Community of the Beatitudes
The Community of the Beatitudes is one of the "new communities" established in the Catholic Church after the Second Vatican Council in the movement of the Charismatic Renewal Movement. It was founded in France in 1973, came under the ecclesial authority of the Archbishop of Albi in southern France since May 1975, it was recognised in 2002 by the Holy See as an association of the faithful. On December 3, 2008, the Pontifical Council for the Laity asked the Community to change its canonical form and come under the authority of the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life. On June 29, 2011, the Holy See recognised the Community of the Beatitudes as a Public Association of the Faithful under the ecclesial authority of the Archbishop of Toulouse. Situated in the charismatic renewal movement, its spirituality is both Eucharistic and Marian, inspired by the Carmelite tradition and living out the spirit of the Beatitudes, it gathers together the faithful of all states of life, who share a common vocation of prayer and fraternal communion, combining a marked contemplative dimension with numerous apostolic and missionary activities such as parishes and health care, Marian sanctuaries, retreat centres and ministry to the poor.
In the past, the community was the subject of complaints in justice and judicial investigations showing questionable practices: the MIVILUDES asked the prefect of Haute-Garonne to check the legality of voluntary work. The Community of the Beatitudes sued certain newspapers and authors for such allegations and won convictions on the ground of libel; the community was founded in Montpellier on 25 May 1973 by two couples, as the "Community of the Lion of Judah and the Slain Lamb". One of the founders, Gérard Croissant, had decided to become a Protestant pastor. However, he embraced Catholicism in 1975 and was ordained deacon in 1978 under the name "Brother Ephraim". In 1984, there were 300 members in six being outside France, according to the community. In 1991, it was named "Community of the Beatitudes". On 19 January 1979, the community was first recognised by the Catholic Church at the diocesan level by Robert-Joseph Coffy, Archbishop of Albi, as a "pious union". On 1 January 1985, the community was recognised by the same archbishop as a "private association of faithful of diocesan right".
On 8 December 2002, it was established as an "international private association of the faithful" of pontifical right by the Pontifical Council for the Laity of the Holy See, its statutes were approved on an experimental basis for five years. A general moderator was placed at the head of the community. In December 2007, the community announced that the Pontifical Council had extended the provisional for a period of two years during which there was to be a clarification of the statutes as well as the canonical status of members. Meanwhile, religious authorities gave precise guidelines to the community. Members had to clarify their purpose, namely to choose the monastic life or that of a community of lay people, it was asked of the Beatitudes to cease psychotherapy practices within the community. Persons living in families were to have separate and independent housing, paid employment and the social security coverage provided by law; the authorities said they had noted the use of the expression "children community", deemed as "unacceptable".
This clarification was to have been made at the general meeting of the community, in November 2008. Following a request by Cardinal Bernard Panafieu, charged by the Holy See with responsibility for the Beatitudes, it was postponed because of legal proceedings against the leadership of the community. In 2010 the community numbered 100 priests, 40 seminarians, 350 consecrated sisters, hundreds of lay members in 70 houses, in 30 countries and on all continents, at the request of bishops in more than 60 dioceses; this clarification required greater separation between the different canonical states of life.), as well as the abandonment of the practice of psycho-spiritual sessions. This community belongs to the charismatic ecclesial movements founded after the Second Vatican Council; the houses, divided in three branches are entrusted to a "coordinator", in charge of the unity and mission of the particular house. To permanently engage in this contemplative community, seven years of "discernment" are required.
The community says it has a spirituality inspired from Carmelites: they practice silence, fasting and "prayer of the heart". Prayer is an important element of the spirituality through the practices of silent prayer, prayer beads, Liturgy of the Hours and permanent Eucharistic adoration. For the liturgy, members use such things as incense and Orthodox icons... The community is characterised by religious practices inspired by Judaism, reflecting a desire to rediscover the Jewish roots of Christianity. Members celebrate seventh-day practice dances of Israel in praise of God; these dances, similar to the Hora and the Debke, are sometimes performed during on Friday evening (when Sabbath begins, but more on Saturday evening after Vespers of the Resurrection. The community focuses on the "new evangelization" as asked for by Pope John Paul II, it has a publishing house, the "Beatitudes Editions" and published Fire and Light, a monthly magazine of prayer texts. It has Radio Ecclesia, a radio in the diocese of Nîmes, Maria Multimédia which produces audio CDs, videos, D
Rotselaar is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Flemish-Brabant, near the convergence of the Demer and the Dijle. Since January 1, 1977 the municipality comprises the towns of Rotselaar proper and Wezemaal. On January 1, 2006, Rotselaar had a total population of 15,068; the total area is 37.57 km² which gives a population density of 401 inhabitants per km². Rotselaar is located at the convergence of two rivers, the Demer and the Dijle, which in turn have the Winge and the Losting as tributaries, the Laak River forms the border between Werchter and Tremelo to the north. It's located at the junction of three geographical areas. In rough terms, Werchter to the north of the Demer is a part of the South Campine and Rotselaar Heikant of the Hageland, whereas Rotselaar-Centre to the west of the Dijle is a part of Binnen-Vlaanderen, known as Dijleland. Rotselaar and Wezemaal were first mentioned in written accounts in 1044. Only a century between 1138 and 1152, Werchter appears in historical documents.
In the 12th century and Wezemaal were ruled by the Duke of Brabant, whereas the Counts of Aarschot and the House of the Berthouts controlled Werchter. From about 1170, vassals of the Duke of Brabant settled at Rotselaar. In the course of the 13th century, these vassals rose to the noble Hereditary Marshals of Brabant and started to "rule" the dominium of Rotselaar and Wezemaal as lords. In the 14th century, the Lords of Wezemaal and Rotselaar managed to detract Werchter from the sphere of influence of the House of the Berthouts, thus uniting the three villages of Wezemaal and Rotselaar for the first time in history, which from that moment on together formed the Land, or the Barony of Rotselaar; the Barony of Rotselaar passed into the hands of the powerful House of Croÿ in 1516, to be added to the Margraviate of Aarschot, elevated to the Duchy of Aarschot in 1533. Until deep in the 19th century, the inhabitants lived of agriculture. From 1488 onwards, the population of Wezemaal and Rotselaar was hit by periodically recurring wars.
From 1750, welfare began to increase again, first thanks to agricultural innovations and in the second half of the 19th century thanks to the effects of the Industrial Revolution. An artillery duel was fought in Rotselaar in the First World War, known as the ‘Slag aan de Molen’. In that battle, 360 Belgian and German soldiers were killed. During the First World War, a total 67 houses were burned and 38 civilians were killed in Rotselaar; the origin of the placenames is unclear. Rotselaar is thought to mean "laar of Hrosda". A laar is an open spot or clearing in a forest suitable for living, laren were used quite intensively by man in the past, amongst others for grazing the cattle, Hrosda is a male Germanic name. Wezemaal is believed to come from "Wis" and "male", Werchter is thought to be a watername, but the meaning of the name is unknown; when the name of Rotselaar first appeared in written accounts, it was spelled "Rotslar". Over the centuries, this evolved into "Rotselaer", into "Rotselaar".
In Middle Dutch, the "e" in "Rotselaer" was used to show that the vowel preceding it sounds longer, in modern spelling the vowel is doubled to achieve the same effect, which gives "Rotselaar". The name "Rotselaar" can have four different meanings, it is important to make a distinction between these meanings in order to avoid ambiguities. In a first meaning, "Rotselaar" refers to the whole of the municipality of Rotselaar as it exists since the merger of municipalities that came into effect on January 1, 1977 and reduced the number of autonomous municipalities in Belgium to 589. If used in this sense, the name "Rotselaar" includes Werchter; the term "Groot-Rotselaar" is commonly used to refer to Rotselaar and Werchter as a whole. In a second meaning, "Rotselaar" refers to the town of Rotselaar proper as it existed before the merger with Wezemaal and Werchter in 1977; this is within Groot-Rotselaar, the most common meaning of the name "Rotselaar". In a third meaning, "Rotselaar" refers to the historical Land of Rotselaar, which comprised not only modern-day Rotselaar and Werchter, but other villages, such as Haacht and Wakkerzeel.
The name "Rotselaar" in this sense is used. Rotselaar can have a fourth meaning, where it refers to Rotselaar-Centre, as opposed to Rotselaar Heikant, referred to as "Heikant". Rotselaar proper consists of two parts: Rotselaar-Centre and Rotselaar Heikant. If used in this sense, the name "Rotselaar" refers only to Rotselaar-Centre and doesn't include Heikant. In most cases, the name "Rotselaar" includes Rotselaar Heikant, but the name "Heikant" is used to distinguish between the two parts of Rotselaar; the Municipal Council is a unicameral body composed of 25 councillors, including the mayor and aldermen. The councillors are elected directly by the voters in the municipality; the Municipal Council is renewed every six years. The municipal elections of October 8, 2006 were the first municipal and provincial elections in Belgium since the transfer of the competence with regards to the municipalities and provinces from the Federal Government to the Regions on June 13, 2001; the Municipal Council is responsible for everything, of local interest.
This organ draws up rules and ordinances, establishes municipal taxes, approves the budget and the accounts of the municipality, scrutinises the local services, looks after the inter
Community of Sant'Egidio
The Community of Sant'Egidio is a Christian community, recognized by the Catholic Church as a "Church public lay association". It claims 50,000 members in more than 70 countries, its main activities are: prayer, centered on a reading of the Bible spreading the Gospel to help people who are looking for a sense to their life. Service to the poor, free and unpaid commitment to ecumenism dialogue with members of other religions and non-believers. Created as an NGO in 1968 it acts in more than 70 countries. Today the Community has expanded since its creator Andrea Riccardi created it in 1968 and now has more than 50,000 members; the Community of Sant'Egidio was founded in Rome in 1968 by a group of Roman high-school students led by Andrea Riccardi in the wake of the Second Vatican Council under the papacy of Pope Paul VI. It is named after the Roman Church of its first permanent meeting place. Since 1968, the community has gathered each night to pray and read from the Bible, reflecting on the Gospel spreading throughout the world with a mission of helping those in need.
In 1973, Sant Egidio founded his first church in Trastevere and from that moment the community of Sant'Egidio grew all over the world with the strange custom of daily community prayer. From 1977-1978 began to expand between the different Italian cities and in the 80s began to spread across the different continents. On May 18, 1986, the council of the laity named the community of Sant'Egidio as "an international association of the faithful of pontifical right", their activities include setting up refuges for the old, hospices for AIDS patients, printing a handbook titled "Where to Eat and Wash in Rome" as gifts to the homeless. The lay Catholic Community of Sant'Egidio is among global leaders on HIV/AIDS, running programs across Africa, pushing scientific research inter alia on mother-child transmission, advocating passionately that everyone deserves the best care; the charitable efforts of Sant'Egidio led it to be a well-regarded mediator in peace negotiations. In the late 1980s, the Community came to the realization that their humanitarian efforts in Mozambique torn by the Mozambican Civil War, could not succeed without peace.
In 1990, the Community was accepted by the ruling FRELIMO and rebel Mozambican National Resistance as a mediator, playing a key role in the Rome General Peace Accords signed in 1992. They continue peace initiatives in Algeria, the Balkans, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, other areas, in the belief that war is the "mother of every poverty"; the community of Sant'Egidio shows its commitment against the death penalty by maintaining penpalships with many Death convicts, collecting signatures for a moratorium of executions and inviting cities around the world to take part in the Cities for Life Day. One of the members of the community spearheading the movement against the death penalty, Mario Marazziti, published an English-language book on the topic, 13 Ways of Looking at the Death Penalty; the current president of the Community is Marco Impagliazzo. Being a large community there are several positions: World President: Charge of all the communities of Saint Egidio of the world National President: Responsible for all the communities in your country President of the community: head of the community building, responsible for organizing charity events, solidarity programs.
Volunteers: People who present themselves without receiving any salary just to help those in need. The President and the Council of Presidency are elected every five years by the General Assembly of representatives of all nuclei of communities. Around the world there are many communities of San Egidio, each with their respective activities, but all united by religion, Although there are different cultures in different parts of the world are dedicated to helping those in need to third world countries like, however help countries that are not so poor but with major economic differences or to help refugees, it is active in: Europe: 23 countries Africa: 29 countries Asia: 7 countries N. America: 8 countries S. America: 5 countriesThe community of Sant'Egidio has helped a number of countries and made large collections of money for the poor, as well as creating soup kitchens, language schools for migrants, medical centers, or centers to provide help, centers for the disabled and countless charities.
Although in countries with problems this NGO always helps them in what they can in giving them food and place to live. There are several Volunteer programs that are dedicated to accompanying those people who are alone or do not have anyone to go see them. Works: Dining Hall Solidario: This work is celebrated on Christmas Day and is a celebration in which in the churches that are with this community, the benches of the masses are changed by tables and benches so that people who can not afford to eat Christmas food Can to reunite families that have not been seen in a long time or refugees just arrived in Barcelona. Young people for peace: It is a volunteer of different ages, trying to go every Friday to grandparents' residences to visit the grandparents who have left them there and no one visits them, done to be Feel happy Objectives:Let the whole world have their point of view well on religion and its happiness if they do not have many privileges; the Community of Sant'Egidio has received numerous honors and recognitions
Križevci is a town in central Croatia with a total population of 21,122 and with 11,231 in the city itself, the oldest town in its county, the Koprivnica-Križevci County. The first mention of the so-called Upper Križevac was from 1193 by Béla III, obtaining the status of Royal Borough in 1252 by the ban Stephan, confirmed by King Béla IV a year later; the so-called Lower Križevac developed somewhat slower than its twin town: it became a free royal town in 1405, thanks to king Sigismund. Bloody Sabor of Križevci was organised killing of the Croatian ban Stjepan Lacković and his followers by king Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund, on 27 February 1397. Križevac was the birthplace of a Catholic priest Marko who died at the hand of Calvinists in Košice in 1619, was subsequently canonized because of his martyrdom; this event is commemorated every September 7 in Križevci. After centuries of division, empress Maria Theresa of Austria united the Lower and Upper Križevac into Križevci in 1752; the town was hit by the wars with the Turks, but it regained importance in 1871 when the railway was built through it on the way from Budapest to Rijeka.
In the late 19th century and early 20th century, Križevci was a district capital in the Bjelovar-Križevci County of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. These days the town is pretty much oriented towards mass entrepreneurship, but it still enjoys the greatest number of valuable and oldest monuments in the county. Križevci has some of them built in the Middle Ages. In the oldest Gothic Church of Saint Cross in Križevci, there are important Baroque pictures and a marble altar dating from the 18th century. Interesting is the parish church of St. Anne from the 17th century. Of particular note is the Greek Catholic Cathedral of the Holy Trinity, the seat of the Eparchy of Križevci since 1789; the cathedral building was worked on by some of Zagreb's finest architects: its facade was rebuilt by Bartol Felbinger in 1817 while an internal reconstruction was performed in the Gothic revival style by Hermann Bolle in 1892-97. The iconostasis and the pictures on the walls are works of famous Croatian painters including Ivan Tišov, Celestin Medović and Bela Čikoš-Sesija.
Križevci Synagogue today serves as a youth center. The city museum exhibits a rich archeological and cultural-historical collection; the main town manifestation is called Križevačko veliko spravišče, commemorated yearly, when the local cultural traditions are displayed during a fiesta that lasts throughout the first full weekend of July. According to legend, this feast originates from a 14th-century feast of reconciliation between the hostile communities of merchants from the towns of Križevac and the nobility from the nearby Kalnik hillside. Križevci is a city in Koprivnica-Križevci County; because of its nearness to Zagreb, Križevci is developing like a satellite city. It has a good position because it's close to all regional centers: Koprivnica and Varaždin. Important fact for establishing the city was its macro traffical position; this place was known in antics and Middle Ages because, where the main caravan roads crossed, there was a famous king's Coloman road, going through Križevci. That road was connecting Dalmatia.
In its closer past, many roads and other types of traffic connections were built: Many macadamic roads that connects Posavina, region around Kalnik and Podravina, the railroad from Hungary to Zagreb, that goes through Koprivnica and Križevci, to Bjelovar. Today, city is still important because it connects Bjelovar and Koprivnica, big regional centers, because it's the place where many regional roads starts from direction of Bjelovar, Gornja Rijeka and Sudovec, valley of the river Bednja, zelinsko prigorje over Čanjevo and from Rasinja over Apatovec. Križevci lies on 140 m above the level of the sea. Topographically, it lies on pleistocene surface, between swamped alluvial valleys of the brook Vrtlin from the east and the brook Koruska from the west. Relief, geological-petrografical structure, convenient climate and abundance of water, all these were elements of economical and demographic development of the city. Modern demographic-economical transformation has changed relations in space and structure of population, it's seeable through processes of deagrarization, industrialization and deruralization.
This effected with abandonning villages and moving to Križevci. According to the 2011 census, Croats form an absolute majority at 96.6% with Serbs making up for 2.1% of the population. The list of settlements in the administrative area of Križevci is: Križevci is home to the College of Agriculture at Križevci, founded in 1860 as the Royal Agriculture and Forestry College. Križevci is home to a monument to the 37 people from the city who died in the Croatian War of Independence entitled the Mother of the Dead Hero. Roman Catholic Diocese of Bjelovar-Križevci Eparchy of Križevci Križevci official site News Portal of Križevci Open University Križevci History, locations, personage of Križevci in multimedia
Florence is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany. It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with 383,084 inhabitants in 2013, over 1,520,000 in its metropolitan area. Florence was a centre of medieval European trade and finance and one of the wealthiest cities of that era, it is considered the birthplace of the Renaissance, has been called "the Athens of the Middle Ages". A turbulent political history includes periods of rule by the powerful Medici family and numerous religious and republican revolutions. From 1865 to 1871 the city was the capital of the established Kingdom of Italy; the Florentine dialect forms the base of Standard Italian and it became the language of culture throughout Italy due to the prestige of the masterpieces by Dante Alighieri, Giovanni Boccaccio, Niccolò Machiavelli and Francesco Guicciardini. The city attracts millions of tourists each year, the Historic Centre of Florence was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1982; the city is noted for Renaissance art and architecture and monuments.
The city contains numerous museums and art galleries, such as the Uffizi Gallery and the Palazzo Pitti, still exerts an influence in the fields of art and politics. Due to Florence's artistic and architectural heritage, it has been ranked by Forbes as one of the most beautiful cities in the world. Florence is an important city in Italian fashion, being ranked in the top 15 fashion capitals of the world. In 2008, the city had the 17th highest average income in Italy. Florence originated as a Roman city, after a long period as a flourishing trading and banking medieval commune, it was the birthplace of the Italian Renaissance. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, it was politically and culturally one of the most important cities in Europe and the world from the 14th to 16th centuries; the language spoken in the city during the 14th century was, still is, accepted as the Italian language. All the writers and poets in Italian literature of the golden age are in some way connected with Florence, leading to the adoption of the Florentine dialect, above all the local dialects, as a literary language of choice.
Starting from the late Middle Ages, Florentine money—in the form of the gold florin—financed the development of industry all over Europe, from Britain to Bruges, to Lyon and Hungary. Florentine bankers financed the English kings during the Hundred Years War, they financed the papacy, including the construction of their provisional capital of Avignon and, after their return to Rome, the reconstruction and Renaissance embellishment of Rome. Florence was home to the Medici, one of European history's most important noble families. Lorenzo de' Medici was considered a political and cultural mastermind of Italy in the late 15th century. Two members of the family were popes in the early 16th century: Leo X and Clement VII. Catherine de Medici married King Henry II of France and, after his death in, reigned as regent in France. Marie de' Medici married Henry IV of France and gave birth to the future King Louis XIII; the Medici reigned as Grand Dukes of Tuscany, starting with Cosimo I de' Medici in 1569 and ending with the death of Gian Gastone de' Medici in 1737.
The Etruscans formed in 200 BC the small settlement of Fiesole, destroyed by Lucius Cornelius Sulla in 80 BC in reprisal for supporting the populares faction in Rome. The present city of Florence was established by Julius Caesar in 59 BC as a settlement for his veteran soldiers and was named Fluentia, owing to the fact that it was built between two rivers, changed to Florentia, it was built in the style of an army camp with the main streets, the cardo and the decumanus, intersecting at the present Piazza della Repubblica. Situated along the Via Cassia, the main route between Rome and the north, within the fertile valley of the Arno, the settlement became an important commercial centre. In centuries to come, the city experienced turbulent periods of Ostrogothic rule, during which the city was troubled by warfare between the Ostrogoths and the Byzantines, which may have caused the population to fall to as few as 1,000 people. Peace returned under Lombard rule in the 6th century. Florence was conquered by Charlemagne in 774 and became part of the Duchy of Tuscany, with Lucca as capital.
The population began to grow again and commerce prospered. In 854, Florence and Fiesole were united in one county. Margrave Hugo chose Florence as his residency instead of Lucca at about 1000 AD; the Golden Age of Florentine art began around this time. In 1013, construction began on the Basilica di San Miniato al Monte; the exterior of the church was reworked in Romanesque style between 1059 and 1128. In 1100, Florence was a "Commune"; the city's primary resource was the Arno river, providing power and access for the industry, access to the Mediterranean sea for international trade. Another great source of strength was its industrious merchant community; the Florentine merchant banking skills became recognised in Europe after they brought decisive financial innovation to medieval fairs. This period saw the eclipse of Florence's powerful rival Pisa, the exercise of power by the mercantile elite following an anti-aristocratic movement, led by Giano della Bella, that resulted in a set of laws called the Ordinances of Justice.
Of a population estimated at 94,00
Trento is a city on the Adige River in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol in Italy. It is the capital of the autonomous province of Trento. In the 16th century, the city was the location of the Council of Trent. Part of Austria and Austria-Hungary, it was annexed by Italy in 1919. With 120,000 inhabitants, Trento is the third largest city in the Alps and second largest in the Tyrol. Trento is an educational, scientific and political centre in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, in Tyrol and Northern Italy in general; the University of Trento ranks 2nd among'medium sized' Universities in the Census ranking and 5th in the Il Sole 24 Ore ranking of Italian universities. The city contains a picturesque Medieval and Renaissance historic centre, with ancient buildings such as Trento Cathedral and the Castello del Buonconsiglio. Together with other Alpine towns Trento engages in the Alpine Town of the Year Association for the implementation of the Alpine Convention to achieve sustainable development in the Alpine Arc.
Trento was awarded the title of Alpine Town of the Year 2004. The city ranks among Italian cities for quality of life, standard of living, business and job opportunities, being ranked 5th in 2017. Trento is one of the nation's wealthiest and most prosperous cities, with its province being one of the richest in Italy, although poorer than its neighbors Lombardy and South Tyrol, with a GDP per capita of €31,200 and a GDP of €16.563 billion. The township of Trento encompasses the city centre as well as many suburbs of varied geographical and population conditions. Various distinctive suburbs still retain their traditional identity of rural or mountain villages. Trento lies in a wide glacial valley known as the Adige valley, just south of the Dolomite Mountains, where the Fersina River and Avisio rivers join the Adige River. River Adige is one of the three primary south-flowing Alpine rivers; the valley is surrounded by mountains, including Vigolana, Monte Bondone, Paganella and Monte Calisio. Nearby lakes include Lake Levico, Lake Garda and Lake Toblino.
Frazioni, or subdivisions of Trento: In 2007, there were 112,637 people residing in Trento, of whom 48% were male and 52% were female. Minors totalled 18.01 percent of the population compared to pensioners. This compares with the Italian average of 19.94 percent. The average age of Trento residents is 41 compared to the Italian average of 42. In the five years between 2002 and 2007, the population of Trento grew by 5.72 percent, while Italy as a whole grew by 3.56 percent. The current birth rate of Trento is 9.61 births per 1,000 inhabitants compared to the Italian average of 9.45 births. As of 2006, 92.68% of the population was Italian. The largest immigrant group came from other European countries: 4.13%, North Africa: 1.08%, the Americas: 0.85%. Trento Informa reports that in 2011 there were 117,190 people residing in Trento, of whom 48.5% aged between 45 and 65. The average age was 43.1 years. 13,535 were foreigners. The origins of this city on the river track to Bolzano and the low Alpine passes of Brenner and the Reschen Pass over the Alps are disputed.
Some scholars maintain it was a Rhaetian settlement: the Adige area was however influenced by neighbouring populations, including the Veneti, the Etruscans and the Gauls. According to other theories, the latter did instead found the city during the 4th century BC. Trento was conquered by the Romans in the late 1st century BC, after several clashes with the Rhaetian tribes. Before the Romans, Trento was a Celtic village. In reality, the name derives from Trent, a tribute to the Celtic god of the waters; the Romans is a tribute to the Roman god Neptune. The Latin name is the source of the adjective "tridentine". On the old city hall, a Latin inscription is still visible: "Montes argentum mihi dant nomenque Tridentum", attributed to Fra' Bartolomeo da Trento. Tridentum became an important stop on the Roman road. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the independent bishopric of Trento was conquered by Ostrogoths, Byzantines and Franks becoming part of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1027, Emperor Conrad II created the Prince-Bishops of Trento, who wielded both temporal and religious powers.
In the following centuries, the sovereignty was divided between the Bishopric of Trent and the County of Tyrol. Around 1200, Trento became a mining center of some significance: silver was mined from the Monte Calisio - Khalisperg, Prince-Bishop Federico Wanga issued the first mining code of the alpine region. In the 14th century, the region of Trento was part of Austria; the dukes of Austria were the counts of Tyrol and dominated the region for six centuries. A dark episode in the history of Trento was the Trento blood libel; when a 3-year-old Christian boy, Simonino known
Welwyn Garden City
Welwyn Garden City is a town in Hertfordshire, England. It is located 20 miles from Kings Cross, London. Welwyn Garden City was one of the first new towns, it is unique in being both a garden city and a new town and exemplifies the physical and cultural planning ideals of the periods in which it was built. Welwyn Garden City was founded by Sir Ebenezer Howard in 1920 following his previous experiment in Letchworth Garden City. Howard had called for the creation of planned towns that were to combine the benefits of the city and the countryside and to avoid the disadvantages of both; the Garden Cities and Town Planning Association had defined a garden city as "a town designed for healthy living and industry of a size that makes possible a full measure of social life but not larger, surrounded by a rural belt. On 29 April 1920 a company, Welwyn Garden City Limited, was formed to plan and build the garden city, chaired by Sir Theodore Chambers. Louis de Soissons was appointed as architect and town planner, C.
B Purdom as finance director and Frederic Osborn as secretary. The first house was occupied just before Christmas 1920; the town is laid out along tree-lined boulevards with a neo-Georgian town centre. It has its own environmental protection legislation, the Scheme of Management for Welwyn Garden City; every road has a wide grass verge. The spine of the town is Parkway, a central mall or scenic parkway a mile long; the view along Parkway to the south was once described as one of the world's finest urban vistas. Older houses are on the west side of Parkway and newer houses on the east sideThe original planners intended that all the residents of the garden city would shop in one shop and created the Welwyn Stores, a monopoly which caused some local resentment. Commercial pressures have since ensured much more competition and variety, the Welwyn Stores were in 1984 taken over by the John Lewis Partnership. In 1948, Welwyn Garden City was designated a new town under the New Towns Act 1946 and the Welwyn Garden City company handed its assets to the Welwyn Garden City Development Corporation.
Louis de Soissons remained as its planning consultant. That year The Times compared Welwyn Garden City with Hatfield, it described Welwyn Garden City as a world-famous modern new town developed as an experiment in community planning and Hatfield as an unplanned settlement created by sporadic building in the open country. "Welwyn, though far from perfect, made the New Towns Act possible, just as Hatfield, by its imperfection, made it necessary." In 1966, the Development Corporation was handed over to the Commission for New Towns. The housing stock, neighbourhood shopping and green spaces were passed to Welwyn Hatfield District Council between 1978 and 1983. There was a large general hospital in the town, the Queen Elizabeth II Hospital, but in 2014 emergency and inpatient services were transferred to the Lister Hospital in Stevenage. A new hospital, completed in June 2015, offers outpatient and ante/postnatal services. A shopping mall, the Howard Centre, was built in the 1980s, incorporating the original railway station.
There is a resurgence of interest in the ethos of the garden city and the type of neighbourhood and community advocated by Howard, prompted by the problems of metropolitan and regional development and the importance of sustainability in government policy. Roman baths are open to visitors; the local civic society, which aims to preserve and conserve the garden city ethos, is the Welwyn Garden City Society. The international ecumenical Focolare movement has its British headquarters at Welwyn Garden City. In 2008, during construction of a site for HSBC, 60 unsecured argonite fire suppressant cylinders discharged, killing one person, injuring six others and causing substantial damage. Three firms were convicted of health and safety offences. Welwyn Garden City had a population of 46,619 in 2011, 51,735 in 2016. Welwyn Garden City comprises seven local authority wards, it is in the parliamentary constituency of Welwyn Hatfield. The MP for Welwyn Hatfield is Grant Shapps; the nearby town of Hatfield and the village of Welwyn have parish councils with limited responsibilities, but Welwyn Garden City has none, although it had one between 1921 and 1927.
Welwyn Garden City experiences an oceanic climate similar to all of the United Kingdom. The town experiences cold winters. Since its inception as a garden city, Welwyn Garden City has attracted a strong commercial base with several designated employment areas. Among the companies trading in the town are: Henleys Medical Supplies Ltd Baxters British Lead Mills Cashbrokers The Danish Bacon Company Emis Professional Publishing Figleaves.com HSBC's high-security global data centre Roche Ocado PayPoint Ratcliff Palfinger Duncan Print Group Sigma Corporation Tesco has a head office at Shire Park, a business park in the north of the town. VEGA Group Welwyn Tool Group Xerox Hertfordshire County Council's County supplies and contract services centre Welwyn Garden City was once well known as the home of the breakfast cereal Shredded Wheat made by Nabisco; the disused Shredded Wheat factory with its large white silos is a landmark on rail routes between London and the north of England. The factory, designed