The Han–Xiongnu War known as the Sino-Xiongnu War, was a series of military conflicts between the Chinese Han dynasty and the Xiongnu confederation from 133 BC to 89 AD. Under Emperor Wu of Han's reign, the Han dynasty switched from a passive foreign policy focused on appeasement to an aggressive expansionist strategy to deal with the increasing Xiongnu incursions on the northern frontier. In 133 BC, the conflict escalated to a full-scale war when the Xiongnu realized that the Han were about to ambush them at Mayi; the Han court decided to deploy several military expeditions toward the regions situated in the Ordos Loop, Hexi Corridor, Gobi Desert and expelled the Xiongnu. Hereafter, the war progressed further west towards the many smaller oasis states of the Western Regions; the nature of the battles varied through time, with many casualties during the changes of possession or loss of actual control over the western states near the frontier regions. Regional alliances tended to shift, sometimes forcibly, when one party gained the upper hand in a certain territory over the other.
The Han empire's political influence expanded into Central Asia as a result. As the situation deteriorated for the Xiongnu, civil war weakened the confederation. In 50 AD, the Southern Xiongnu submitted to the Han empire, but the Northern Xiongnu continued to resist; the war resulted in the total victory of the Han empire over the Xiongnu state in 89 AD. The Xiongnu were replaced by the loose confederation of the Xianbei, which lacked the centralized features of Xiongnu organization, but continued to harass the Han to their south. During the Warring States period, the states of Qin and Yan conquered various nomadic territories inhabited by the Xiongnu and other Hu peoples, they strengthen their new frontiers with elongated walled fortifications. By 221 BC, the Qin ended the chaotic Eastern Zhou period by conquering all other states and unifying the entire nation. In 215 BC, Qin Shi Huang ordered General Meng Tian to attack the Xiongnu tribes, situated in the Ordos region, establish a frontier region at the Ordos Loop.
Believing that the Xiongnu were a possible threat, the emperor launched a pre-emptive strike against the Xiongnu with the intention to expand his empire. That year, General Meng Tian succeeded in defeating the Xiongnu and seizing the Ordos region. After the catastrophic defeat at the hands of Meng, Touman Chanyu and his followers fled far into the Mongolian Plateau. Fusu and General Meng Tian were stationed at a garrison in Suide and soon began the construction of the walled defenses, connecting it with the old walls built by Qin and Zhao; the fortified walls ran from Liaodong to Lintao, thus enclosing the conquered Ordos region, safeguarding the Qin empire against the Xiongnu and other northern nomadic people. Due to the northward expansion, the threat that the Qin empire posed to the Xiongnu led to the state formation of the many tribes towards a confederacy. However, after the sudden death of Qin Shi Huang, the ensuing political corruption and chaos during the short reign of Qin Er Shi would lead to various anti-Qin rebellions bring about the collapse of the Qin Dynasty.
A massive civil war erupted between various reinstated states, with Liu Bang victorious to establish the Han Dynasty. During the transitional years between Qin and Han, while the Chinese were focused towards the interior of their nation, the Xiongnu took the opportunity to retake the territory north of the wall; the Xiongnu led incursions to the Han frontier and had considerable political influence over the border regions. In response, Emperor Gaozu led a Han army against the Xiongnu in 200 BC, pursuing them as far as Pingcheng before being ambushed by Modu Chanyu's cavalry, his encampment was encircled by the Xiongnu. Realizing that a military solution was not feasible for the time being, Emperor Gaozu sent Liu Jing to negotiate peace with Modu Chanyu. In 198 BC, a marriage alliance was concluded between the Han and the Xiongnu, but this proved far from effective as the incursions in the frontier regions continued. By the reign of Emperor Wu, the Han empire was prospering and the national treasury had accumulated large surpluses.
However, burdened by frequent Xiongnu raids at the frontier, the emperor abandoned the policies of his predecessors to maintain peace with the Xiongnu early in his reign. In 136 BC, after continued Xiongnu incursions near the northern frontier, Emperor Wu had a court conference assembled; the faction supporting war against the Xiongnu was able to sway the majority opinion by making a compromise for those worried about stretching financial resources on an indefinite campaign: in an engagement along the border near Mayi, Han forces would lure Junchen Chanyu over with wealth and promises of defections in order to eliminate him and cause political chaos for the Xiongnu. Emperor Wu launched his military campaigns against the Xiongnu in 133 BC. In 133 BC, Xiongnu forces led by the Chanyu were lured into a trap at Mayi, while a Han army of about 300,000 troops laid in ambush against the Xiongnu. Wang Hui led this campaign and commanded a force of 30,000 men, advancing from Dai with the intention of attacking the Xiongnu supply route.
Han Anguo and Gongsun He advanced towards Mayi. Junchen Chanyu led his army of 100,000 men towards Mayi, but he became suspicious of the situation; when the ambush failed, because Junchen Chanyu realized he was about to fall into a trap and fled back north, the peace was broken and the Han court resolved to engage in full-scale war. In light of this battle, the Xiongnu b
Guo Moruo, courtesy name Dingtang, was a Chinese author, historian and government official from Sichuan. Guo named Guo Kaizhen, was born on November 10 or 16, in the small town of Shawan. Shawan is located on the Dadu River some 40 km southwest from what was called the city of Jiading, now is the central urban area of the prefecture level city of Leshan in Sichuan Province. At the time of Guo's birth, Shawan was a town of some 180 families. Guo's father's ancestors were Hakkas from Ninghua County in Tingzhou fu, near the western border of Fujian, they moved to Sichuan in the second half of the 17th century, after Sichuan had lost much of its population to the rebels/bandits of Zhang Xianzhong. According to family legend, the only possessions that Guo's ancestors brought to Sichuan were things they could carry on their backs. Guo's great-grandfather, Guo Xianlin, was the first in the family to achieve a degree of prosperity. Guo Xianlin's sons established the Guo clan as the leaders of the local river shipping business, thus important people in that entire region of Sichuan.
It was only that the Guo clan members became able to send their children to school. Guo's father, one of whose names may have been Guo Mingxing, had to drop out of school at the age of 13 and spent six months as an apprentice at a salt well. Thereafter he entered his father's business, a shrewd and smart man who achieved some local renown as a Chinese medical doctor, traded in oils, opium and grain and operated a money changing business, his business success allowed him to increase salt well holdings. Guo's mother, in contrast, came from a scholar-official background, she was a daughter of a holder of the coveted jinshi degree. Whilst serving as an acting magistrate in Huangping prefecture, now part of Qiandongnan Miao and Dong Autonomous Prefecture, in eastern Guizhou, Du died in 1858 while fighting Miao rebels, when his daughter was less than a year old, she married into the Guo family in 1872. Guo was the eighth child of his mother. Three of his siblings had died before he was born, but more children were born so by the time he went to school, he had seven siblings.
Guo had the childhood name Guo Wenbao, given due to a dream his mother had on the night he was conceived. A few years before Guo was born, his parents retained a private tutor, Shen Huanzhang, to provide education for their children, in the hope of them passing civil service examinations. A precocious child, Guo started studying at this "family school" in the spring of 1897, at the early age of four and half, his studies were based on Chinese classics, but with the government education reforms of 1901, mathematics and other modern subjects started to be introduced. When in the fall of 1903 a number of public schools were established in Sichuan's capital, the Guo children started going there to study. Guo's oldest brother, Guo Kaiwen, entered one of them, Dongwen Xuetang, a secondary school preparing students for study in Japan. Guo Kaiwen soon became instrumental in exposing his brother and sisters still in Shawan to modern books and magazines that allowed them to learn about the wide world outside.
Guo Kaiwen continued to be a role model for his younger brothers when in February 1905 he left for Japan, to study law and administration at Tokyo Imperial University on a provincial government' scholarship. After passing competitive examinations, in early 1906 Guo Moruo started attending the new upper-level primary school in Jiading, it was a boarding school located in the boy lived on premises. He went on to a middle school in 1907, acquiring by this time the reputation of an academically gifted student but a troublemaker, his peers respected him and elected him a delegate to represent their interests in front of the school administration. Spearheading student-faculty conflicts, he was expelled and reinstated a few times, expelled permanently in October 1909. Guo was glad to be expelled, as he now had a reason to go to the provincial capital Chengdu to continue his education there. In October 1911, Guo was surprised by his mother announcing, he went along with his family's wishes, marrying his appointed bride, Zhang Jinghua, sight-unseen in Shawan in March 1912.
He regretted this marriage, five days after the marriage, he left his ancestral home and returned to Chengdu, leaving his wife behind. He never formally divorced her, but never lived with her either. Following his elder brothers, Guo left China in December 1913, reaching Japan in early January 1914. After a year of preparatory study in Tokyo, he entered Sixth Higher School in Okayama; when visiting a friend of his hospitalized in Saint Luke's Hospital in Tokyo, in the summer of 1916, Guo fell in love with Sato Tomiko, a Japanese woman from a Christian family, who worked at the hospital as a student nurse. Sato would become his common-law wife, they were to stay together for 20 years, until the outbreak of the war, to have five children together. After graduation from the Okayama school, Guo entered in 1918 the Medical School of Kyushu Imperial University in Fukuoka, he was more interested in literature than medicine, however. His studies at this time focused on foreign language and literature, namely the works of: Spinoza, Walt Whitman, the Bengali poet Tag
Chengjia called the Cheng dynasty or Great Cheng, was a self-proclaimed empire established by Gongsun Shu in 25 AD after the collapse of the Xin dynasty of Chinese history, rivalling the Eastern Han dynasty founded by Emperor Guangwu in the same year. Based in the Sichuan Basin with its capital at Chengdu, Chengjia covered a large area including modern Sichuan, Guizhou and southern Shaanxi, comprised about 7% of China's population at the time. Chengjia was the most dangerous rival to the Eastern Han, was the last separatist regime in China to be conquered by the latter, in 36 AD. Chengjia the "House of Cheng", was named after its capital Chengdu, it was called the Cheng dynasty or Great Cheng, meaning "complete" or "accomplished". After Wang Mang usurped the throne of the Western Han dynasty and proclaimed himself emperor of the Xin dynasty in 9 AD, he promoted Gongsun Shu to be the governor of Daojiang. In 23, rebels restored the Han dynasty under Liu Xuan, the Gengshi Emperor. Gongsun Shu ostensibly declared his allegiance to Gengshi while defeating an army sent by Liu to take over Shu.
He assumed the titles General Governor of Shu Commandery and of Yi Province. The following year, he declared himself the King of Shu under the Han empire, with Chengdu as his capital. In the fourth month of 25 AD, Gongsun Shu declared himself emperor in defiance of Gengshi, whose throne was being threatened by the forces of Liu Xiu, he adopted the era name Longxing. A few months Liu Xiu proclaimed himself Emperor Guangwu of the restored Han dynasty. Chengjia only had direct control of the Sichuan basin. Soon Ren Gui submitted to Chengjia. Gongsun Shu sent general Hou Dan to take over Hanzhong in the north and Ren Man to Jiangzhou to the east, took control of the entire Yi Province of the Han dynasty. Other rebel forces who were defeated by Emperor Guangwu, most Yan Cen and Tian Rong submitted to Chengjia; the warlord Wei Ao, who controlled eastern Gansu and was under constant pressure from the Eastern Han, submitted to Chengjia. Gongsun Shu bestowed on Wei Ao the title King of Shuoning, sent a force to support him.
At the time, Emperor Guangwu was embroiled in the civil war engulfing much of China, Gongsun Shu's advisor proposed attacking Han while it was still weak. However, despite Chengjia's vast territory, its population comprised only 7% of China's total at the time, Gongsun Shu rejected the proposal. Still, Chengjia remained Han's most dangerous rival, Guangwu took care not to antagonize Gongsun Shu addressing him as "emperor" in his letters. Chengjia remained independent for more than ten years, owing to the natural defenses enjoyed by the Sichuan basin, the unsettled conditions in the newly established Eastern Han. In 34, Emperor Guangwu conquered Gansu, held by the son and successor of Wei Ao. Chengjia sent general Li Yu with a force of more than 10,000 to assist Wei Chun, to no avail. After Guangwu conquered the rest of China, he dispatched a force led by Cen Peng to conquer Chengjia. Below the Three Gorges on the Yangtze, Chengjia's eastern frontier, Chengjia forces built a floating bridge across the river mounted with war towers, linking fortifications on both banks.
In April or May of 35, aided by favourable easterly wind, Han naval forces sailed upstream to the bridge and attacked it with torches. The wooden bridge burned down, removing the obstacle to Han invasions by water. Despite the initial success, the Han campaign was difficult because of natural obstacles. Moreover, Chengjia sent assassins who managed to kill general Lai Xi and Cen Peng, chief commander of the Han forces, which were subsequently led by Wu Han and Zang Gong; the Han forces reached Chengdu in December of 36, with only a week's supplies left. They were on the verge of accepting failure and withdrawing, when Gongsun Shu decided to lead an attack on the Han forces on 24 December. Wounded in the battle, he died in the night, the defenders of Chengdu under Marshal Yan Cen surrendered the following day, marking the end of Chengjia. Two days Wu Han granted his soldiers permission to loot Chengdu and burn down the imperial palace, he massacred Gongsun's extended family including his wife and children, as well as Yan Cen and his family.
Many other people were killed. The court musicians of Chengjia were sent to the Han capital Luoyang. Gongsun Shu modelled his government after that of the Han dynasty, appointed his advisor Li Xiong and his younger brothers and Hui, as the Three Excellencies. Gongsun Guang was the Grand Marshal, Gongsun Hui the Minister of Works, Li Xiong the Minister of the Masses. After Yan Cen and Tian Rong submitted to Chengjia, Yan was appointed Grand Marshal and enfeoffed as King of Runing, Tian was enfeoffed as King of Yijiang. Gongsun Shu abolished Han dynasty copper coins and issued his own Wu Zhu coins for Chengjia, which resemble the Han Wu Zhu coins but are made of iron because Sichuan was China's dominant producer of the metal. However, the change of currency proved unpopular with the people
Second Chinese domination of Vietnam
The second Chinese domination marks a period from 43 to 544 when Vietnam fell into Chinese control for a second time, between the end of the Trưng Sisters and the start of the Anterior Lý Dynasty. This period began when General Ma Yuan conquered Giao Chỉ from the Trưng Sisters on the order of emperor Wu of Han; this region was merged again into the Han dynasty, until civil war in China made it unstable and it became divided into many kingdoms. When the Liang dynasty was established, Lý Bí raised a revolt against them and established the Early Lý dynasty; this period lasted about 500 years. The Trung sisters' independent rule was one of the few brief interruptions during the Chinese domination of Vietnam which continued from 111 BC to 939. After the defeat of the Trung sisters, the Eastern Han dynasty strengthened its control over the region in 43 and renamed it Giao Chỉ; as the Han dynasty weakened, the prefect of Giao Chỉ, Shi Xie, ruled Vietnam as an autonomous warlord and was posthumously deified by Vietnamese Emperors.
When the Eastern Han dynasty split into the Three Kingdoms in 220, Vietnam remained under the control of the state of Wu. A female rebel named Triệu Thị Trinh pushed the Chinese rulers out in 248, but was soon overthrown. Vietnam was under Jin China and the first half of the Southern and Northern Dynasties; the domination ended by 544. Local rebellions were organized by: Chu Đạt 156–160 Lương Long 178–181 Khu Liên 192, who founded the Champa kingdom. Triệu Chỉ 299–319 Lương Thạch 319–323 Lý Trường Nhân and Lý Thúc Hiến 468–485 Taylor, Keith Weller.. The Birth of Vietnam. University of California Press. ISBN 0520074173. Retrieved 7 August 2013. Vietnam
Ban Chao, courtesy name Zhongsheng, was a Chinese military general and diplomat of the Eastern Han Dynasty. He was born in Fufeng, now Xianyang, Shaanxi. Three of his family members — father Ban Biao, elder brother Ban Gu, younger sister Ban Zhao — were well known historians who wrote the historical text Book of Han, which recorded the history of the Western Han Dynasty; as a Han general and cavalry commander, Ban Chao was in charge of administrating the "Western Regions" while he was in service. He led Han forces for over 30 years in the war against the Xiongnu and secured Han control over the Tarim Basin region, he was awarded the title "Protector General of the Western Regions" by the Han government for his efforts in protecting and governing the regions. Ban Chao, like his predecessors Huo Qubing and Wei Qing from the Former Han Dynasty before him, was effective at expelling the Xiongnu from the Tarim Basin, brought the various people of the Western Regions under Chinese rule during the second half of the 1st century CE, helping to open and secure the trade routes to the west.
He was outnumbered, but skillfully played on the divisions among his opponents. The kingdoms of Khotan and Kashgar came under Chinese rule by A. D. 74. "Pan Ch'ao crushed fresh rebellions in Kashgar and Yarkand, made the Wusun of the Ili his allies.". Hh Ban Chao was recalled to Luoyang, but sent again to the Western Region area four years during the reign of the new emperor Han Zhang Di, he obtained the military help of the Kushan Empire in 84 in repelling the Kangju who were trying to support the rebellion of the king of Kashgar, the next year in his attack on Turpan, in the eastern Tarim Basin. Ban Chao brought the whole of the Tarim Basin under Chinese control. In recognition for their support to the Chinese, the Kushans requested, but were denied, a Han princess though they had sent presents to the Chinese court. In retaliation, they marched on Ban Chao in 90 CE with a force of 70,000 but were defeated by the smaller Chinese force; the Yuezhi retreated and paid tribute to the Chinese Empire..
In 91 CE, Ban Chao succeeded in pacifying the Western Regions and was awarded the title of Protector General and stationed at Qiuci. A Wuji Colonel was re-established and, commanding five hundred soldiers, stationed in the Kingdom of Nearer Jushi, within the walls of Gaochang, 29 kilometres southeast of Turfan. In 94 CE, Chao proceeded to again defeat Yanqi. Subsequently, more than fifty kingdoms presented hostages, as submission to the Han Dynasty. In 97 CE Ban Chao sent an envoy, Gan Ying, who reached the Persian Gulf and left the first recorded Chinese account of Europe; some modern authors have claimed that Ban Chao advanced to the Caspian Sea, this interpretation has been criticized as a misreading. In 102 CE Ban Chao was retired as Protector General of the Western Regions due to age and ill health, returned to the capital Luoyang at the age of 70, but the following month died there in the 9th month of the 14th Yongyuan year. See: Hou Hanshu, chap 77. Following his death, the power of the Xiongnu in the Western Territories increased again, subsequent Chinese emperors were never able to reach so far to the west.
Ban Chao belonged to a family of historians. His father was Ban Biao who started the History of the Western Han Dynasty in 36, completed by his son Ban Gu and his daughter Ban Zhao. Ban Chao was the key source for the cultural and socio-economic data on the Western Regions contained in the Hanshu. Ban Chao's youngest son Ban Yong participated in military campaigns with his father and continued to have a central military role in the Tarim Basin into the 120s. Ban Biao Ban Gu Ban Chao Ban Xiong Ban Shi Ban Yong Ban Zhao She's the one who petitioned the reigning Emperor to let his brother return home from his posting. "Throw away your writing brush and join the military!" — based on his words "A brave man has no other plan but to follow Fu Jiezi and Zhang Qian's footsteps and do something and become somebody in a foreign land. How can I waste my life on writing? in Book of the Later Han. "... he who does not enter the tiger's lair will never catch its cubs." — similar to the saying "Nothing ventured, nothing gained."
"To die without glory is not the act of valiant men." （ ） Han-Xiongnu War Battle of Édouard. "Trois Généraux Chinois de la dynastie des Han Orientaux. Pan Tch’ao. Chapitre LXXVII du Heou Han chou." T’oung pao 7, pp. 210–269. Hill, John E.. Through the Jade Gate to Rome: A Study of the Silk Routes during the Later Han Dynasty, First to Second Centuries CE. BookSurge. ISBN 978-1-4392-2134-1; the Tarim Mummies. J. P. Mallory and Victor H. Mair. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05101-1Further Readings Yap, Joseph P; the Western Regions and Han, from the Shiji and Hou Hanshu. ISBN 978-1792829154
Tianma was a flying horse in Chinese folklore. In the Western Zhou Empire, Tianma referred to a constellation. Tianma is associated with the Han dynasty emperor Wudi, an aficionado of the Central Asian horse; the bronze statue, Gansu Flying Horse, is a well-known example. Horse in Chinese mythology Shanghai Tianma Circuit Han–Xiongnu War "The Palace Museum: Peking" Wan-go Weng/Yang Boda
Hugh Honour FRSL was a British art historian, known for his writing partnership with John Fleming. Their A World History of Art, is now in its seventh edition and Honour's Chinoiserie: The Vision of Cathay first set the phenomenon of chinoiserie in its European cultural context. Honour was born in Sussex, to Herbert and Dorothy Honour, he read English at St Catharine's College, graduating with a Bachelor of Arts degree. While at Cambridge, Honour met John Fleming, a solicitor and amateur art historian, who would become Honour's life partner. Honour accepted a position as Assistant director of Leeds City Art Gallery and Temple Newsam House but left after one year to join Fleming in Italy. Living in Asolo near Venice and Fleming began a highly-productive writing and publishing partnership, in which Fleming managed the business side of their enterprise and Honour wrote the books, they were commissioned by publisher Allen Lane to edit the Style and Civilisation series, published by Penguin Books.
Under Honour's editorial guidance, the Style and Civilisation series published in quick succession a group of texts that have attained the status of classics, including John Shearman's Mannerism, George Henderson's Gothic, Linda Nochlin's Realism. Honour's contribution, the regarded Neo-Classicism, single-handedly resuscitated the scholarly reputation of the period, which been despised or ignored during the modernist ascendancy. Romanticism, Honour's companion to Neo-Classicism, was published in 1979, long after the demise of the series. Honour and Fleming supervised the Architect and Society series. In 1966, they revised and completed Nikolaus Pevsner's The Penguin Dictionary of Architecture, in 1977 they published The Penguin Dictionary of Decorative Arts; the couple's book, A World History of Art, was published in 1982, the first survey of global art history, including Western, African, Pre-Columbian and Native American art. It is now in its 7th edition. Honour wrote Venetian Hours of Henry James and Sargent and edited the writings of the Neoclassical sculptor Antonio Canova.
In 1962, Honour and Fleming moved to Villa Marchiò outside Lucca, where they lived together until Fleming died in 2001 and where Honour resided until his death on 19 May 2016. Honour was elected in 1972 as a Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature. BooksHorace Walpole. 1957. The Companion Guide to Venice. 1965. Romanticism. 1979 Neo-Classicism. 1968. Chinoiserie: The Vision of Cathay. 1961. The Companion Guide to Venice. 1965. ISBN 1900639246 Penguin Dictionary of Architecture. 1966. -do.-2nd edition, 1972. The Penguin Dictionary of Decorative Arts. London: Allen Lane, 1977. ISBN 0713909412 A World History of Art. 1982. The Venetian Hours of Henry James and Sargent. 1991. The Visual Arts: a history. 1995. The Image of the Black in Western Art; the New Golden Land: European images of America from the discoveries to the present time. London: Allen Lane, 1976. Articles"Canova and the Anglo-Romans. Part I: The First Visit to Rome. Part II: The First Years in Rome." The Connoisseur and December 1959. 227-228. "Canova’s Studio Practice.
I: The Early Years. II: 1792–1822." The Burlington Magazine, CXIV, 1972. 147-159, 214-229. References Sources"Hugh Honour", Contemporary Authors Online, Gale Group, accessed October 2008