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Food processing

Food processing is the transformation of agricultural products into food, or of one form of food into other forms. Food processing includes many forms of processing foods, from grinding grain to make raw flour to home cooking to complex industrial methods used to make convenience foods. Primary food processing is necessary to make most foods edible, secondary food processing turns the ingredients into familiar foods, such as bread. Tertiary food processing has been criticized for promoting overnutrition and obesity, containing too much sugar and salt, too little fiber, otherwise being unhealthful in respect to dietary needs of humans and farm animals. Primary food processing turns agricultural products, such as raw wheat kernels or livestock, into something that can be eaten; this category includes ingredients that are produced by ancient processes such as drying, threshing and milling grain, shelling nuts, butchering animals for meat. It includes deboning and cutting meat and smoking fish and meat and filtering oils, canning food, preserving food through food irradiation, candling eggs, as well as homogenizing and pasteurizing milk.

Contamination and spoilage problems in primary food processing can lead to significant public health threats, as the resulting foods are used so widely. However, many forms of processing contribute to improved food safety and longer shelf life before the food spoils. Commercial food processing uses control systems such as hazard analysis and critical control points and failure mode and effects analysis to reduce the risk of harm. Secondary food processing is the everyday process of creating food from ingredients that are ready to use. Baking bread, regardless of whether it is made at home, in a small bakery, or in a large factory, is an example of secondary food processing. Fermenting fish and making wine and other alcoholic products are traditional forms of secondary food processing. Sausages are a common form of secondary processed meat, formed by comminution of meat that has undergone primary processing.. Most of the secondary food processing methods known to human kind are described as cooking methods.

Tertiary food processing is the commercial production of what is called processed food. These are heat-and-serve foods, such as TV dinners and re-heated airline meals. Food processing dates back to the prehistoric ages when crude processing incorporated fermenting, sun drying, preserving with salt, various types of cooking, Such basic food processing involved chemical enzymatic changes to the basic structure of food in its natural form, as well served to build a barrier against surface microbial activity that caused rapid decay. Salt-preservation was common for foods that constituted warrior and sailors' diets until the introduction of canning methods. Evidence for the existence of these methods can be found in the writings of the ancient Greek, Chaldean and Roman civilizations as well as archaeological evidence from Europe and South America and Asia; these tried and tested processing techniques remained the same until the advent of the industrial revolution. Examples of ready-meals date back to before the preindustrial revolution, include dishes such as Cornish pasty and Haggis.

Both during ancient times and today in modern society these are considered processed foods. Modern food processing technology developed in the 19th and 20th centuries was developed in a large part to serve military needs. In 1809 Nicolas Appert invented a hermetic bottling technique that would preserve food for French troops which contributed to the development of tinning, subsequently canning by Peter Durand in 1810. Although expensive and somewhat hazardous due to the lead used in cans, canned goods would become a staple around the world. Pasteurization, discovered by Louis Pasteur in 1864, improved the quality and safety of preserved foods and introduced the wine and milk preservation. In the 20th century, World War II, the space race and the rising consumer society in developed countries contributed to the growth of food processing with such advances as spray drying, juice concentrates, freeze drying and the introduction of artificial sweeteners, colouring agents, such preservatives as sodium benzoate.

In the late 20th century, products such as dried instant soups, reconstituted fruits and juices, self cooking meals such as MRE food ration were developed. By the 20th century, automatic appliances like microwave oven and rotimatic paved way for convenience cooking. In western Europe and North America, the second half of the 20th century witnessed a rise in the pursuit of convenience. Food processing companies marketed their products towards middle-class working wives and mothers. Frozen foods found their success in sales of juice concentrates and "TV dinners". Processors utilised the perceived value of time to appeal to the postwar population, this same appeal contributes to the success of convenience foods today. Benefits of food processing include toxin removal, easing marketing and distribution tasks, increasing food consistency. In addition, it increases yearly availability of many foods, enables transportation of delicate perishable foods across long distances and makes many kinds of foods safe to eat by de-activating spoilage and pathogenic micro-organisms.

Modern supermarkets would not exist without modern food processing techniques, long voyages would not be possible. Processed foods are less susceptible to early spoilage than fresh foods and are better suited for long

Draco and the Malfoys

Draco and the Malfoys are a wizard rock band founded in Woonsocket, Rhode Island in 2004. The group is composed of half-brothers Brian Ross and Bradley Mehlenbacher, who both perform under the persona of Draco Malfoy from the Harry Potter book series. Since the band's formation in 2004, they have released five full-length studio albums, one extended play release, have contributed to four compilation albums. In late 2013 in an interview with Wizrocklopedia, Brian Ross confirmed that he and Bradley were in the process of making a new album and released a new single called "Cheat to Win". Ross and Mehlenbacher conceived Draco and the Malfoys as a parody of Harry and the Potters, who were performing at a local house party. In late 2004, Matt Maggiacomo invited the Harry and the Potters to play at an all-Harry Potter show at his Rhode Island home; that night, Maggiacomo made his debut as The Whomping Willows, his friends and his brother, Brian Ross, played for the first time as Draco and the Malfoys.

ABC news reports that Brian Ross and Bradley Mehlenbacher's:...love for the Harry Potter book series is no less than that of the DeGeorge brothers, but Brian and Bradley seem to better recognize the absurdity of the bands mocking the idea that Paul and Joe represent two differently aged versions of the popular wizard. "We look like nothing like Draco Malfoy, are too old to be going to Hogwarts," said Brian, 32, of he and his brother Bradley, soon to be 27. "So we say that we're Draco from years 19 and 15 at Hogwarts." Ross said in the ABC news story that the mock rivalry between Draco and the Malfoys and the Harry and the Potters is all for show. In fact, the Potters and the Malfoys toured together for a month in the summer of 2007 and collaborate on albums." It's a catchy concept, two bands portraying the most beloved and hated characters in the Harry Potter series, both celebrating their passion for the fictional wizard world with catchy tunes and kid-friendly rock concerts." Neither Draco and the Malfoys nor their nemesis Harry and the Potters think of the burgeoning wizard rock community as a joke, or "even as some bastard-dork cousin of indie-rock".

The Boston Phoenix reports that: Both groups - Draco and the Malfoys and Harry and the Potters - take their efforts quite especially at this juncture. Amidst the fervor leading up to the release of Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, wizard rockers seem to be drawing bigger and better crowds, at every show. For Draco and the Malfoys, the band is an escape from the humdrum pressures of hipster irony — like the Potters, they’re prone to rocking out in libraries. In this venture, says Ross, he and his band are just a pipeline for Pottermania. “With this, we’re all fans of something much larger,” he says. “Everyone shows up to have a good time, never to be a snob about the music ever, ever.” The Boston Phoenix wondered - in spite of booked calendars - how long will wizard rock last once there are no new stories to riff on as their musical identity is contingent on the lasting success and popularity of a book series. Ross sound tearful, in fact, when he professes his faith that the Potter phenomenon will outlast Deathly Hallows.

He and his brother have both been in bands where, “if you go four hours away from your hometown, nobody comes to see you.” When the wiz kid is involved, they have a built-in fan base. “Our experience with wizard rock has been the best musical experience of our lives,” says Ross. “We don’t have any interest in stopping at all.” Draco and the Malfoys, Tom Riddle and Friends, Whomping Willows and the Moaning Myrtles played at Wrockstock 2008 at a YMCA summer camp lodge in the Ozark foothills. They released their third studio album, It's A Slytherin World and a compilation album, Anthology of Slytherin Folk Music, in 2009, they have released plans to create a series of extended plays, the first being Draco and the Malfoys Celebrate... Piracy!. In December 2011, Draco and the Malfoys played their last show at the Yule Ball. On December 19, 2011, they posted this message on their Facebook page: "Thank you for making our final two shows this weekend amazing. It's been an unbelievably gratifying 6+ years.

We've been playing music together our whole lives, always dreamt of touring and playing together. Thank you all for making our dreams come true. You've given us more awesome times than we could have imagined. Here's to all of our futures. Cheers! ♥ Brian & Bradley." Ross and Mehlenbacher write lyrics from Draco's perspective. Thus dressed in Slytherin-themed costumes, their anti-Potter lyrics – "You may have freed our house elf, brought doubt to our family name/ but your parents still got toasted by a big, glowing flame" – were a parody of wizard rock but were met with success and another Harry Potter-themed garage band was born. Draco and the Malfoys write catchy pop songs from the perspective of Harry's rival and tormentor, Draco Malfoy – "My dad's always there to open all my doors / You have to call a Patronus just to catch a glimpse of yours... my dad is rich, your dad is dead" – goes one chorus. They make reference to various Harry Potter objects, such as the Mirror of Erised and the Patronus Charm.

The lyrics are mocking and condescending towards Harry and others. BostonNOW asked the band if Ross had "any anti-fans at your shows?" Ross replied: "Never. Everyone is supportive, although we will get little kids getting mad and yelling at us because we write songs making fun of Neville and Harry"; the Advocate of Stamford, Connecticut reported that: The pair said they had fun trying to figure out why Draco's so mean, Mehlenbacher said. Their lyrics are written tongue-in-cheek, all but the youngest Harry Potter

Choa Chu Kang MRT/LRT station

Choa Chu Kang MRT/LRT station is an above-ground Mass Rapid Transit and Light Rail Transit interchange station in Choa Chu Kang, Singapore. It is an interchange between the North South line and Bukit Panjang LRT, serving as the western terminus of the latter; the station sits in between Choa Chu Kang Bus Interchange and Lot One, at the heart of the Choa Chu Kang town centre. The station's LRT platform is the only station on the Bukit Panjang LRT to use a Spanish solution, is the second rail station in Singapore to use such a configuration after VivoCity station on the Sentosa Express, it is one of the three interchange stations on the Singapore MRT/LRT system to be elevated. Choa Chu Kang station is proposed to become an interchange with the Jurong Region line, slated for completion in 2026, it will be the northern terminus of the Main Branch of the Jurong Region line. Trains entering service at this station will terminate at Jurong Pier via Bahar Junction; as a triple line interchange, it will join Dhoby Ghaut MRT station, Outram Park MRT station and Marina Bay MRT station, as well as Jurong East MRT station.

The MRT station was the terminus of the Branch line. Construction began on 15 February 1986. With the opening of the North South line Woodlands Extension on 10 February 1996, the branch line was incorporated into the North South line; the LRT station opened on 6 November 1999, alongside the rest of the Bukit Panjang LRT line. The station was third one to have an Xchange after those in the underground Dhoby Ghaut and Raffles Place, making the station the first to have an Xchange above-ground and in a residential neighbourhood. Since 26 August 2011, automatic platform gates were installed on the North South line platforms and commenced operation on 21 October that year. HVLS fans in the MRT platform commenced operations on 10 October 2012; the LRT platform features fans as of 27 September 2015. On 31 October 2012, LTA announced that Choa Chu Kang LRT station will have two more platforms for commuters to exit the trains to allow the existing platform in the centre to have more space to cater to boarding passengers.

There will be additional fare gates and a new covered linkway from the LRT station to Lot One. These new additions which include widening the staircase between the MRT and the LRT stations will be completed by 2016. New Exit E was opened at the same time, to Lot One Shoppers Mall but despite that, there is no lift access, only stairs; the two newly constructed platforms at the LRT station began operations on 27 December that year. The two new side platforms, platforms 3 and 4, lack lift access so passengers who needs to take the lift when alighting at Choa Chu Kang LRT station have to wait for the doors to open to the island platform, where lift access is available. Stickers to remind passengers to exit at platforms 1 or 2 if they need a lift to exit are placed on all the LRT doors. In 2016, platforms 1 and 2 of the LRT had half-height platform barriers installed. Choa Chu Kang was the first to install half-height platform barriers due to the high commuter traffic at this station. Half-height platform barriers were installed at platforms 4 during construction.

On 9 May 2018, LTA announced that Choa Chu Kang station would become a terminus for the Jurong Region line. The station will be constructed as part of Phase 1, JRL, consisting of 10 stations between Choa Chu Kang, Boon Lay and Tawas, is expected to be completed in 2026; the platforms will be situated on the former site of the Choa Chu Kang Bus Interchange as well as HDB multi-storey carpark at Block 303 Choa Chu Kang Avenue 4, located to the west of the current station complex. While the JRL platform will be of a typical Island platform design, an additional platform will be constructed to allow cross platform transfer between the Jurong Region line services and North South line southbound services; the Contract J102 for the design and construction of Choa Chu Kang JRL station and associated viaducts, including Addition & Alteration works to the existing station complex, was awarded to Shanghai Tunnel Engineering Co. Pte Ltd at a sum of S$465.2 million. Construction will start in 2020, with completion in 2026..

The Contract J102 includes the design and construction of Choa Chu Kang West station and Tengah station, associated viaducts. On 7 April 2008, a man was hit by a train at Choa Chu Kang station at 8am; this resulted in the disruption of northbound train services from Yew Tee to Bukit Gombak for about 50 minutes. He was subsequently pronounced dead by paramedics. A bus-bridging service was deployed between Yew Tee and Bukit Gombak stations as trains were made to turn around at Yew Tee, Bukit Gombak and Choa Chu Kang stations; as a precaution, automatic platform gates were subsequently installed on the North South line platforms. Official website