The Cierva C.19 was a 1930s British two-seat autogyro, designed by Spanish engineer Juan de la Cierva. It was built by Avro as the Avro Type 620, it proved to be the most successful and produced of the early de la Cierva designs. De la Cierva's first successful autogyro, the Cierva C.6, used an Avro 504 fuselage, this led to a long and close collaboration between de la Cierva and Avro from 1926 onwards, with de la Cierva providing the rotor design, Avro the airframe from designs that appeared as both fixed-wing and rotary aircraft. There was a long series of such autogyros, developing the rotary wing concept; however the 1929 C.19, was a de la Cierva design, owing nothing to existing Avro aircraft, though it was built by Avro at Hamble. Like the earlier aircraft, the C.19 had a conventional airframe, a two-seat fuselage carrying a small-span wing with ailerons, a single radial engine in the nose. The unpowered, free-spinning rotor had four wire-braced blades, or three cantilever blades in the Mk IV, was mounted on four struts over the forward cockpit which met together to form a pyramid.
The C.19 Mk I – IV did not have the tilting rotor head and associated hanging control column of autogyros like the Cierva C.30. Instead, control was by the ailerons and rudder via a conventional column, a system that only worked when the airspeed was high enough. A major engineering refinement in the C.19 was the means to mechanically start the main rotor spinning. In the C.19 Mk I, this was done aerodynamically. The tail unit of this mark was a biplane structure with endplate rudders. To start the rotor and tailplanes were fixed in a near vertical position and the engine started; the wash from the propeller was deflected upwards by the tail unit through the rotor. For the first time, this made the autogyro independent of ground crew when starting, private ownership was a practical proposition; the 80 hp Armstrong Siddeley Genet II made the Mk I machine underpowered, it was replaced in the C.19 Mk II by a 105 hp Genet Major I. The C. 19 Mk IIA, introduced in 1930, had a longer improved rotor head.
Landings were made at high angles of attack, so the rudders of the C.19 Mk III were reshaped to slope upwards to avoid damage. In the C.19 Mk IV, the rotor was started directly from the engine via a clutch mechanism, as in all future autogyros. This allowed the elaborate biplane empennage to be replaced by a more conventional monoplane tailplane; the single central fin was low and of correspondingly deep chord, to avoid being struck by the rotor. The C. 19 Mk IV had a 34-foot-diameter cantilever rotor. The designation C.19 Mk IVP was used, the "P" standing for production, that started in 1931. The final variant was the solitary C.19 Mk V, G-ABXP. The aircraft-style controls of earlier autogyros depended on airflow past ailerons and elevators; the C.19 Mk V lacked the small wing and all-moving control surfaces, relying instead on a tilting rotor head. Using a long control arm that reached to the rear cockpit, the pilot could direct the aircraft by tilting the plane of rotation of the rotor. After a period of experimentation, the C.19 Mk V flew with a small fixed tailplane and a two-bladed rotor.
This control system was adopted for the Cierva C.30. Some thirty examples were built in England, with licences acquired by Focke-Wulf to produce it in Germany and by Lioré et Olivier in France, although no actual French production took place. All fifteen C.19 Mk IVPs appeared on the British civil register. One was used in an attempted flight to South Africa, it flew with Alan Cobham's Circus. Another went to an autogyro flying school at Hanworth. Several machines were reregistered abroad: in Australia, Japan, Singapore and Sweden. During the early 1930s, the Royal Air Force operated two C.19 Mk IIIs for evaluation of the autogyro concept. C.19 Mk. I – The original three prototypes, powered by a 60 kW Armstrong Siddeley Genet radial piston engine. C.19 Mk. II – This variant was powered by a 78 kW Armstrong Siddeley Genet Major radial piston engine; the Genet Major engine was used on all further variants. C.19 Mk. IIA – Mk. II with improved rotor head. C.19 Mk. III – C.19 Mk. IV – The definitive production version, the basis for foreign licences.
C.19 Mk. V – One-off experimental aircraft, tilting rotor head development machine. C.20 – Focke-Wulf licence-built version with Siemens Sh 14 engine. C.21 – Lioré et Olivier licence-built version. An Avro-built C.19 Mk. IVP is on display at the Museo del Aire, Cuatro Vientos, Spain. General characteristics Crew: one pilot Capacity: one passenger Length: 18 ft 0 in Main rotor diameter: 30 ft 0 in Height: 10 ft 0 in Wing area: 708 ft2 Empty weight: 850 lb Gross weight: 1,400 lb Powerplant: 1 × Armstrong Siddeley Genet Major I five-cylinder radial, 105 hp Performance Maximum speed: 95 mph Range: 300 miles Rate of climb: 500 ft/min Aircraft of comparable role and era Buhl A-1 Autogyro Pitcairn PCA-2 Pitcairn PA-18 Related lists List of aircraft of the Royal Air Force Taylo
Focke-Wulf Fw 44
The Focke-Wulf Fw 44 is a 1930s German two-seat biplane known as the Stieglitz. It was produced by the Focke-Wulf company as sport flying aircraft, it was eventually built under license in several other countries. The Fw 44 was designed as a biplane with straight, untapered wings, its two open cockpits were arranged in tandem, both cockpits were equipped with flight controls and instruments. The Fw 44 had fixed tailwheel landing gear, it employed ailerons on lower wings. It did not use flaps, it was flown with a Siemens-Halske Sh 14 radial engine. The first prototype flew in 1932. After many tests and modifications to increase the plane's durability and aerodynamics, the final Fw 44 proved to have excellent airworthiness. A second version of the Fw 44 was the Fw 44B, which had an Argus As 8 four-cylinder inverted inline air-cooled engine of 90 kW; the cowling for this engine gave the plane a more slender, aerodynamic nose. 20 Fw 44s purchased by China were modified for combat missions, participated in the early stage of the Second Sino-Japanese War until all were lost in action.
The last series version was the Fw 44J, sold or built under license in several countries around the world. It was equipped with a seven-cylinder Siemens-Halske Sh 14 radial engine. Fw 44B Fw 44C Main production version with minor equipment changes, powered by a seven-cylinder Siemens-Halske Sh 14a radial piston engine. Fw 44D Fw 44E Fw 44F Fw 44J Final production model, powered by a seven-cylinder Siemens-Halske Sh 14a radial piston engine. ArgentinaArgentine Air Force Argentine Naval AviationThe aircraft was produced under license in 1937–1942 period AustriaAustrian Air Force – license production BoliviaBolivian Air Force – one aircraft was delivered in November 1937 BrazilBrazilian Air Force Brazilian Naval Aviation– license production BulgariaBulgarian Air Force – license production ChinaRepublic of China Air Force ChileChilean Air Force – 15 aircraft delivered in February 1938 ColombiaColombian Air Force CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakian Air Force FinlandSuomen Ilmavoimat GermanyLuftwaffe HungaryHungarian Air Force PolandPolish Air Force RomaniaRoyal Romanian Air Force SlovakiaSlovak Air Force SpainSpanish Air Force SwedenSwedish Air Force – license production SwitzerlandSwiss Air Force Turkey YugoslaviaSFR Yugoslav Air Force – Postwar.
Data from Holmes, 2005. P. 79. General characteristics Crew: two and instructor Length: 7.30 m Wingspan: 9.0 m Height: 2.80 m Wing area: 20 m² Empty weight: 565 kg Loaded weight: 770 kg Max. Takeoff weight: 785 kg Powerplant: 1 × Siemens Sh 14 A-4 7-cylinder radial engine, 118 kW at 2,100 rpm Performance Maximum speed: 185 km/h Range: 550 km Service ceiling: 3,900 m Notes BibliographyHolmes, Tony. Jane's Vintage Aircraft Recognition Guide. London: Harper Collins. ISBN 0-00-719292-4. Ketley, Barry. Luftwaffe Fledglings, 1935-1945: Luftwaffe Training Units and Their Aircraft. Hikoki. ISBN 9780951989920. Musee volant de l'Amicale Jean-Baptiste Salis Commemorative Air Force Biplanes.de's Fw 44 D-EMMI Stieglitz Photo Page YouTube's D-EMMI Stieglitz Takeoff at Eisenhardt airshow in 2010 Biplanes.de's 85th Anniversary of Focke-Wulf's founding Stieglitz Fly-In Page
A replica is an exact reproduction, such as of a painting, as it was executed by the original artist or a copy or reproduction one on a scale smaller than the original. A replica is a copying resembling the original concerning its shape and appearance. An inverted replica complements the original by filling its gaps, it can be a copy used for historical purposes, such as being placed in a museum. Sometimes the original never existed. Replicas and reproductions can be related to any form of licensing an image for others to use, whether it is through photos, prints, miniature or full size copies they represent a resemblance of the original object. "Not all incorrectly attributed. In the same way that a museum shop might sell a print of a painting or a replica of a vase, copies of statues and other precious artifacts have been popular through the ages. However, replicas have been used illegally for forgery and counterfeits of money and coins, but commercial merchandise such as designer label clothing, luxury bags and accessories, luxury watches.
In arts or collectible automobiles, the term "replica" is used for discussing the non-original recreation, sometimes hiding its real identity. In motor racing motorcycling manufacturers will produce a street version product with the colours of the vehicle or clothing of a famous racer; this is not the actual vehicle or clothing worn during the race by the racer, but a officially approved brand-new street-legal product in similar looks. Found in helmets, race suits/clothing, motorcycles, they are coloured in the style of racers, carry the highest performance and safety specifications of any street-legal products; these high-performance race-look products termed "Replica", are priced higher and are more sought-after than plain colours of the same product. Because of gun ownership restrictions in some locales, gun collectors create non-functional legal replicas of illegal firearms; such replicas are preferred to real firearms when used as a prop in a film or stage performance for safety reasons.
A prop replica is an authentic-looking duplicate of a prop from a video game, movie or television show. "Replicas represent a copy or forgery of another object and we think of forgeries we think of paintings but, in fact, anything, collectible and expensive is an attractive item to forge". Replicas have been made by people to preserve a perceived link to the past; this can be linked to a historical past or specific time-period or just to commemorate an experience. Replicas and reproductions of artifacts help provide a material representation of the past for the public. Replicas of artifacts and art have a purpose within museums and research, they are created to help with preserving of original artifacts. In many cases the original artifact may be too frail and be to much at risk of further damage on display posing a risk to the artifact from light damage, environmental agents, other risks greater than in secure storage. Replicas are created for the purpose of experimental archaeology where archaeologists and material analysts try to understand the ways that an artifact was created and what technologies and skills were needed for the people to create the artifact on display.
Another reason for the creation of replica artifacts, is for museums to be able to send originals around the globe or allow other museums or events to educate people on the history of specific artifacts. Replicas are put on display in museums when further research is being conducted on the artifact, but further display of the artifact in real or replica form is important for public access and knowledge. Replicas and their original representation can be seen as real depending on the viewer. Good replicas take much education related to understanding all the processes and history that go behind the culture and the original creation. To create a good and authentic replica of an object, there is to be a skilled artisan or forger to create the same authentic experience that the original object provides; this process takes time and much money to be done for museum standards. Authenticity or real feeling presented by an object can be “described as the experience of an ‘aura’ of an original.” An aura of an object is what an object represents through its previous experience.
Replicas work well in museum settings because they have the ability to look so real and accurate that people can feel the authentic feelings that they are supposed to get from the originals. Through the context and experience that a replica can provide in a museum setting, people can be fooled into seeing it as ‘original’; the authenticity of a replica is important for the impression it gives off to observers. “According to Trilling, the original use of authenticity in tourism was in museums where experts wanted to determine'whether objects of art are what they appear to be or are claimed to be, therefore worth the price, asked for them or…. Worth the admiration they are being given'.”These reproductions and the values of authenticity presented to the public through artifacts in museums provide “truth”. However, authenticity has a way of being represented in what the public expects in a predictable manner or based on stereotypes within museums; this idea of authenticity relates to cultural artifacts like food, cultural activities, festivals and dress that helps to homogenize the cultures that are being represented and make them seem static.
For luxury goods, the same authentic feel has to be present for consumers to want to buy a “fake” designer bag or watch that provides them with the same feelings and desired experiences, but as well achieves the look of higher class. Rep
ILA Berlin Air Show
The ILA Berlin Air Show combines a major trade exhibition for the aerospace and defence industries with a public airshow. It is held every year at the new Berlin ExpoCenter Airport near Schönefeld, Brandenburg 18 km southeast of Berlin, Germany; the most recent ILA Berlin Air Show was held in April 2018. Established in 1909, it claims to be world's oldest air show, it is among the largest and most important aerospace trade fairs today. According to the organisers Messe Berlin GmbH, in 2012 the Berlin Air Show attracted 125,000 professional visitors and 105,000 members of the general public, with 3,600 journalists from 65 countries attending; the format is similar to the Paris Air Show in France and the Farnborough International Airshow in Britain, the other major events in the European air show calendar. The Berlin event starts with three professional days closed to the general public, on Friday and Sunday the public are allowed in; the main display sections planned for 2014 include commercial air transport, military aviation and both civil and military unmanned aircraft systems known as UAVs.
It was first held in Frankfurt am Main in 1909, as such can lay claim to being the oldest aviation show in the world. After the first ILA, following the idea of the aircraft constructor August Euler, numerous flying clubs combined to form the German Pilots' Association in April 1910. Shortly after, the Association of German Aircraft Makers was founded in Frankfurt/Main, establishing close ties between the ILA and the future Federal Association of the Aerospace Industry, an organisation that exists today. Before the First World War, the ILA was held in Berlin; when Germany regained air sovereignty after the Second World War, the foundations were laid in 1955 for an "International Show for Travel by Air", which in 1957 took place at Langenhagen Airport as part of the Hanover Trade Fair, the first in a run of ILA shows in Hanover, to last over 30 years. Known as the German Aviation Show, the fair was attracting participants from abroad, in 1978 the symbolic three letters ILA from 1909 were revived.
In 1992, the far-reaching political and economic changes which had taken place in Europe since the fall of the Berlin Wall opened the way for the ILA to return to its birthplace in Berlin. The ILA’s main display sections include commercial aviation, military aviation and military technology and engines, general aviation and helicopters; the new multi-purpose exhibition area, called Berlin ExpoCenter Airport adjacent to the BER was finished in time for ILA 2012. The main section of the grounds cover 250,000 square metres; the site is situated 18 km southeast of Germany's capital city Berlin. All previous attendance records had been broken at ILA2006. More than 250,000 visitors were recorded at the ILA2006 between 16 and 21 May, including 115,000 trade visitors. Events on the southern section of Berlin-Schönefeld airport were dominated by the signing of sales contracts and joint venture agreements worth billions, a display featuring some 340 aircraft, many of them making their first public appearance, the largest number of delegations and conferences ever.
1,014 exhibitors from 42 countries presented products and processes from every area of the aerospace industry. Several thousand experts from all over Europe and from overseas attended the more than 90 accompanying conferences in search of information; some 4,100 media representatives from 70 countries provided comprehensive coverage of the main technical themes and the attractions for the public at the ILA2006. ILA 2006 emphasised the importance of this sector for Germany in its role as a centre for the aerospace industry. Hans-Joachim Gante, Chief Executive of the BDLI, stated: "We have become one of the few sectors with sustainable growth in Germany, due above all to our innovative strengths." This was demonstrated at the ILA2006, acquiring an international dimension, thereby strengthening its role as one of the world’s major meeting places for the industry. This was an ideal opportunity for the German aerospace industry to demonstrate that it is among the world leaders." Exhibitors expressed their satisfaction with the discussions and contacts and with the business deals that were finalised at this event.
"In particular the decision to make Russia the partner country proved effective. Russia was strongly represented and was able to establish numerous contacts and business links." At the close of the event Stefan Grave, Project Director for Messe Berlin GmbH, summed up: "The ILA2006 underlined its major importance as a European marketing platform for this sector as well as again demonstrating its many attractions for the public. Trade visitors and the general public alike were fascinated by the high-tech products on display. Unprecedented numbers of people attended to see the Airbus A380, an outstanding international flying display and the Space Hall. Many high-ranking delegations attended during the three Trade Visitors’ Days. In addition to the Federal Minister of Economics Michael Glos, the ILA 2006 received visits from the Defence Minister Franz-Josef Jung, Minister of the Interior Wolfgang Schäuble, Transport Minister Wolfgang Tiefensee, the Minister at the Chancellor’s Office Dr. Thomas de Maizière and the heads of the regional governments in Brandenburg and Berlin, Matthias Platzeck and Klaus Wowereit.
Germany’s armed forces, the Bundeswehr, were strongly represented: the Chief of the Armed Forces Wolfgang Schneiderhan attended the ILA 2006, as did the Chiefs of Staff
A prototype is an early sample, model, or release of a product built to test a concept or process or to act as a thing to be replicated or learned from. It is a term used in a variety of contexts, including semantics, design and software programming. A prototype is used to evaluate a new design to enhance precision by system analysts and users. Prototyping serves to provide specifications for a real, working system rather than a theoretical one. In some design workflow models, creating a prototype is the step between the formalization and the evaluation of an idea; the word prototype derives from the Greek πρωτότυπον prototypon, "primitive form", neutral of πρωτότυπος prototypos, "original, primitive", from πρῶτος protos, "first" and τύπος typos, "impression". Prototypes explore different aspects of an intended design: A Proof-of-Principle Prototype serves to verify some key functional aspects of the intended design, but does not have all the functionality of the final product. A Working Prototype represents all or nearly all of the functionality of the final product.
A Visual Prototype represents the size and appearance, but not the functionality, of the intended design. A Form Study Prototype is a preliminary type of visual prototype in which the geometric features of a design are emphasized, with less concern for color, texture, or other aspects of the final appearance. A User Experience Prototype represents enough of the appearance and function of the product that it can be used for user research. A Functional Prototype captures both function and appearance of the intended design, though it may be created with different techniques and different scale from final design. A Paper Prototype is a printed or hand-drawn representation of the user interface of a software product; such prototypes are used for early testing of a software design, can be part of a software walkthrough to confirm design decisions before more costly levels of design effort are expended. In general, the creation of prototypes will differ from creation of the final product in some fundamental ways: Material: The materials that will be used in a final product may be expensive or difficult to fabricate, so prototypes may be made from different materials than the final product.
In some cases, the final production materials may still be undergoing development themselves and not yet available for use in a prototype. Process: Mass-production processes are unsuitable for making a small number of parts, so prototypes may be made using different fabrication processes than the final product. For example, a final product that will be made by plastic injection molding will require expensive custom tooling, so a prototype for this product may be fabricated by machining or stereolithography instead. Differences in fabrication process may lead to differences in the appearance of the prototype as compared to the final product. Verification: The final product may be subject to a number of quality assurance tests to verify conformance with drawings or specifications; these tests may involve custom inspection fixtures, statistical sampling methods, other techniques appropriate for ongoing production of a large quantity of the final product. Prototypes are made with much closer individual inspection and the assumption that some adjustment or rework will be part of the fabrication process.
Prototypes may be exempted from some requirements that will apply to the final product. Engineers and prototype specialists attempt to minimize the impact of these differences on the intended role for the prototype. For example, if a visual prototype is not able to use the same materials as the final product, they will attempt to substitute materials with properties that simulate the intended final materials. Engineers and prototyping specialists seek to understand the limitations of prototypes to simulate the characteristics of their intended design, it is important to realize that by their definition, prototypes will represent some compromise from the final production design. Due to differences in materials and design fidelity, it is possible that a prototype may fail to perform acceptably whereas the production design may have been sound. A counter-intuitive idea is that prototypes may perform acceptably whereas the production design may be flawed since prototyping materials and processes may outperform their production counterparts.
In general, it can be expected that individual prototype costs will be greater than the final production costs due to inefficiencies in materials and processes. Prototypes are used to revise the design for the purposes of reducing costs through optimization and refinement, it is possible to use prototype testing to reduce the risk that a design may not perform as intended, however prototypes cannot eliminate all risk. There are pragmatic and practical limitations to the ability of a prototype to match the intended final performance of the product and some allowances and engineering judgement are required before moving forward with a production design. Building the full design is expensive and can be time-consuming when repeated several times—building the full design, figuring out what the problems are and how to solve them building another full design; as an alternative, rapid prototyping or rapid application development techniques are used for the initial prototypes, which implement part, but not all, of the complete design.
This allows designers and manufacturers to and inexpensively test the parts of the design that are most to have problems, solve those problems, build the full design. This counter-intuitive idea—that the quickest way to build something is, f
The fuselage is an aircraft's main body section. It holds crew and cargo. In single-engine aircraft it will contain an engine, as well, although in some amphibious aircraft the single engine is mounted on a pylon attached to the fuselage, which in turn is used as a floating hull; the fuselage serves to position control and stabilization surfaces in specific relationships to lifting surfaces, required for aircraft stability and maneuverability. This type of structure is still in use in many lightweight aircraft using welded steel tube trusses. A box truss fuselage structure can be built out of wood—often covered with plywood. Simple box structures may be rounded by the addition of supported lightweight stringers, allowing the fabric covering to form a more aerodynamic shape, or one more pleasing to the eye. Geodesic structural elements were used by Barnes Wallis for British Vickers between the wars and into World War II to form the whole of the fuselage, including its aerodynamic shape. In this type of construction multiple flat strip stringers are wound about the formers in opposite spiral directions, forming a basket-like appearance.
This proved to be light and rigid and had the advantage of being made entirely of wood. A similar construction using aluminum alloy was used in the Vickers Warwick with less materials than would be required for other structural types; the geodesic structure is redundant and so can survive localized damage without catastrophic failure. A fabric covering over the structure completed the aerodynamic shell; the logical evolution of this is the creation of fuselages using molded plywood, in which multiple sheets are laid with the grain in differing directions to give the monocoque type below. In this method, the exterior surface of the fuselage is the primary structure. A typical early form of this was built using molded plywood, where the layers of plywood are formed over a "plug" or within a mold. A form of this structure uses fiberglass cloth impregnated with polyester or epoxy resin, instead of plywood, as the skin. A simple form of this used in some amateur-built aircraft uses rigid expanded foam plastic as the core, with a fiberglass covering, eliminating the necessity of fabricating molds, but requiring more effort in finishing.
An example of a larger molded plywood aircraft is the de Havilland Mosquito fighter/light bomber of World War II. No plywood-skin fuselage is monocoque, since stiffening elements are incorporated into the structure to carry concentrated loads that would otherwise buckle the thin skin; the use of molded fiberglass using negative molds is prevalent in the series production of many modern sailplanes. The use of molded composites for fuselage structures is being extended to large passenger aircraft such as the Boeing 787 Dreamliner; this is the preferred method of constructing an all-aluminum fuselage. First, a series of frames in the shape of the fuselage cross sections are held in position on a rigid fixture; these frames are joined with lightweight longitudinal elements called stringers. These are in turn covered with a skin of sheet aluminum, attached by riveting or by bonding with special adhesives; the fixture is disassembled and removed from the completed fuselage shell, fitted out with wiring and interior equipment such as seats and luggage bins.
Most modern large aircraft are built using this technique, but use several large sections constructed in this fashion which are joined with fasteners to form the complete fuselage. As the accuracy of the final product is determined by the costly fixture, this form is suitable for series production, where a large number of identical aircraft are to be produced. Early examples of this type include the Douglas Aircraft DC-2 and DC-3 civil aircraft and the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress. Most metal light aircraft are constructed using this process. Both monocoque and semi-monocoque are referred to as "stressed skin" structures as all or a portion of the external load is taken by the surface covering. In addition, all the load from internal pressurization is carried by the external skin; the proportioning of loads between the components is a design choice dictated by the dimensions and elasticity of the components available for construction and whether or not a design is intended to be "self jigging", not requiring a complete fixture for alignment.
Early aircraft were constructed of wood frames covered in fabric. As monoplanes became popular, metal frames improved the strength, which led to all-metal-structure aircraft, with metal covering for all its exterior surfaces - this was first pioneered in the second half of 1915; some modern aircraft are constructed with composite materials for major control surfaces, wings, or the entire fuselage such as the Boeing 787. On the 787, it makes possible higher pressurization levels and larger windows for passenger comfort as well as lower weight to reduce operating costs; the Boeing 787 weighs 1500 lb less than. Cockpit windshields on the Airbus A320 must withstand bird strikes up to 350 kt and are made of chemically strengthened glass, they are composed of three layers or plies, of glass or plastic: the inner two are 8 mm thick each and are structural, while the outer ply, about 3 mm thick, is a barrier against foreign object damage and abrasion, with a hydrophobic coating. It m
Louis Charles Breguet
Louis Charles Breguet was a French aircraft designer and builder, one of the early aviation pioneers. Louis Charles Breguet was the grandson of Louis-Francois-Clement Breguet, great-great-grandson of the famous horologist Abraham-Louis Breguet. In 1902 Louis married Nelly Girardet, the daughter of painter Eugène Girardet, they had five children together. In 1903, he graduated from École supérieure d'électricité, the top electrical engineering school in France. In 1905, with his brother Jacques, under the guidance of Charles Richet, he began work on a gyroplane with flexible wings. On 29 September 1907, it achieved the first ascent of a vertical-flight aircraft with a pilot, albeit only to a height of 0.6 metres. It was not a free flight, as four men were used to steady the structure, he built his first fixed-wing aircraft, the Breguet Type I, in 1909, flying it before crashing it at the Grande Semaine d'Aviation held at Reims. In 1911, he founded the Société anonyme des ateliers d’aviation Louis Breguet.
In 1912, Breguet constructed his first hydroplane. He is known for his development of reconnaissance aircraft used by the French in World War I and through the 1920s. One of the pioneers in the construction of metal aircraft, the Breguet 14 single-engined day bomber one of the most used French warplanes of its time, had an airframe constructed entirely of aluminium structural members; as well as the French, sixteen squadrons of the American Expeditionary Force used it. A plane of this type has a major role in the plot of the 1927 thriller So Disdained by Nevil Shute. In 1919 he founded. Over the years, his aircraft set several records. A Breguet plane made the first nonstop crossing of the South Atlantic in 1927. Another made a 4,500-mile flight across the Atlantic Ocean in 1933, the longest nonstop Atlantic flight up to that time, he returned to his work on the gyroplane in 1935. Created with co-designer René Dorand, the craft, called the Gyroplane Laboratoire, flew by a combination of blade flapping and feathering.
On 22 December 1935 it established a speed record of 67 mph. It was the first to demonstrate speed as well as good control characteristics; the next year, it set an altitude record of 517 feet. Breguet remained an important manufacturer of aircraft during World War II and afterwards developed commercial transports. Breguet’s range equation, for determining aircraft range, is named after him, he died of a heart attack in 1955 at Saint-Germain-en-Laye. In 1980, Breguet was inducted into the International Air & Space Hall of Fame at the San Diego Air & Space Museum. Breguet, as helmsmen of his 8 metre yacht Namousa, won a bronze medal in sailing during the 1924 Summer Olympics. Early Birds of Aviation Dick, Ron. "Great Names". Aviation Century: The Early Years. Erin, Ontario: Boston Mills. P. 208. ISBN 978-1-55046-407-8. Marcel Miocque. Houlgate entre mer et campagne. Éditions Charles Corlet. P. 16. ISBN 978-2-85480-976-3