Edwin Clark (civil engineer)
Edwin Clark FRAS was an English Civil Engineer, specialising in hydraulics. He is remembered principally as the designer of the Anderton Boat Lift near Northwich in Cheshire, which links the navigable stretch of the River Weaver with the Trent and Mersey Canal. Clark was at one time a mathematical master at Brook Green became a Surveyor in the west of England. In 1846 Clark went to London where he met Robert Stephenson, who appointed him Superintending engineer of the Menai Bridge. Clark, in turn, appointed his brother Josiah Latimer Clark as his Assistant Engineer; when the Menai Bridge opened on 5 March 1850, Clark published a book The Britannia and Conway Tubular Bridges, by August of that year he had moved on to become an Engineer with the Electric and International Telegraph Company, where he took out the first of several patents for telegraph apparatus. Stephenson bequeathed, he was known for his astronomy. In 1857 Clark became Engineer to the Thames Graving Dock Limited, for which he designed a graving dock in which the ships to be repaired were lifted from the water by hydraulic presses, based on his experience of lifting the tubular sections of Stephenson's Britannia and Conwy tubular bridges over the Menai Strait.
In 1866 he delivered a lecture on the subject to the Institution of Civil Engineers, after the lift had been used for about seven years and had raised 1055 ships at a cost of £3 per ship. He was awarded a Telford Medal for the lecture. Clark was an experienced Hydraulic Engineer with the firm of Clark, Stansfield & Clark, consulting engineers of Westminster, when he was called upon in 1870 by Edward Leader Williams to design a boat lift to raise boats 50 feet from the River Weaver to the Trent and Mersey Canal. Clark designed the original hydraulic structure opened in 1875, replaced by a wire rope and pulley system from 1908 to 1983 before being returned to hydraulic operation in 2002, he went on to design other boat lifts in other European countries. In 1879, he presented a project to the Belgian government; this project received governmental approval in 1882, but it was 1917 before it was operational. When the canal was modernised in the 1960s, the original plan was to demolish the old installations and to redevelop the land.
Local objections, wishes to maintain the installations, were upheld after a long period and in 1988, the whole site of the Canal du Centre became a World Heritage Site. In 2007, the restoration work at all but one of the four Belgian Clark lifts was finished. Clark appears in the painting Conference of Engineers at the Menai Straits Preparatory to Floating one of the Tubes of the Britannia Bridge by John Lucas, is remembered in the name of the public trip boat that operates on the Anderton Boat Lift. Canals of the United Kingdom History of the British canal system Scientist of the Day-Edwin Clark at Linda Hall Library
Cheshire is a county in North West England, bordering Merseyside and Greater Manchester to the north, Derbyshire to the east and Shropshire to the south and Flintshire and Wrexham county borough to the west. Cheshire's county town is the City of Chester. Other major towns include Crewe, Ellesmere Port, Northwich, Runcorn and Winsford The county covers 905 square miles and has a population of around 1 million, it is rural, with a number of small towns and villages supporting the agricultural and other industries which produce Cheshire cheese, salt and silk. Cheshire's name was derived from an early name for Chester, was first recorded as Legeceasterscir in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, meaning "the shire of the city of legions". Although the name first appears in 980, it is thought that the county was created by Edward the Elder around 920. In the Domesday Book, Chester was recorded as having the name Cestrescir, derived from the name for Chester at the time. A series of changes that occurred as English itself changed, together with some simplifications and elision, resulted in the name Cheshire, as it occurs today.
Because of the close links with the land bordering Cheshire to the west, which became modern Wales, there is a history of interaction between Cheshire and North Wales. The Domesday Book records Cheshire as having two complete Hundreds that became the principal part of Flintshire. Additionally, another large portion of the Duddestan Hundred became known as Maelor Saesneg when it was transferred to North Wales. For this and other reasons, the Welsh language name for Cheshire is sometimes used. After the Norman conquest of 1066 by William I, dissent and resistance continued for many years after the invasion. In 1069 local resistance in Cheshire was put down using draconian measures as part of the Harrying of the North; the ferocity of the campaign against the English populace was enough to end all future resistance. Examples were made of major landowners such as Earl Edwin of Mercia, their properties confiscated and redistributed amongst Norman barons. William I made Cheshire a county palatine and gave Gerbod the Fleming the new title of Earl of Chester.
When Gerbod returned to Normandy in about 1070, the king used his absence to declare the earldom forfeit and gave the title to Hugh d'Avranches. Because of Cheshire's strategic location on Welsh Marches, the Earl had complete autonomous powers to rule on behalf of the king in the county palatine; the earldom was sufficiently independent from the kingdom of England that the 13th-century Magna Carta did not apply to the shire of Chester, so the earl wrote up his own Chester Charter at the petition of his barons. Cheshire in the Domesday Book is recorded as a much larger county, it included two hundreds and Exestan, that became part of North Wales. At the time of the Domesday Book, it included as part of Duddestan Hundred the area of land known as English Maelor in Wales; the area between the Mersey and Ribble formed part of the returns for Cheshire. Although this has been interpreted to mean that at that time south Lancashire was part of Cheshire, more exhaustive research indicates that the boundary between Cheshire and what was to become Lancashire remained the River Mersey.
With minor variations in spelling across sources, the complete list of hundreds of Cheshire at this time are: Atiscross, Chester, Exestan, Middlewich, Roelau, Tunendune and Wilaveston. Feudal baronies or baronies by tenure were granted by the Earl as forms of feudal land tenure within the palatinate in a similar way to which the king granted English feudal baronies within England proper. An example is the barony of Halton. One of Hugh d'Avranche's barons has been identified as Robert Nicholls, Baron of Halton and Montebourg. In 1182 the land north of the Mersey became administered as part of the new county of Lancashire, thus resolving any uncertainty about the county in which the land "Inter Ripam et Mersam" was. Over the years, the ten hundreds consolidated and changed names to leave just seven—Broxton, Eddisbury, Nantwich and Wirral. In 1397 the county had lands in the march of Wales added to its territory, was promoted to the rank of principality; this was because of the support the men of the county had given to King Richard II, in particular by his standing armed force of about 500 men called the "Cheshire Guard".
As a result, the King's title was changed to "King of England and France, Lord of Ireland, Prince of Chester". No other English county has been honoured in this way, although it lost the distinction on Richard's fall in 1399. Through the Local Government Act 1972, which came into effect on 1 April 1974, some areas in the north became part of the metropolitan counties of Greater Manchester and Merseyside. Stockport, Hyde and Stalybridge in the north-east became part of Greater Manchester. Much of the Wirral Peninsula in the north-west, including the county boroughs of Birkenhead and Wallasey, joined Merseyside as the Metropolitan Borough of Wirral. At the same time the Tintwistle Rural District was transferred to Derbyshire; the area of south Lancashire not included within either the Merseyside or Greater Manchester counties, including Widnes and the county b
Canal de Neufossé
The Canal de Neufossé is a French canal connecting the Aa River in Arques to the Canal d'Aire in Aire-sur-la-Lys. It is a segment of the Canal Dunkerque-Escaut. In 1760, the Neufossé canal was built to link the river Lys to the Aa, give Lille and other inland towns a French route to the sea. List of canals in France Project Babel
Lock (water navigation)
A lock is a device used for raising and lowering boats and other watercraft between stretches of water of different levels on river and canal waterways. The distinguishing feature of a lock is a fixed chamber. Locks are used to make a river more navigable, or to allow a canal to cross land, not level. Canals used more and larger locks to allow a more direct route to be taken. Since 2016, the largest lock worldwide is the Kieldrecht Lock in the Port of Belgium. A pound lock is a type of lock, used exclusively nowadays on canals and rivers. A pound lock has a chamber with gates at both ends. In contrast, an earlier design with a single gate was known as a flash lock. Pound locks were first used in medieval China during the Song Dynasty, having been pioneered by the Song politician and naval engineer Qiao Weiyue in 984, they replaced earlier double slipways that had caused trouble and are mentioned by the Chinese polymath Shen Kuo in his book Dream Pool Essays, described in the Chinese historical text Song Shi: The distance between the two locks was rather more than 50 paces, the whole space was covered with a great roof like a shed.
The gates were'hanging gates'. The water level could differ by 4 feet or 5 feet at each lock and in the Grand Canal the level was raised in this way by 138 feet. In medieval Europe a sort of pound lock was built in 1373 at Netherlands; this pound lock serviced many ships at once in a large basin. Yet the first true pound lock was built in 1396 at Damme near Belgium; the Italian Bertola da Novate constructed 18 pound locks on the Naviglio di Bereguardo between 1452 and 1458. When a stretch of river is made navigable, a lock is sometimes required to bypass an obstruction such as a rapid, dam, or mill weir – because of the change in river level across the obstacle. In large scale river navigation improvements and locks are used together. A weir will increase the depth of a shallow stretch, the required lock will either be built in a gap in the weir, or at the downstream end of an artificial cut which bypasses the weir and a shallow stretch of river below it. A river improved by these means is called a Waterway or River Navigation.
Sometimes a river is made non-tidal by constructing a sea lock directly into the estuary. In more advanced river navigations, more locks are required. Where a longer cut bypasses a circuitous stretch of river, the upstream end of the cut will be protected by a flood lock; the longer the cut, the greater the difference in river level between start and end of the cut, so that a long cut will need additional locks along its length. At this point, the cut is, in effect, a canal. Early artificial canals, across flat countryside, would get round a small hill or depression by detouring around it; as engineers became more ambitious in the types of country they felt they could overcome, locks became essential to effect the necessary changes in water level without detours that would be uneconomic both in building costs and journey time. Still, as construction techniques improved, engineers became more willing to cut directly through and across obstacles by constructing long tunnels, aqueducts or embankments, or to construct more technical devices such as inclined planes or boat lifts.
However, locks continued to be built to supplement these solutions, are an essential part of the most modern navigable waterways. All pound locks have three elements: A watertight chamber connecting the upper and lower canals, large enough to enclose one or more boats; the position of the chamber is fixed. A gate at each end of the chamber. A gate is opened to allow a boat to leave the chamber. A set of lock gear to fill the chamber as required; this is a simple valve which allows water to drain into or out of the chamber. The principle of operating a lock is simple. For instance, if a boat travelling downstream finds the lock full of water: The entrance gates are opened and the boat moves in; the entrance gates are closed. A valve is opened, this lowers the boat by draining water from the chamber; the exit gates are opened and the boat moves out. If the lock were empty, the boat would have had to wait 5 to 10 minutes. For a boat travelling upstream, the process is reversed; the whole operation will take between 10 and 20 minutes, depending on the size of the lock and whether the water in the lock was set at the boat's level.
Boaters approaching a lock are pleased to meet another boat coming towards them, because this boat will have just exited the lock on their level and therefore set the lock in their favour – saving about 5 to 10 minutes. However, this is not true for staircase locks, where it is quicker for boats to go through
Saint-Omer is a commune in France. It is a commune and sub-prefecture of the Pas-de-Calais department 68 km west-northwest of Lille on the railway to Calais; the town is named after Saint Audomar. The canalised portion of the river Aa begins at Saint-Omer, reaching the North Sea at Gravelines in northern France. Below its walls, the Aa connects with the Neufossé Canal. Saint-Omer first appeared in the writings during the 7th century under the name of Sithiu, around the Saint-Bertin abbey founded on the initiative of Audomar, Odemaars or Omer). Omer, bishop of Thérouanne, in the 7th century established the Abbey of Saint Bertin, from which that of Notre-Dame was an offshoot. Rivalry and dissension, which lasted till the French Revolution, soon sprang up between the two monasteries, becoming virulent when in 1559 St Omer became a bishopric and Notre-Dame was raised to the rank of cathedral. In the 9th century, the village that grew up round; the Normans laid the place waste about 860 and 880. Ten years the town and monastery had built fortified walls and were safe from their attack.
Situated on the borders of territories disputed by French, Flemish and Spaniards, St Omer for most of its history continued to be subject to sieges and military invasions. In 932 Arnulf of Flanders conquered the County of Artois and Saint-Omer became part of the County of Flanders for the next three centuries. In 1071 Philip I and the teenage Count Arnulf III of Flanders were defeated at St Omer by Arnulf's uncle and former protector, Robert the Frisian, who subsequently became the Count of Flanders until his death in 1093. Along with its textile industry, St-Omer flourished in the 13th century. In 1127 the town received a communal charter from the count, William Clito, becoming the first town in West Flanders with city rights. On the city lost its leading position in the textile industry to Brugge. After the mysterious death of Count Baldwin I, the County of Flanders was weakened. In 1214 Philip II of France captured Baldwin's daughter Joan and her husband Ferdinand, Count of Flanders and forced them to sign the Treaty of Pont-à-Vendin, in which Artois was yielded to France.
Ferdinand did not take this lying down, allied with Emperor Otto IV and John, King of England, he battled Philip II at Bouvines, but was defeated. Despite the political separation for the next 170 years, the city remained part of the economic network of Flanders. In 1340 a large battle was fought in the town's suburbs between an Anglo-Flemish army and a French one under Eudes IV, Duke of Burgundy, in which the Anglo-Flemish force was forced to withdraw. From 1384, St-Omer was part of the Burgundian Netherlands, from 1482 of the Habsburg Netherlands and from 1581 to 1678 of the Spanish Netherlands; the French made futile attempts against the town between 1551 and 1596. During the Thirty Years' War, the French attacked in 1638 and again in 1647. In 1677, after a seventeen-day siege, Louis XIV forced the town to capitulate; the peace of Nijmegen signed in the fall of 1678 permanently confirmed the conquest and its annexation by France. In 1711, St-Omer was besieged by the Duke of Marlborough. On the verge of surrendering because of famine, Jacqueline Robin risked her life to bring provisions into the town, in memory of which in 1884 a large statue of her was erected in front of the cathedral.
The College of Saint Omer was established in 1593 by Fr Robert Persons SJ, an English Jesuit, to educate English Catholics. After the Protestant Reformation, England had established penal laws against Catholic education in the country; the college operated in St Omer until 1762, when it migrated to Bruges and to Liège in 1773. It moved to England in 1794, settling at Stonyhurst, Lancashire. Former students of the College of Saint Omer include John Carroll, his brother Daniel and his cousin Charles. During World War I on 8 October 1914, the British Royal Flying Corps arrived in Saint-Omer and a headquarters was established at the aerodrome next to the local race course. For the following four years, Saint-Omer was a focal point for all RFC operations in the field. Although most squadrons only used Saint-Omer as a transit camp before moving on to other locations, the base grew in importance as it increased its logistic support to the RFC. Many Royal Air Force squadrons can trace their roots to formation at Saint-Omer during this period.
Among which are No. IX Squadron RAF, formed at Saint-Omer, 14 December 1914 and No. 16 Squadron RAF, formed on 10 February 1915. During World War II, the Luftwaffe used the airfield; when the RAF's legless Battle of Britain ace, Douglas Bader, parachuted from his Spitfire during an aerial battle over France, he was treated at a Luftwaffe hospital at Saint-Omer. He had lost an artificial leg when bailing out, the RAF dropped him another one during a bombing raid; the fortifications were demolished during the last decade of the 19th century, boulevards and new thoroughfares built in their place. A section of the ramparts remains intact on the western side of the town, converted into a park known as the jardin public. There are another within its limits. Saint-Omer has spacious squares; the old cathedral was constructed entirely in the 13th, 14th and centuries. A heavy square tower finished in 1499 surmounts the west portal; the church contains Biblical paintings, a colossal statue of Christ seated between the Virgin Mary and St John (13th
Arques is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in northern France, bordering Saint-Omer. Arques is situated in the middle of the Hauts-de-France region, 40 km from Calais and Dunkerque, 45 km from Boulogne-sur-Mer, it lies on the border of the departments of Nord. The town is crossed by the Neufossé Canal, which connects the rivers Lys; the commune includes several lakes—Beauséjour, Arc-en-ciel, Malhôve, Batavia—and part of the forest of Rihout-Clairmarais. Arques is in the region of French Flanders; as this area has been under Belgian, English and Spanish rule, many of the names are French versions of names in other languages. In the wake of the Battle of the Golden Spurs a battle was fought here in April 1303 between French and Flemish; the Flemish were victorious in the Battle of Arques. Arques is not to be confused with Arques-la-Bataille, it is close to Agincourt. It was one of the first towns in the region which subscribed to Agenda 21. Arques is famous for its crystal manufacture, it has been the headquarters of Arc International, the largest manufacturer of glassware in the world, since its inception in the 19th century.
The Fontinettes Boat Lift and the Arques lock Arc International The Aa Valley Tourist Railroad which runs between Arques and Lumbres The Audomarais marshes and the Parc naturel régional des caps et marais d'Opale It is near the Forest of Éperlecques, which houses the Blockhaus d'Éperlecques The local church, château and town hallThere is a town walk which takes in most of these sites and can be downloaded from the town website. The town is rated with three flowers. La Goudale have relocated to Arques to a state of the art brewery which can be visited. Communes of the Pas-de-Calais department Canton of Arques INSEE Town website
Aa (river, France)
The Aa is an 89-kilometre long river in northern France. Its source is near the village of Bourthes; the name Aa is Old Dutch. It means water, can be traced back to its original Indo-European form as such; the Aa flows through the following towns: Pas-de-Calais: Saint-Omer. Nord: Gravelines; the Aa flows into the North Sea near Gravelines close to the north-eastern limit of the English Channel. The river's geography can be divided into two parts. First, from its source, in the Artois Hills, to Saint-Omer, it is a small chalk stream, a small version of the Somme. as shown by the map of the rivers draining the Artois plateau. Second, from Saint-Omer seawards 29 kilometres, it is a navigable waterway connecting with the Canal de Calais leading to Calais and the Canal de Bourbourg leading to Dunkirk, as shown by the map of the navigable waterways; the section of the river from Saint-Omer down to the junction with the main Dunkirk-Scheldt waterway is disused, as is the Canal de Neuffossé heading upstream to the same main route at Arques.
Saint-Omer lay at the head of its estuary while to seaward, Calais lay on its western margin and Bergues, now inland from Dunkirk, on its eastern one. By the time of the Viking settlements on this coast, Dunkirk was developing on the dunes, offshore across the estuarine marsh from Bergues. Gravelines was the port at the seaward end of the river as it became, after the area of the estuary was reclaimed; the dates of these events are imprecise but the modern pattern was established by 1588, the time of the Spanish Armada, when an approximation to the modern course of the lowland river formed the boundary between the Spanish Netherlands and France. The river suffers significant problems from industrial discharge, as well as siltation that made the length from Saint-Omer down to the junction with the Dunkirk-Escaut waterway unnavigable from the 1970s. Aa river guide Navigation on the canal, including Gravelines as an entry port into the French waterways network; the Aa at the Sandre database