A flywheel is a mechanical device designed to efficiently store rotational energy. Flywheels resist changes in rotational speed by their moment of inertia; the amount of energy stored in a flywheel is proportional to the square of its rotational speed and its mass. The way to change a flywheel's stored energy without changing its mass is by increasing or decreasing its rotational speed. Since flywheels act as mechanical energy storage devices, they are the kinetic-energy-storage analogue to electrical inductors, for example, which are a type of accumulator. Like other types of accumulators, flywheels smooth the ripple in power output, providing surges of high power output as required, absorbing surges of high power input as required, in this way act as low-pass filters on the mechanical velocity of the system. Common uses of a flywheel include: Smoothing the power output of an energy source. For example, flywheels are used in reciprocating engines because the active torque from the individual pistons is intermittent.
Energy storage systems Delivering energy at rates beyond the ability of an energy source. This is achieved by collecting energy in a flywheel over time and releasing it at rates that exceed the abilities of the energy source. Controlling the orientation of a mechanical system and reaction wheelFlywheels are made of steel and rotate on conventional bearings. High energy density flywheels can be made of carbon fiber composites and employ magnetic bearings, enabling them to revolve at speeds up to 60,000 RPM. Carbon-composite flywheel batteries have been manufactured and are proving to be viable in real-world tests on mainstream cars. Additionally, their disposal is more eco-friendly than traditional lithium ion batteries. Flywheels are used to provide continuous power output in systems where the energy source is not continuous. For example, a flywheel is used to smooth fast angular velocity fluctuations of the crankshaft in a reciprocating engine. In this case, a crankshaft flywheel stores energy when torque is exerted on it by a firing piston, returns it to the piston to compress a fresh charge of air and fuel.
Another example is the friction motor. In unstressed and inexpensive cases, to save on cost, the bulk of the mass of the flywheel is toward the rim of the wheel. Pushing the mass away from the axis of rotation heightens rotational inertia for a given total mass. A flywheel may be used to supply intermittent pulses of energy at power levels that exceed the abilities of its energy source; this is achieved by accumulating energy in the flywheel over a period of time, at a rate, compatible with the energy source, releasing energy at a much higher rate over a short time when it is needed. For example, flywheels are used in riveting machines. Flywheels oppose unwanted motions, see gyroscope. Flywheels in this context have a wide range of applications from gyroscopes for instrumentation to ship stability and satellite stabilization, to keep a toy spin spinning, to stabilize magnetically levitated objects Flywheels may be used as an electric compensator, like synchronous compensator, that can either produce or sink reactive power but would not affect the real power.
The purposes for that application are to improve the power factor of the system or adjust the grid voltage. The flywheels used in this field are similar in structure and installation as the synchronous motor. There are some other kinds of compensator using flywheel, like the single phase induction machine, but the basic ideas here are the same, the flywheels are controlled to spin at the frequency which you want to compensate. And for synchronous compensator, you need to keep the voltage of rotor and stator in phase, the same as keeping the magnetic field of rotor and the total magnetic field in phase; the principle of the flywheel is found in the Neolithic spindle and the potter's wheel, as well as circular sharpening stones in antiquity. The mechanical flywheel, used to smooth out the delivery of power from a driving device to a driven machine and to allow lifting water from far greater depths, was first employed by Ibn Bassal, of Al-Andalus; the use of the flywheel as a general mechanical device to equalize the speed of rotation is, according to the American medievalist Lynn White, recorded in the De diversibus artibus of the German artisan Theophilus Presbyter who records applying the device in several of his machines.
In the Industrial Revolution, James Watt contributed to the development of the flywheel in the steam engine, his contemporary James Pickard used a flywheel combined with a crank to transform reciprocating motion into rotary motion. A flywheel is rotor, rotating around its symmetry axis. Energy is stored as kinetic energy, more rotational energy, of the rotor: E k = 1 2 I ω 2 where: E k is the stored kinetic energy, ω is the angular velocity, I is the moment of inertia of the flywheel about its axis of symmetry; the moment of inertia is a measure of resistance to torque
Lieutenant General Sean MacEoin known as John McKeown, was an officer in the Irish Defence Forces. MacEoin on was born in the Cooley Peninsula in Co Louth, he joined the Irish Army as a cadet in 1930. He served as a battalion commander during The Emergency. After the war, he held appointments in cadet school, he was appointed commandant of the Irish Military College in 1957. In January 1960, he was appointed the Irish Defence Forces Chief of Staff, he was the first graduate of the Irish Military College to have the role. In 1961, he was appointed Force Commander of the United Nations Operation in the Congo, considered a great honor for the Irish Defence Forces, commanding it during some of the fiercest fighting of the Congo Crisis, he found himself in command of 20,000 troops of different nationalities including Irish, Indians and Ghanaians, among which he was held in high regard. U Thant, the United Nations Secretary General said General MacEoin had "discharged his "duties with eminence", he was awarded a Distinguished Service Medal.
On his return to Ireland, he took over his role as Chief of Staff of the Defence Forces. The emergence of The Troubles in 1969 left the Irish Army somewhat overstretched, he retired as chief of staff of the Irish Defence Forces in 1971. MacEoin died at his home in Dublin in 1998, aged 88; the removal was from his residence to Good Shepherd Church, Dublin on 31 July, the funeral Mass took place on 1 August, he was buried at Bothar na Breinne, Rathfarnham. He had three sons and one daughter
Unleashed is a 2005 action thriller film directed by Louis Leterrier, written by Luc Besson, co-produced by Jet Li and Besson. It stars Li, Morgan Freeman, Bob Hoskins and Kerry Condon, with action choreography by Yuen Woo-Ping; the film's setting and shooting location are Glasgow. Bart is a vicious loan shark whose method of persuading men to pay him back involves Danny the Dog, a young man trained like a dog and left with the mentality of a child. Danny is a violently skilled fighter who stops at nothing to take down his targets, but only when a metal collar around his neck is removed by Bart. Once the collar is on, Danny is a harmless, withdrawn person, with little knowledge of how to live as a socialised human, he is bullied by Bart, whom Danny perceives as his master. One day, Danny meets Sam, a kind blind pianist, at the antique warehouse while dealing with Bart's clients. After the collar trick with Danny starts to fail due to its inherent limitations, Bart realizes he can end his loan shark career by entering Danny as a fighter in underground fighting deathmatches.
If Danny wins, Bart receives a hefty prize money. However, after the first fight, Bart is attacked by another criminal and is left for dead after being shot by a semi-automatic weapon. A critically injured Danny returns to the antique warehouse for shelter. Danny wakes up at the home of Sam and his stepdaughter, Victoria. Danny begins starting a new life with the benevolent family; the two teach Danny how to eat, speak, cook, go grocery shopping, how to play the piano. Danny socializes with Victoria and Sam by hanging out with them in public areas and taking family photos, he drastically changes with new clothes and fresh lifestyle, learns to live without his collar after Victoria removes it. He is drawn closer to music while spending time with Victoria, develops curiosity about who his mother was after Victoria teaches him what it means to have a family. Weeks Sam informs Danny about moving back to New York, where he and Victoria are from, he invites Danny, telling him they think of him as family, Danny accepts.
However, Danny runs into Bart’s right-hand man Lefty in the streets and is forced back to Bart after Lefty threatens to hurt Sam and Victoria. Bart, recovering from the accident, drags Danny back to the underground arena, where a death-match is set between Danny and four ruthless martial artists. Despite Danny’s refusal to fight, Bart shoves him into the pit, where he is attacked by the fighters while trying to defend himself, he retaliates by beating the four fighters, but refuses to kill them, so Bart kills the first fighter at gunpoint, drags Danny back home, shuts him back in his cage. That night, Danny sneaks through his door and goes through photographs of Bart’s favorite prostitutes finding one snapshot of who appears to be Danny’s own mother, he interrogates Bart, who tells him that she was a prostitute, long gone. He angrily promises to make Danny repay him for the money. Next morning, Danny manages to escape from Bart by causing the car to crash and goes back to Sam and Victoria, telling them what he has learned and where he was.
With the two's help, Danny figures out. As Victoria plays the same music his mother played, Danny regains memories from his childhood past: his mother was a music student with no money, so she offered herself to Bart to get some to pay for her lessons while hiding Danny from him all the time. However, it ended when Bart discovered Danny, causing her to be killed. Bart has been raising Danny since, not as a human being, but as a dog. After regaining the memories, he and Victoria try to pack up. Bart and a large gang of thugs arrive at Sam's apartment building to capture Danny. Danny runs out to fight the thugs, he faces off against The Stranger, an attacker with a skill level similar to his own, but Danny causes him to fall on Bart's car. Bart and his men pursue Danny through the building with guns catching him in Sam's apartment, he threatens to pull the trigger, all the while telling him that he was never meant for a different kind of lifestyle, but he drops the gun and instead takes out a collar, telling Danny to come home.
Danny advances toward the collar, but stops Bart at the last minute and disarms him. He proceeds causing Sam and Victoria to burst out and beg Danny not to kill. Bart tells Danny he will always be an animal, to which Sam responds by smashing a flower pot on Bart's head, knocking him unconscious. Sam and Victoria embrace having calmed Danny's rage. Bart and his men are arrested all in the aftermath; some time Danny is with Sam at a piano recital at Carnegie Hall, where Victoria is getting ready to perform. Realising Victoria is playing what his mother played years ago, Danny sheds a happy tear. Jet Li as Danny a.k.a. Danny the Dog Morgan Freeman as Sam Bob Hoskins as Bart Kerry Condon as Victoria Vincent Regan as Raffles Dylan Brown as Lefty Tamer Hassan as Georgie Michael Jenn as Wyeth Jean-François Lénogue as Raffles thug Scott Adkins as Swimming pool fighter Silvio Simac as Swimming pool fighter Mike Ian Lambert as The Stranger Unleashed was first distributed in France as Danny the Dog on February 2, 2005.
Unleashed received positive reviews. The film has a rating of 66% on Rotten Tomatoes based on 131 reviews with an average score of 6.2/10. The
The J-series is Honda's fourth production V6 engine family introduced in 1996, after the C-series, which consisted of three dissimilar versions. The J-series engine was designed in the United States by Honda engineers, it is built at Honda's Anna and Lincoln, Alabama engine plants. It is a 60° V6 – Honda's existing C-series were 90° engines; the J-series was designed for transverse mounting. It has a shorter bore spacing, shorter connecting rods and a special smaller crankshaft than the C-series to reduce its size. All J-series engines are gasoline-powered SOHC 4-valve designs with VTEC variable valve timing. One unique feature of some J-family engine models is Honda's Variable Cylinder Management system; the system uses VCM to turn off one bank of cylinders under light loads, turning the V6 into a straight-3. Some versions were able to turn off one bank of cylinders or one cylinder on opposing banks, allowing for three-cylinder use under light loads and four-cylinder use under medium loads; the J25A was used only in the Japanese domestic Inspire/Saber models.
The J25A displaced 2.5 L. Its bore and stroke was 86 mm × 71.6 mm. The J25A was a SOHC VTEC design. Output was 24.5 kg ⋅ m of torque at 4600 rpm. It had a variable intake manifold to optimize torque output across varying engine speeds and engine response. 1998-2003 Honda Inspire 1999 Honda Saber The J30A is a SOHC VTEC design. Its bore and stroke is 86 mm × 86 mm. Output for the lightweight 250 lb J30A1 was 200 lb ⋅ ft of torque at 4800 rpm; the J30A4 pushed output to 242 hp and 212 lb⋅ft using a three-way VTEC system, a higher compression ratio and a novel exhaust manifold cast as one piece with the cylinder head. It weighs nearly 20 lb less and is an inch shorter than J30A1; this version was on the Ward's 10 Best Engines list for 2003 and 2004. The IMA hybrid version was on the list for 2005. In 2006 Honda created the J30A5 to mark the 30th anniversary of the Accord, it boosted output to 211 lb ⋅ ft of torque. According to Honda, horsepower gains were achieved with improvements to the airflow of the intake and exhaust system.
1997-1999 Acura 3.0CL 1997-2003 Honda Odyssey 1998-2002 Honda Accord V6 1999-2003 Honda Avancier 2003-2005 Honda Accord V6 2006-2007 Honda Accord V6 2003-2007 Honda Inspire 2013-2016 Honda Accord V6 2013+ Acura RDX 2005-2007 Honda Accord Hybrid The J32A displaces 3,210 cc and is a SOHC VTEC design. Its bore and stroke is 89 mm × 86 mm. Output was 225 hp at 5600 rpm and 217 lb⋅ft at 4700 rpm for the J32A1, with the J32A2 raising output to 260 hp at 6200 rpm and 232 lb⋅ft at 3500-5500 rpm. A more aggressive camshaft, more free flowing intake/exhaust, a 2-stage intake manifold produced a 33.55 hp increase over the J32A1. The J32A3's output in the 2004/2005 TL is 270 hp. SAE changed the way; the J32A3 includes a one-piece exhaust manifold cast with the cylinder head, first introduced on the J30A4. 1999-2003 Acura TL 2001-2003 Acura CL 1998-2003 Honda Inspire 2001-2003 Acura CL Type-S 2002-2003 Acura TL Type-S 2004-2008 Acura TL 3.2-liter SOHC V-6 aluminum alloy engine 270 hp at 6200 rpm and 238 lb⋅ft of torque at 5000 rpm 258 hp at 6200 rpm and 233 lb⋅ft of torque at 5000 rpm Variable Valve Timing and Lift Electronic Control Dual-stage induction system Cold-air intake system Computer-controlled Programmed Fuel Injection Direct ignition system Unique exhaust manifolds that are cast directly into the head High flow close-coupled catalytic converters VTEC engagement: 4,700 rpm The J35A is a SOHC VTEC design.
Its weight is 360 lb running. 1999-2001 Honda Odyssey Displacement: 3.5 L.
Galeras is a town and municipality located in the Sucre Department, northern Colombia. The main economic activities are agriculture and cattle raising. Galeras is 50 km away from Sincelejo. Galera is a municipality formed by five "corregimientos": Puerto Franco, San Andrés de Palomo, San José de Rivera, Pueblo Nuevo Junín. and seventeen "veredas":Pueblo Nuevo II, Abre el Ojo, Mata de Guasimo, Bleo, San Pelayo, Los Leones, El Jacinto, La Corocera, San Luís, El Pantanito, El Guamo, Los Abetos, Caña Seca, Campo Ameno. Every year in the year's first week its people enjoy the town's main party: El festival de la algarroba; the Algarroba is a tree that grows in Galeras. Official website
The body or shaft of the humerus is cylindrical in the upper half of its extent and flattened below, has three borders and three surfaces. The anterior border runs from the front of the greater tubercle above to the coronoid fossa below, separating the antero-medial from the antero-lateral surface, its upper part is the crest of the greater tubercle. About its center it forms the anterior boundary of the deltoid tuberosity, on which the deltoid muscle attaches; the lateral border runs from the back part of the greater tubercle to the lateral epicondyle, separates the anterolateral from the posterior surface. Its upper half is rounded and indistinctly marked, serving for the attachment of the lower part of the insertion of the teres minor muscle, below this giving origin to the lateral head of the triceps brachii muscle; the radial nerve runs in the spiral groove. Its lower part forms a prominent, rough margin, a little curved from backward, forward the lateral supracondylar ridge, which presents an anterior lip for the origin of the brachioradialis muscle above, extensor carpi radialis longus muscle above, a posterior lip for the triceps brachii muscle, an intermediate ridge for the attachment of the lateral intermuscular septum.
The medial border extends from the lesser tubercle to the medial epicondyle. Its upper third consists of a prominent ridge, the crest of the lesser tubercle, which gives insertion to the tendon of the teres major muscle. About its center is a slight impression for the insertion of the coracobrachialis muscle, just below this is the entrance of the nutrient canal, directed downward; the inferior third of this border is raised into a slight ridge, the medial supracondylar ridge, which became prominent below. The antero-lateral surface is directed lateralward above, where it is smooth and covered by the deltoid muscle. About the middle of this surface is a rough, rectangular elevation, the deltoid tuberosity for the insertion of the deltoid muscle; the antero-medial surface, less extensive than the antero-lateral, is directed medialward above and medialward below. The posterior surface appears somewhat twisted, so that its upper part is directed a little medialward, its lower part backward and a little lateralward.
Nearly the whole of this surface is covered by the lateral and medial heads of the Triceps brachii, the former arising above, the latter below the radial sulcus. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 209 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy