A vocoder is a category of voice codec that analyzes and synthesizes the human voice signal for audio data compression, voice encryption, voice transformation, etc. The decoder applies these control signals to corresponding filters for re-synthesis, since these control signals change only slowly compared to the original speech waveform, the bandwidth required to transmit speech can be reduced. This allows more speech channels to share a single communication channel, by encrypting the control signals, voice transmission can be secured against interception. Its primary use in fashion is for secure radio communication. The advantage of this method of encryption is that none of the signal is sent. The receiving unit needs to be set up in the same filter configuration to re-synthesize a version of the signal spectrum. The vocoder has used extensively as an electronic musical instrument. The decoder portion of the vocoder, called a voder, can be used independently for speech synthesis, the human voice consists of sounds generated by the opening and closing of the glottis by the vocal cords, which produces a periodic waveform with many harmonics.
This basic sound is filtered by the nose and throat to produce differences in harmonic content in a controlled way. There is another set of sounds, known as the unvoiced and plosive sounds, the vocoder examines speech by measuring how its spectral characteristics change over time. This results in a series of signals representing these modified frequencies at any time as the user speaks. In simple terms, the signal is split into a number of frequency bands, the vocoder dramatically reduces the amount of information needed to store speech, from a complete recording to a series of numbers. Information about the frequency of the original voice signal is discarded. It is this aspect of the vocoding process that has made it useful in creating special voice effects in popular music. Analog vocoders typically analyze an incoming signal by splitting the signal into a number of tuned frequency bands or ranges, a modulator and carrier signal are sent through a series of these tuned bandpass filters. In the example of a robot voice, the modulator is a microphone.
There are usually between eight and 20 bands, the amplitude of the modulator for each of the individual analysis bands generates a voltage that is used to control amplifiers for each of the corresponding carrier bands. The result is that components of the modulating signal are mapped onto the carrier signal as discrete amplitude changes in each of the frequency bands
2004 AFC Asian Cup
The 2004 AFC Asian Cup football competition was the thirteenth edition of the AFC Asian Cup. It was held from 17 July to 7 August 2004 in China, the defending champions Japan defeated China in the final in Beijing. For a list of all squads that played in the final tournament, All times are China standard time All times are China standard time With five goals, Aala Hubail and Ali Karimi are the top scorers in the tournament. In total,96 goals were scored by 58 different players, like other sports events, the Asian Cup 2004 was publicised as evidence of Chinas economic and athletic progress, being referred to by some as a prelude to the 2008 Summer Olympics. Many Chinese see the tournament as a success and take pride in having showcased such an important sporting event in advance of the Olympics Games. This was reported by the media, and was aggravated when Koji Nakata apparently knocked in the ball with his right hand in the final against China. The PRC government responded by calling for restraint and increasing numbers to maintain order.
Despite the Chinese governments campaign, a riot started by Chinese fans broke out near the gate of the Beijing Workers Stadium. As a result, some groups have said that displays of excessive Chinese nationalism during the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympics have become a cause for concern for Chinese officials
Brainstorm (Latvian band)
Brainstorm is a Latvian pop/rock band. The band became popular internationally in 2000, when they finished third in the Eurovision Song Contest 2000 with the song My Star. The band was formed in the summer of 1989 in Jelgava, Latvia by four former classmates – Renārs Kaupers, Jānis Jubalts, Gundars Mauševics, soon after, their classmate Māris Mihelsons joined the band. In September 1992 Brainstorm released their first single Jo tu nāc and finished 9th in the Latvian popular music contest, after this came their first album, Vairāk nekā skaļi 1993. The main single from that album is Ziema, which has a video,1994 was the quietest period in the bands history, although in that year they released the maxi-single Vietu nav with only 500 copies. In 1995 one of the earlier songs Lidmašīnas became one of the most commercially successful singles in Latvia. The band performed in Germany and the United Kingdom, after experimenting with alternative music, Brainstorm returned to mainstream music and released their next album Veronika.
The most popular songs from the album were Dārznieks, Apelsīns and Lidmašīnas, at the end of the year, Latvian radio stations started to play the song Tavas mājas manā azotē, which topped Latvian Airplay charts for 9 weeks and became the biggest hit of 1996. The next step was signing a contract with Microphone Records, one of the biggest record companies in Latvia and releasing the next album, the main tracks from the album were Viss ir tieši tā kā tu vēlies, Mans draugs, Neatgriešanās and Tavas mājas manā azotē. Brainstorms first international single was recorded in 1998 in Germany with Volker Hinkel and this single was Under my wing, the English version of Tavas mājas manā azotē. The single was aired in the Baltic States and other countries, soon after this, the band was awarded the Grand Prix prize at the Karlshamn music festival in Sweden. In 1999, Brainstorm released their fourth album Starp divām saulēm and their first international album Among the Suns, the album was recorded in Sweden and Denmark.
All five singles from the album – Puse no sirds, Starp divām saulēm, Prom uz siltajām salām and Tu izvēlējies palikt reached the top of the Latvian radio charts shortly after release. On 13 May 2000 in Sweden, in only 3 minutes and their song My Star achieved 3rd place among 24 contestants with their countrys debut. My Star was played internationally thereafter, in August 2000, after more than 10 years of performing, The best of Brainstorm 89-99 was released and included the bands most popular and unreleased songs. The Online album was released in 2001 or, in the Latvian version, – Kaķēns, the album featured the track Maybe. The video was shot in Prague, the second single Waterfall achieved success, and had a video which was shot in Finland. Another track Spogulīt, spogulīt, contains the lines of the fairytale about Snow White by the Brothers Grimm, the next album Dienās, kad lidlauks pārāk tāls or A Day Before Tomorrow was released in 2003
Everybody (Tanel Padar and Dave Benton song)
Everybody was the winner of the Eurovision Song Contest 2001, performed in English by Tanel Padar, Dave Benton and 2XL, representing Estonia. The song was performed twentieth on the night, following Germanys Michelle with Wer Liebe lebt, at the close of voting, it had received 198 points, with the win coming at the head of a 23-song field. Estonia were the first from the former Soviet Union countries to win the Contest, with the second, Tanel had previously provided backing vocals for Estonias 2000 entry, sung by Eda-Ines Etti, his then-girlfriend. Tanel and Dave got supported by a group of 4, 2XL, Lauri Pihlap, Kaido Põldma, Sergei Morgun. The song was succeeded as Estonian representative at the 2002 contest, held in the Estonian capital of Tallinn, the song is simply an invitation to party, with the duo singing that every nights a Friday night. The song is famous for two major reasons, the first of these is that Benton is the oldest contestant to win the grand prize. The second is that he is the first black contestant to do so, maarja-Liis Ilus has recorded a cover version
Tanel Padar is an Estonian singer. He is best known internationally for winning the Eurovision Song Contest 2001, Padar became famous by winning the Kaks takti ette, a biennial televised competition for young Estonian singers, in 1999. In 2000, Padar was one of the vocalists for Ines – who at the time was his girlfriend – at the Eurovision Song Contest 2000. In 2001, he, along with the boyband 2XL and Aruba born Dave Benton claimed the spotlight by winning the Eurovision Song Contest 2001 with the song Everybody, Padar performs in a band called Tanel Padar & The Sun, one of the most popular bands in Estonia. In 2006, Tanel Padar & The Sun had the positions in the Estonian 2006 chart, #1, #4, #12, #23, #29. One of their songs claimed the R2 Hit of the Year prize, the song Hopelessness You made it to the MTV World Chart Express. Tanel Padar was married to Katarina Kalda, a former model
The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain and over six thousand smaller isles. Situated in the North Atlantic, the islands have an area of approximately 315,159 km2. Two sovereign states are located on the islands and the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the oldest rocks in the group are in the north west of Scotland and North Wales and are 2,700 million years old. During the Silurian period the north-western regions collided with the south-east, the topography of the islands is modest in scale by global standards. Ben Nevis rises to an elevation of only 1,344 metres, and Lough Neagh, the climate is temperate marine, with mild winters and warm summers. The North Atlantic Drift brings significant moisture and raises temperatures 11 °C above the average for the latitude. This led to a landscape which was dominated by temperate rainforest. The region was re-inhabited after the last glacial period of Quaternary glaciation, which became an island by 12,000 BC, was not inhabited until after 8000 BC.
Great Britain became an island by 5600 BC, Hiberni and Britons tribes, all speaking Insular Celtic, inhabited the islands at the beginning of the 1st millennium AD. Much of Brittonic-controlled Britain was conquered by the Roman Empire from AD43, the first Anglo-Saxons arrived as Roman power waned in the 5th century and eventually dominated the bulk of what is now England. Viking invasions began in the 9th century, followed by permanent settlements. Most of Ireland seceded from the United Kingdom after the Irish War of Independence, the term British Isles is controversial in Ireland, where there are objections to its usage due to the association of the word British with Ireland. The Government of Ireland does not recognise or use the term, as a result and Ireland is used as an alternative description, and Atlantic Archipelago has had limited use among a minority in academia, while British Isles is still commonly employed. Within them, they are sometimes referred to as these islands. The earliest known references to the islands as a group appeared in the writings of sea-farers from the ancient Greek colony of Massalia.
The original records have been lost, writings, e. g. Avienuss Ora maritima, in the 1st century BC, Diodorus Siculus has Prettanikē nēsos, the British Island, and Prettanoi, the Britons. Strabo used Βρεττανική, and Marcian of Heraclea, in his Periplus maris exteri, historians today, though not in absolute agreement, largely agree that these Greek and Latin names were probably drawn from native Celtic-language names for the archipelago. Along these lines, the inhabitants of the islands were called the Πρεττανοί, the shift from the P of Pretannia to the B of Britannia by the Romans occurred during the time of Julius Caesar
British Phonographic Industry
The BPI Limited, commonly known as the British Phonographic Industry or BPI, is the British recorded music industrys trade association. Its membership comprises hundreds of companies including all three major record companies in the UK, and hundreds of independent music labels and small to medium-sized music businesses. It has represented the interests of British record companies since being formally incorporated in 1973 when the aim was to promote British music. In 2007, the legal name was changed from British Phonographic Industry Limited. It founded the annual BRIT Awards for the British music industry in 1977, the organizing company, BRIT Awards Limited, is a fully owned subsidiary of the BPI. Proceeds from both shows go to the BRIT Trust, the arm of the BPI that has donated almost £15m to charitable causes nationwide since its foundation in 1989. In September 2013, the BPI presented the first ever BRITs Icon Award to Sir Elton John, the BPI endorsed the launch of the Mercury Prize for the Album of the Year in 1992.
In September 2008, the BPI became one of the members of UK Music. The BRIT Trust is the music charity actively supporting all types of education across the entire spectrum of music. Through the projects it supports, which include Nordoff-Robbins Music Therapy and the BRIT School, proceeds from the BRIT Awards and the Classic BRITs shows go to the BRIT Trust, which has donated almost £15m to charitable causes nationwide since its foundation. Opened in September 1991, the BRIT School is a joint venture between The BRIT Trust and the Department for Education and Skills, based at Selhurst in Croydon, the school is the only non fee-paying performing arts school in the UK. It teaches up to 1,100 students each year aged from 14–19 years in music, drama, musical theatre, production and art & design. Students are from diverse backgrounds and are not required to stick to their own discipline, dancers learn songwriting. Nor do students have to work/perform in the evening to pay for the tuition, the BPI administers the Platinum and Silver awards scheme for music releases in the United Kingdom.
The level of the award varies depending on the format of the release, member companies do, still have the option to certify titles based on shipment levels if they choose to. Since July 2014, audio streaming has included for singles at a ratio of 100 streams equivalent to 1 unit. From June 2015, audio streams were added to album certifications, according to BPI, they would take the 12 most-streamed tracks from the standard version of an album, with the top two songs down-weighted in line with the average of the rest. The total of these streams will be divided by 1,000, personnel are seconded to the City of London Police Intellectual Property Crime Unit top support anti-piracy operations
ABBA were a Swedish pop group formed in Stockholm by Agnetha Fältskog, Björn Ulvaeus, Benny Andersson, and Anni-Frid Lyngstad. They became one of the most commercially successful acts in the history of popular music, topping the charts worldwide from 1974 to 1982. ABBA won the Eurovision Song Contest 1974 at The Dome in Brighton, UK, giving Sweden its first triumph in the contest, ABBAs record sales figure is uncertain and various estimates range from over 140 to over 500 million sold records. This makes them one of the music artists. They have a joint record eight consecutive number-one albums in the UK, the group enjoyed significant success in Hispanic American markets, and recorded a collection of their hit songs in Spanish. During the bands active years, Fältskog & Ulvaeus and Lyngstad & Andersson were married and these relationship changes were reflected in the groups music, with compositions featuring more introspective and dark lyrics in contrast to their usual pure-pop sound. After ABBA disbanded in December 1982, Andersson and Ulvaeus achieved success writing music for the stage, while Lyngstad and Fältskog pursued solo careers with mixed success.
Several films, notably Muriels Wedding and The Adventures of Priscilla, Queen of the Desert, further revived public interest in the group, in 1999, ABBAs music was adapted into the successful musical Mamma Mia. that toured worldwide. A film of the name, released in 2008, became the highest-grossing film in the United Kingdom that year. ABBA were honoured at the 50th anniversary celebration of the Eurovision Song Contest in 2005, the group was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2010. In 2015, their song Dancing Queen was inducted into the Recording Academys Grammy Hall of Fame, in 2016, the members of ABBA announced an upcoming project in 2017. Benny Andersson became a member of a popular Swedish pop-rock group, the Hep Stars, the Hep Stars were known as the Swedish Beatles. They set up Hep House, their equivalent of Apple Corps, Andersson had a fruitful songwriting collaboration with Lasse Berghagen, with whom he wrote his first Svensktoppen entry, Sagan om lilla Sofie, in 1968.
Björn Ulvaeus began his career at 18, when he fronted The Hootenanny Singers. Ulvaeus started writing English-language songs for his group, and even had a solo career alongside. The Hootenanny Singers and The Hep Stars sometimes crossed paths while touring, in June 1966, Ulvaeus and Andersson decided to write a song together. Their first attempt was Isnt It Easy to Say, a song recorded by The Hep Stars. Stig Anderson was the manager of The Hootenanny Singers and founder of the Polar Music label and he saw potential in the collaboration, and encouraged them to write more
Dave Benton is a pop musician from Aruba who lives in Estonia. He is the 2001 winner of the Eurovision Song Contest, since 2011, he has been a guitarist and songwriter for the Brooklyn-based lo-fi indie rock band LVL UP. He has released music under the moniker Trace Mountains. Born Efrén Eugene Benita in 1951 on the Caribbean island of Aruba and he was fluent in English and Papiamento, the creole language of the island. He married and had a daughter, in his 20s, he separated from his wife and moved to the United States. As a drummer and a backing vocalist, he worked with The Drifters, Tom Jones, Billy Ocean, José Feliciano, while living in the Netherlands in the 1980s, he met his future wife Maris, an Estonian, on a cruise ship. They settled in Estonia in 1997 and have two daughters and Lisa, Benton has had a varied musical career in Northern European countries. He speaks eight languages, Spanish, Dutch, German, Portuguese and he performed in the German production of the musical City Lights, after which he was asked to replace Engelbert Humperdinck on his Australian tour.
Benton has released and produced quite a few albums already, one of which in his native tongue and he has had more of a career as a performing artist. In 2001 he performed with budding Estonian rock singer Tanel Padar, Benton was a contestant at the 1981 OTI Festival held in Mexico City, he represented the Netherlands Antilles with the song Vaya un amigo as Efrén Benita. He finished in 20th place at this contest, Benton won the Eurovision Song Contest for Estonia, before he had learned to speak Estonian. In 2010, Benton participated as a celebrity contestant on the season of Tantsud tähtedega. His professional dancing partner was Valeria Fetissova and his oldest daughter Nathaly, from his first marriage, has a girl called Tanisia
This article is about the 12cm single. Not to be confused with 8cm single, the standard in the Red Book for the term CD single. A CD single is a single in the form of a standard size compact disc. It is not to be confused with the Mini CD single, the format was introduced in the mid-1980s but did not gain its place in the market until the early 1990s. With the rise in digital downloads in the early 2010s, sales of CD singles have decreased, commercially released CD singles can vary in length from two songs up to six songs like an EP. Some contain multiple mixes of one or more songs, in the tradition of 12 vinyl singles, depending on the nation, there may be limits on the number of songs and total length for sales to count in singles charts. Containing four tracks, it had a limited print run. CD singles were first made eligible for the UK Singles Chart in 1987, the Mini CD single format was originally created for use for singles in the late 1980s, but met with limited success, particularly in the US.
The smaller CDs were more successful in Japan and have become more common in Europe. By 1989, the CD3 was in decline in the US and it was common in the 1990s for US record companies to release both a two-track CD and a multi-track maxi CD. In the UK, record companies would release two CDs but, these consisted of three tracks or more each. Pressure from record labels made singles charts in some countries become song charts, allowing album cuts to chart based only on airplay, without a single ever being released. At the end of the 1990s, the CD was the single format in the UK, but in the US. In Australia, the Herald Sun reported the CD single is set to become extinct, while CD singles no longer maintain their own section of the store, copies are still distributed but placed with the artists albums. That is predominantly the case for popular Australian artists such as Jessica Mauboy, Kylie Minogue and, most recently, Delta Goodrem, the ARIA Singles Chart are now predominantly compiled from legal downloads, and ARIA stopped compiling their physical singles sales chart.
On a Mission by Gabriella Cilmi was the last CD single to be stocked in Kmart and Big W, sanity Entertainment, having resisted the decline for longer than the other major outlets, has ceased selling CD singles. In Greece and Cyprus, the term CD single is used to describe a play in which there may be anywhere from three to six different tracks. These releases charted on the Greek Singles Chart with songs released as singles, in September 2003, there was talk of ringtones for mobile phones outstripping CD singles sales for the year 2004
Eurovision Song Contest 2010
The Eurovision Song Contest 2010 was the 55th annual Eurovision Song Contest, broadcast from the Telenor Arena in Bærum, Greater Oslo, Norway. Norway gained the rights to host the contest after achieving a record breaking victory in Moscow the previous year and it was the third time Norway had hosted the contest, having previously done so in 1986 and 1996. The 2010 winner was Germany with Lena singing Satellite, written by American Julie Frost and it was Germanys first win in twenty-eight years, its second since the Contests inception, and its first win as a unified country. It was the first time a Big Four country won the contest since the introduction in 2000. The semi-finals took place on 25 and 27 May 2010 while the final was scheduled for 29 May 2010, the European Broadcasting Union announced that the voting system used in the semi-finals would change from previous years to balance jury voting with televoting. A return of accompaniment by orchestra was proposed, but did not happen, thirty-nine countries took part in the contest, with Georgia returning after a one-year hiatus, and Andorra, the Czech Republic and Montenegro withdrawing.
Lithuania originally announced its withdrawal from the competition, but was among the 39 participants confirmed by the EBU and this represents a larger budget than that allotted in the 2007 Contest in Helsinki, but is not as much as the budget in Moscow for 2009. The revised estimated cost for the now stands at 211 million kroner. At a press conference in Oslo on 27 May 2009, it was announced that the show was to be held in the Oslo metropolitan area, NRK argued that Oslo was the only city with the required capacity and infrastructure to hold the show. On 3 July 2009, it was decided that the venue would be the newly constructed Telenor Arena, the Oslo Spektrum was ruled out to host the contest due to its smaller size and capacity as was Valhall in Oslo and the Hamar Vikingskipet. The theme art, a series of intersecting circles, was selected to represent gathering people, in addition to the base colour of white, the logo was created in black and pink. A preview of the design was released on 6 May 2010, featuring no LED screens.
The basic synopsis of the postcards is a group of little golden balls forms the shape of each country. Then, they move and form a screen where we can see a video of a little crowd from in a city of the country about to perform supporting and cheering their act. After that, a few seconds of the performer of the country getting ready in the stage are shown, and then, NRK announced the hosts of the contest on 10 March 2010. Those chosen were Erik Solbakken, Haddy Jatou Njie, and Nadia Hasnaoui and Njie opened the three shows, introduced the artists, and reported from the green room during the voting, with Hasnaoui presenting the voting section and scoreboard announcements. This was the time that more than two hosts were presenting the shows, after the 1999 Contest. This replaces the semi-final format used in the 2008 and 2009 contests in which the countries with the top nine highest points from the results in each semi-final qualified for the final