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Tibetan independence movement

The Tibetan independence movement is a political movement for the independence of Tibet and the political separation of Tibet from China. It is principally led by the Tibetan diaspora in countries like India and the United States, by celebrities and Tibetan Buddhists in the United States and Europe; the movement is no longer supported by the 14th Dalai Lama, who although having advocated it from 1961 to the late 1970s, proposed a sort of high-level autonomy in a speech in Strasbourg in 1988, has since restricted his position to either autonomy for the Tibetan people in the Tibet Autonomous Region within China, or extending the area of the autonomy to include parts of neighboring Chinese provinces inhabited by Tibetans. Among other reasons for independence, campaigners assert that Tibet has been independent. However, some dispute this claim by using different definitions of "Tibet", "historical" and "independence"; the campaigners argue that Tibetans are mistreated and denied certain human rights, although the Government of China disputes this and claims progress in human rights.

Various organizations with overlapping campaigns for independence and human rights have sought to pressure various governments to support Tibetan independence or to take punitive action against China for opposing it. After the Mongol Prince Köden took control of the Kokonor region in 1239, he sent his general Doorda Darqan on a reconnaissance mission into Tibet in 1240. During this expedition the Kadampa monasteries of Rwa-sgreng and Rgyal-lha-khang were burned, 500 people killed; the death of the Mongol qaghan Ögedei Khan in 1241 brought Mongol military activity around the world temporarily to a halt. Mongol interests in Tibet resumed in 1244, when Prince Köden sent an invitation to the leader of the Sakya sect, to come to his capital and formally surrender Tibet to the Mongols; the Sakya leader arrived in Kokonor with his two nephews Drogön Chögyal Phagpa and Chana Dorje in 1246. This event marked the incorporation of Tibet into the Mongol Empire. Tibet was under administrative rule of the Yuan dynasty until the 1350s.

At that point, Tibet regained its independence. In 1720, the Qing dynasty army entered Tibet in aid of the locals and defeated the invading forces of the Dzungar Khanate; the Chinese emperor assigned the Dalai Lama and Panchen Lama to be in charge of religious and political matters in Tibet. The Dalai Lama was leader of the area around Lhasa. By the early 18th century, the Qing dynasty had started to send resident commissioners to Lhasa. Tibetan factions rebelled in 1750 and killed the resident commissioners after the central government decided to reduce the number of soldiers to about 100; the Qing army reinstalled the resident commissioner. The number of soldiers in Tibet was kept at about 2,000; the defensive duties were assisted by a local force, reorganized by the resident commissioner, the Tibetan government continued to manage day-to-day affairs as before. At multiple places such as Lhasa, Dartsendo, Lhari and Litang, Green Standard Army troops were garrisoned throughout the Dzungar war.

Green Standard Army troops and Manchu Bannermen were both part of the Qing force which fought in Tibet in the war against the Dzungars. It was said that the Sichuan commander Yue Zhongqi entered Lhasa first when the 2,000 Green Standard soldiers and 1,000 Manchu soldiers of the "Sichuan route" seized Lhasa. According to Mark C. Elliott, after 1728 the Qing used Green Standard Army troops to man the garrison in Lhasa rather than Bannermen. According to Evelyn S. Rawski, both Green Standard Army and Bannermen made up the Qing garrison in Tibet. According to Sabine Dabringhaus, Green Standard Chinese soldiers numbering more than 1,300 were stationed by the Qing in Tibet to support the 3,000-strong Tibetan army. In the mid 19th century, arriving with an Amban, a community of Chinese troops from Sichuan who married Tibetan women settled down in the Lubu neighborhood of Lhasa, where their descendants established a community and assimilated into Tibetan culture. Hebalin was the location of where Chinese Muslim troops and their offspring lived, while Lubu was the place where Han Chinese troops and their offspring lived.

In 1904, a British mission, accompanied by a large military escort, invaded Tibet, forcing its way through to Lhasa. The 13th Dalai Lama escaped. Britain forced The Great Three Tibetan Temple signing of the Treaty of Lhasa; the head of the mission was Colonel Francis Younghusband. The principal motivation for the British mission was a fear, which proved to be unfounded, that Russia was extending its footprint into Tibet and even giving military aid to the Tibetan government, but on his way to Lhasa, Younghusband killed 1,300 Tibetans in Gyangzê because the natives were in fear of what kind of unequal treaty the British would offer the Tibetans. Some documents claim; the Anglo-Chinese Convention of 1906 recognized Chinese suzerainty over the region and the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907, without Lhasa's or Beijing's acknowledgement, recognized the suzerainty of China over Tibet. The Qing central government claimed for sovereignty and direct rule over Tibet in 1910; the 13th Dalai Lama fled to British India in February 1910.

In the same month, the Chinese government issued a proclamation'deposing' the Dalai Lama and instigating the search for a new incarnation. When he returned from exile, the Dalai Lama declared Tibetan independence; the subsequent outbreak of World War I

Mode (user interface)

In user interface design, a mode is a distinct setting within a computer program or any physical machine interface, in which the same user input will produce perceived results different from those that it would in other settings. Modal interface components include the Caps lock and Insert keys on the standard computer keyboard, both of which put the user's typing into a different mode after being pressed return it to the regular mode after being re-pressed. An interface that uses no modes is known as a modeless interface. Modeless interfaces avoid mode errors, in which the user performs an action appropriate to one mode while in another mode, by making it impossible for the user to commit them. In his book The Humane Interface, Jef Raskin defines modality as follows: "An human-machine interface is modal with respect to a given gesture when the current state of the interface is not the user's locus of attention and the interface will execute one among several different responses to the gesture, depending on the system's current state.".

In Raskin's sense and according to his definition, an interface is not modal as long as the user is aware of its current state. Raskin refers to this as "locus of attention". A user is aware of a system state if the state change was purposefully initiated by the user, or if the system gives some strong signals to notify the user of the state change in the place where interaction occurs. If the user's locus of attention changes to a different area, the state of the interface may represent a mode since the user is no longer aware of it. Larry Tesler defined modes as "a state of the user interface that lasts for a period of time, is not associated with any particular object, has no role other than to place an interpretation on operator input." Several examples of software have been described as modal or using interface modes: Text editors – are in insert mode by default but can be toggled in and out of overtype mode by pressing the Insert key. Vi – has one mode for inserting text, a separate mode for entering commands.

There is an "ex" mode for issuing more complex commands. Under normal circumstances, the editor automatically returns to the previous mode after a command has been issued. Emacs – has the concept of "prefix keys", which trigger a modal state by pressing the control key plus a letter key. Emacs waits for additional keypresses that complete a keybinding; this differs from vi. Emacs has many "major and minor" modes that change the available commands, may be automatically invoked based on file type to more edit files of that type. Emacs modes are not restricted to editing text files. Modes are written in Emacs Lisp, all modes may not be included with all versions. Cisco IOS – certain commands are executed in a "command mode". Tools chosen from a palette in photo-editing and drawing applications are examples of a modal interface; some advanced image editors have a feature where the same tools can be accessed nonmodally by a keypress, remain active as long as the key is held down. Releasing the key returns the interface to the modal tool activated by the palette.

Video games can use game modes as a mechanic to enhance gameplay. Modal windows block all workflow in the top-level program. Larry Tesler at PARC devised insights for a modeless word processor from the feedback gathered from a user test with newly-hired Sylvia Adams, where she was asked to ad lib some gestures to correct proofreading marks on the digital text; this test convinced Tesler's manager Bill English of the problems with their previous modal interface. Modes are frowned upon in interface design because they are to produce mode errors when the user forgets what state the interface is in, performs an action, appropriate to a different mode, gets an unexpected and undesired response. A mode error can be quite startling and disorienting as the user copes with the sudden violation of his or her user expectations. Problems occur if a change in the system state happens unnoticed, or if after some time the user forgets about the state change. Another typical problem is a sudden change of state that interrupts a user's activity, such as focus stealing.

In such a situation it can happen that the user does some operations with the old state in mind, while the brain has not yet processed the signals indicating the state change. A frustrating type of modality is created by a mode where the user does not find a way out, in other words, where they cannot find how to restore the previous system state; the most common source of mode errors may be the Caps Lock key. Other common modes available in PC keyboards are the other lock keys, Num lock and Scroll lock, the Insert key. Dead keys for diacritics create a short-term mode, at least if they don't provide visual feedback that the next typed character will be modified. While the Lock keys on PC keyboards are designed with the intention that they be used as modal keys, the IBM PC hardware design does not require these nor any other specific keys to be modal but allows software to treat any key as modal. (The PC BIOS implements Caps Lock, Num Lock, Scroll Lock states, so the modality of these keys may appe

Tough Young Teachers

Tough Young Teachers is a British documentary television series, first broadcast on BBC Three on 9 January 2014. The six graduate teachers featured in the series are Charles Wallendahl, Chloe Shaw, Claudenia Williams, Meryl Noronha, Nicholas Church and Oliver Beach; the six graduates are assigned to challenging schools within London by the educational charity Teach First. The programme tracks the difficulties that they face and the progress that they make in their first year of teaching. Archbishop Lanfranc School, Croydon Crown Woods College, Southeast London The Harefield Academy, Uxbridge According to overnight figures, the first two episodes had audience shares of 3.0% and 2.2% respectively. The fourth episode was watched by 683,000. Tough Young Teachers at BBC Programmes Tough Young Teachers, Radio Times

Burt Grossman

Burt L. Grossman is a former American football defensive end in the National Football League. Before becoming a professional, Grossman played college football at the University of Pittsburgh where he was a three time All-ECAC selection. In 1989, he was drafted by the San Diego Chargers. Grossman played six seasons in the NFL: five for the San Diego Chargers and one for the Philadelphia Eagles; as an NFL player, Grossman's accomplishments include three safeties. Grossman appeared on the October 15, 1990, edition cover of Sports Illustrated under the title "Big Mouth," which chronicled his outspoken and outlandish personality. In 1996, he suffered a career-ending neck injury. After football, Grossman was hired by WCAU in Philadelphia for Eagles Hour; the program won an Emmy in 1995, as well as earning him an Emmy as best sports reporter. In 1996, he published the book, he is a contributor for the website "The National Football Post."He is the cousin of former Pittsburgh Steelers tight end Randy Grossman.

In 2019, he became the head coach of the San Diego Strike Force in the Indoor Football League

Roberta Beach Jacobson

Roberta Beach Jacobson is an American journalist and early ezine editor. Jacobson was born as Roberta Beach Johnson in Massachusetts, her first publication came at age 8 in Jill. After finishing high-school in 1970, she joined the United States Army, she remains an expatriate. I'm where I want to be". After leaving the armed forces, she followed in the footsteps of her grandfather, Robert K. Beach, mother, Roberta Beach Johnson and became a journalist, joining the Stars & Stripes publication in Germany at the news desk, the city desk. During her Stars & Stripes work, Jacobson drew attention from a column entitled, "Dear Bobby" that ran from the late 1980s to the early 1990s in the Shoppers Bi-Weekly News, distributed in Europe. In 1996 Jacobson became a full-time freelance writer working for travel publications, translating books, contributing to 55 anthologies published on four continents. In 1999 she relocated to the far-flung Greek island of Karpathos, became the editor of an early internet ezine, Kafenio.

She edited the ezines IslandMania and InsiderEuropa. Writing World Newsletter 50-Word Stories Writer's Yearbook Review The Journal of the Lincoln Heights Literary Society Book review: Dying For It, Leigh Anne Wilson 2006 Europe, AEGEAN ADVENTURES IN E-PUBLISHING. March 2001 Stripes October 1987 Stripes January 1991 KIDS HAVE YOU SEEN MY BACKPACK...? and Other Inspirational Stories of Non-traditional Studies, compiled by Donna Talarico, ISBN 0-595-34369-4 Associate of Science in General Studies, 1978, Northern Virginia Community College, Virginia Bachelor of Science, 1980, University of the State of New York, Albany NY Master of Education, 1982, Boston University European Campus, Germany Certificate of Advanced Graduate Study, 1986, Boston University European Campus, Germany Doctor of Philosophy in Behavioral Science, 1993, Pacific Western University, San Diego, California Almost Perfect: Disabled Pets and People who love Them, Mary A. Shafer, editor ISBN 978-0-9771329-2-8 Chicken Soup for the Dieter's Soul, Jack Canfield, Mark Victor Hansen and Theresa Peluso, editors ISBN 0-7573-0555-5 Chocolate for a Woman's Heart, Kay Allenbaugh, Editor ISBN 0-684-84896-1 Chocolate for a Woman's Dreams, Kay Allenbaugh, editor ISBN 0-7432-1777-2 Dying for It: Tales of Sex and Death, Mitzi Szereto, editor ISBN 1-56025-857-8 From the Heart – Stories of Love and Friendship, compiled by Kendall Bell ISBN 1-882943-15-5 Kids, Have You Seen My Backpack? and Other Inspirational Stories of Non-Traditional Students: An Adult Learner Anthology, Donna Talarico, editor ISBN 0-595-34369-4 Living and Working in Germany, by Nick Daws ISBN 1-901130-35-5 Mini World 2006-07, Keiji Naka, editor ISBN 4-7773-6057-1 Rite of Passage - Tales of Backpacking'Round Europe, Lisa Johnson, Editor ISBN 1-74059-593-9 The Rocking Chair Reader - Memories from the Attic, Helen Kay Polaski, editor ISBN 1-59337-270-1 Sacred Fire, Maril Crabtree, editor ISBN 1-59337-366-X Simple Pleasures of the Kitchen, collected by Susannah Seton ISBN 1-57324-871-1 Slang, Paul Dickson ISBN 0-671-54919-7 Stories of Strength, Jenna Glatzer, editor ISBN 1-4116-5503-6 Travelers' Tales Greece, Larry Habegger, Sean O'Reilly and Brian Alexander, editors ISBN 1-885211-52-X The New Official Rules, Paul Dickson ISBN 0-201-55090-3 Unconditional Love, compiled by Avie Townsend ISBN 1-933037-38-5 Women Runners, Irene Reti and Bettianne Shoney Sien, editors ISBN 1-891369-25-3 The Writer's Handbook 2002 edited by Elfrieda Abbe ISBN 0-87116-189-3 The Living Haiku Anthology The Living Haiku Anthology 2019 Friedemann Pfäfflin, Astrid Junge - SEX REASSIGNMENT.

Thirty Years of International Follow-up Studies After Sex Reassignment Surgery: A Comprehensive Review, 1961-1991, Symposium publications IJT Electronic Books 1998 Rite of Passage Review of Rite of Passage- Tales of Backpacking'round Europe, Emma Rodgers, Australian Broadcasting Corporation Review of Rite of Passage by Victor Dwyer