of JNN in Osaka.
November 23, 1978 - The frequency of TBS Radio changed to 954 kHz. May 2, 1986 - TBS starts broadcasting the game show Takeshi's Castle. 1989 - TBS became culpable in the Sakamoto family murder by Aum Shinrikyo, resulting in complaints against the network after the case was solved several years later. October 19, 1990 - The last-ever episode of Takeshi's Castle was broadcast on TBS. October 3, 1994 - The present headquarters, TBS Broadcasting Center, were completed next to the old headquarters in Akasaka Media Building, they are called "Big Hat". April 1, 1998 - JNN News Bird starts broadcasting. In 2006, the channel was renamed TBS News Bird. February 2000 - TBS adopts a symbol based on the Kanji simbol for "person". March 21, 2000 - TBS founded TBS Radio & Communications Incorporated, TBS Entertainment Incorporated, TBS Sports Incorporated, founded TBS Live Incorporated the next day. On October 1, 2001, TBS succeeded the radio station to TBS Radio & Communications, changed callsign of TV station.
July 1, 2002 - TBS ch. starts broadcasting on pay television. October 1, 2004 - TBS Entertainment merged TBS Sports and TBS Live, changed the corporate name to "Tokyo Broadcasting System Television, Incorporated". October 13, 2005 - Rakuten Inc. announced that it bought 15.46 percent stake in TBS, bringing it up to 19%. After over a month and a half of worries over a possible hostile takeover, Rakuten withdraw its bid for TBS on December 1 and plans to form a business alliance with the broadcast company. April 1, 2006 - Digital terrestrial broadcasts commence. April 1, 2009 - TBS became a certified broadcast holding company named "Tokyo Broadcasting System Holdings, Inc.". TV broadcasting business and culture business were taken over by Tokyo Broadcasting System Television, Inc. and the letters TBS became in use for the abbreviation of the subsidiary TV company. December 1, 2011 - TBS sold the Yokohama BayStars, a Nippon Professional Baseball team to DeNA. DeNA will buy 66.92 percent of the team's stock for 6.5 billion yen from TBS.
TBS will retain a 2.31 percent ownership stake in the team. As of July 31, 2010Rakuten, Inc. - 19.83% The Master Trust Bank of Japan, Ltd. - 4.88% The Master Trust Bank of Japan, Ltd. - 4.45% Nippon Life Insurance Company - 4.10% Mainichi Broadcasting System, Inc. - 3.23% Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation - 3.01% Mitsui Fudosan Co. Ltd. - 3.00% Mitsui & Co. Ltd. - 2.25% Bic Camera, Inc. - 2.00% Kodansha, Ltd - 1.98% J. C. Staff - 4.64% JORX-TV - TBS Television Tokyo Tower - Channel 6Islands in Tokyo Niijima - Channel 56Ibaraki Prefecture Mito - Channel 40Tochigi Prefecture Utsunomiya - Channel 55Gunma Prefecture Maebashi - Channel 56 Kiryu - Channel 55Saitama Prefecture Chichibu - Channel 18Chiba Prefecture Chiba City - Channel 55 Urayasu - Channel 56Kanagawa Prefecture Yokohama-minato - Channel 56 Yokosuka-Kurihama - Channel 39 Hiratsuka - Channel 37 Odawara - Channel 56 JORX-DTV - TBS Digital Television (TBSデ
House music is a genre of electronic dance music created by club DJs and music producers in Chicago in the early 1980s. Early house music was characterized by repetitive 4/4 beats, rhythms provided by drum machines, off-beat hi-hat cymbals, synthesized basslines. While house displayed several characteristics similar to disco music, which preceded and influenced it, as both were DJ and record producer-created dance music, house was more electronic and minimalistic; the mechanical, repetitive rhythm of house was one of its main components. Many house compositions were instrumental, with no vocals. House music developed in Chicago's underground dance club culture in the early 1980s, as DJs from the subculture began altering the pop-like disco dance tracks to give them a more mechanical beat and deeper basslines; as well, these DJs began to mix synth pop, rap and jazz into their tracks. Latin music salsa clave rhythm, became a dominating riff of house music, it was pioneered by Chicago DJs such as Steve Hurley.
It was influenced by Chicago DJ and record producer Frankie Knuckles, the Chicago acid-house electronic music group Phuture, the Tennessee DJ/producer Mr. Fingers; the genre was associated with the Black American LGBT subculture but has since spread to the mainstream. From its beginnings in the Chicago club and local radio scene, the genre spread internationally to London to American cities such as New York City and Detroit, globally. Chicago house music acts from the early to mid-1980s found success on the US dance charts on various Chicago independent record labels that were more open to sign local house music artists; these same acts experienced some success in the United Kingdom, garnering hits in that country. Due to this success, by the late 1980s, Chicago house music acts found themselves being offered major label deals. House music proved to be a commercially successful genre and a more mainstream pop-based variation grew popular. Since the early to mid-1990s, house music has been infused into mainstream pop and dance music worldwide.
In the 2010s, the genre, while keeping several of its core elements, notably the prominent kick drum on most beats, varies in style and influence, ranging from soulful and atmospheric to the more minimalistic microhouse. House music has fused with several other genres creating fusion subgenres, such as euro house, tech house, electro house and jump house. One subgenre, acid house, was based around the squelchy, deep electronic tones created by Roland's TB-303 bass synthesizer. Major acts such as Madonna, Janet Jackson, Paula Abdul, Martha Wash, CeCe Peniston, Robin S. Steps, Kylie Minogue, Björk, C+C Music Factory were influenced by House music in the 1990s and beyond. After enjoying significant success which started in the late 1980s, house music grew larger during the second wave of progressive house; the genre has remained popular and fused into other popular subgenres, notably ghetto house, deep house, future house and tech house. As of today, house music remains popular on radio and in clubs while retaining a foothold on the underground scenes across the globe.
House music is created by DJs, record producers, music artists with contributions from other performers on synthesizer and other electronic instruments. The structure of house music songs involves an intro, a chorus, various verse sections, a midsection and an outro; some songs do not have a verse, repeating the same cycle. The drum beat is one of the more important elements within the genre and is always provided by an electronic drum machine Roland's TR-808 or TR-909, rather than by a live drummer; the drum beats of house are "four on the floor", with bass drums played on every beat and they feature off-beat drum machine hi-hat sounds. House music is based on bass-heavy loops or basslines produced by a synthesizer and/or from samples of disco or funk songs. One subgenre, acid house, was based around the squelchy, deep electronic tones created by Roland's TB-303 bass synthesizer; the tempo of most house songs is between 115 BPM and 132 BPM. Various disco songs incorporated sounds produced with synthesizers and electronic drum machines, some compositions were electronic.
As well, the audio mixing and editing techniques earlier explored by disco, garage music and post-disco DJs, record producers, audio engineers such as Walter Gibbons, Tom Moulton, Jim Burgess, Larry Levan, Ron Hardy, M & M, others was important. These artists produced longer, more repetitive, percussive arrangements of existing disco recordings. Early house producers such as Frankie Knuckles created similar compositions from scratch, using samplers, synthesizers and drum machines; the electronic instrumentation and minimal arrangement of Charanjit Singh's Synthesizing: Ten Ragas to a Disco Beat, an album of Indian ragas performed in a disco style, anticipated the sounds of acid house music, but it is not known to have had any influence on the genre prior to the album's rediscovery in the 21st century. Rachel Cain, co-founder of influential dance label Trax Records, was involved in the burgeoning punk scene. Ca