click links in text for more info


The foot is an anatomical structure found in many vertebrates. It is the terminal portion of a limb which allows locomotion. In many animals with feet, the foot is a separate organ at the terminal part of the leg made up of one or more segments or bones including claws or nails; the word "foot", in the sense of meaning the "terminal part of the leg of a vertebrate animal" comes from "Old English fot "foot," from Proto-Germanic *fot, from PIE root *ped- "foot." The "plural form feet is an instance of i-mutation." The human foot is a strong and complex mechanical structure containing 26 bones, 33 joints, more than a hundred muscles and ligaments. The joints of the foot are the ankle and subtalar joint and the interphalangeal articulations of the foot. An anthropometric study of 1197 North American adult Caucasian males found that a man's foot length was 26.3 cm with a standard deviation of 1.2 cm. The foot can be subdivided into the hindfoot, the midfoot, the forefoot: The hindfoot is composed of the talus and the calcaneus.

The two long bones of the lower leg, the tibia and fibula, are connected to the top of the talus to form the ankle. Connected to the talus at the subtalar joint, the calcaneus, the largest bone of the foot, is cushioned underneath by a layer of fat; the five irregular bones of the midfoot, the cuboid and three cuneiform bones, form the arches of the foot which serves as a shock absorber. The midfoot is connected to the hind - and fore-foot by the plantar fascia; the forefoot is composed of five toes and the corresponding five proximal long bones forming the metatarsus. Similar to the fingers of the hand, the bones of the toes are called phalanges and the big toe has two phalanges while the other four toes have three phalanges each; the joints between the phalanges are called interphalangeal and those between the metatarsus and phalanges are called metatarsophalangeal. Both the midfoot and forefoot constitute the planum; the instep is the arched part of the top of the foot between the ankle. Tibia, fibula tarsus: talus, cuneiformes and navicular metatarsus: first, third and fifth metatarsal bone phalanges There can be many sesamoid bones near the metatarsophalangeal joints, although they are only present in the distal portion of the first metatarsal bone.

The human foot has two longitudinal arches and a transverse arch maintained by the interlocking shapes of the foot bones, strong ligaments, pulling muscles during activity. The slight mobility of these arches when weight is applied to and removed from the foot makes walking and running more economical in terms of energy; as can be examined in a footprint, the medial longitudinal arch curves above the ground. This arch stretches from the heel bone over the "keystone" ankle bone to the three medial metatarsals. In contrast, the lateral longitudinal arch is low. With the cuboid serving as its keystone, it redistributes part of the weight to the calcaneus and the distal end of the fifth metatarsal; the two longitudinal arches serve as pillars for the transverse arch which run obliquely across the tarsometatarsal joints. Excessive strain on the tendons and ligaments of the feet can result in flat feet; the muscles acting on the foot can be classified into extrinsic muscles, those originating on the anterior or posterior aspect of the lower leg, intrinsic muscles, originating on the dorsal or plantar aspects of the foot.

All muscles originating on the lower leg except the popliteus muscle are attached to the bones of the foot. The tibia and fibula and the interosseous membrane separate these muscles into anterior and posterior groups, in their turn subdivided into subgroups and layers. Anterior group Extensor group: tibialis anterior originates on the proximal half of the tibia and the interosseous membrane and is inserted near the tarsometatarsal joint of the first digit. In the non-weight-bearing leg tibialis anterior flexes the foot lift its medial edge. In the weight-bearing leg it brings the leg towards the back of the foot, like in rapid walking. Extensor digitorum longus arises on the lateral tibial condyle and along the fibula to be inserted on the second to fifth digits and proximally on the fifth metatarsal; the extensor digitorum longus acts similar to the tibialis anterior except that it dorsiflexes the digits. Extensor hallucis longus is inserted on the first digit; as the name implies it dorsiflexes the big toe and acts on the ankle in the unstressed leg.

In the weight-bearing leg it acts similar to the tibialis anterior. Peroneal group: peroneus longus arises on the proximal aspect of the fibula and peroneus brevis below it on the same bone. Together, their tendons pass behind the lateral malleolus. Distally, peroneus longus crosses the plantar side of the foot to reach its insertion on the first tarsometatarsal joint, while peroneus brevis reaches the proximal part of the fifth metatarsal; these two muscles are aid in plantar flexion. Longus acts like a bowstring that braces the transverse arch of the foot. Posterior group The superficial layer of posterior leg muscles is formed by the triceps surae and the plantaris; the triceps surae consists of the two heads of the gastrocnemius. The heads of gastrocnemius arise on the femur, proximal to the c

2017 in Indian sports

The 2017 in Indian sports was held across the Indian cities all through the season. 2–8 January – Chennai Open scheduled in Chennai. 24–29 January – Syed Modi International Grand Prix Gold scheduled in Lucknow. 16–19 February – India Open Squash is scheduled in New Delhi. 19–26 February – India participated in 2017 Asian Winter Games. 28 March – 2 April – India Super Series was held in New Delhi. 10–14 May – 2017 Asian Wrestling Championship held in New Delhi, India. 6–9 July – 2017 Asian Athletics Championship held in Bhubaneswar. 27 August – India beat Nepal by 2–1 in final of 2017 SAFF under −15 championship. 6–28 October – FIFA U-17 World Cup is scheduled. England wins the maiden title by beating Spain in final by 5–2. 22 October – India beat Malaysia by 2–1 in final of 2017 men's Hockey Asia Cup held in Dhaka, Bangladesh. 22 October – Srikant Kidambi wins 2017 Denmark Super Series Premier. 5 October – India won 2017 Hockey women's Asia cup held in Japan by beating China in final by 5–4. 1 November – Indian cricket team registered their first T20I win against New Zealand at New Delhi 30 November – Mirabai Chanu wins gold in 2017 world weightlifting championship held in USA.

1–10 December – The 2016–17 Men's FIH Hockey World League Final took place in Bhubaneswar, India. India won bronze medal

Joanne Catherall

Joanne Catherall is an English singer, one of two female vocalists in the English synth-pop band the Human League. In October 1980, Catherall was an unknown 18-year-old school girl when she and her best friend Susan Ann Sulley were discovered in Sheffield's Crazy Daisy Nightclub by Philip Oakey, the lead singer and a founding member of the Human League; the pair joined Oakey in forming a new and subsequently commercially successful band line-up. Catherall has remained in the band since, working over the next 30 years, she is a joint business partner in the band, which continues to tour. The Human League had split acrimoniously over creative differences, leaving only two of the original four members and Adrian Wright, to continue. Crucially, The Human League was contracted to a European tour starting within a week. In debt to Virgin Records, Oakey had to recruit new band members in a matter of days for the tour or be sued by the tour's promoters, face bankruptcy, see the end of the band. Oakey went into Sheffield one evening to recruit a single female backing singer for the tour, needed to replace the original high backing vocals of the now departed Martyn Ware.

He noticed Catherall and Sulley dancing together in the Crazy Daisy, now states that they stood out from all the other girls in the club due to their unique dress sense, immaculate make-up, idiosyncratic but sophisticated dance moves. Without preamble Oakey asked both girls to join the tour as incidental vocalists. Catherall now states that she knew it was a genuine offer, as Oakey was well known in Sheffield. Catherall and Sulley agreed to the offer despite having no singing or professional dancing experience. However, with the girls being 17/18 years old, the final decision about them going on the tour lay with their parents; the parents of both the girls were unhappy with the idea and refused to give their consent. This was overturned reluctantly when Oakey, complete with his trademark lop-sided haircut, red lipstick and high heeled shoes visited both sets of parents to convince them that the girls would come to no harm. Catherall and Sulley's school agreed to the absence as it was thought visiting Europe would be educational.

The first European tour of The Human League got underway with the two young recruits assigned to dancing and incidental vocal duties. The girls at this stage were just guests in the group on a salary of £30 a week. Although the tour was a success the crowds were hostile to Catherall and Sulley, as fans had bought tickets for the original all male line-up. Catherall recalls dodging several beer cans thrown at her during the tour and was heckled. During the tour Oakey had experimented with the girls singing on a number of the original tracks and was impressed with the results. On return to Sheffield in December 1980 both girls were made full-time members of The Human League. After the tour and Sulley returned to school full-time while Wright and Oakey set about composing and songwriting; the new Human League of Sulley, Oakey and Wright started to gain ground in early 1981 with the release of the single "Boys and Girls." Though it charted at number 48, it was the most successful single at that point.

The girls were not used in the production as the song was written without any female backing and they were busy with school. They featured on the record sleeve and in promotional photo shoots. Soon after Boys and Girls came the recruitment of professional musicians Ian Burden and Jo Callis, which sharpened the band's output considerably; the release of the next single "Sound of the Crowd" was the band's commercial breakthrough. It was the first single to include both Catherall's and Sulley's full vocals, rather than incidentals and'adlibs.' The band were invited to play on the UK's principal music programme BBC TV's Top of The Pops, with only a few hours notice. The first Catherall knew about her first appearance on TV was when Sulley's mother rushed to collect her and Sulley from school mid-lessons for the drive to the London studios. By this time, the music video had become popular for broadcast TV. Spurred on by pre-filmed promos and live TV appearances, the band started to refine their personal appearance styles for a commercial audience.

Catherall adopted the striking black kohl eye make-up and bright red lipstick which became her trademark early 1980s style. In October 1981 The Human League released their next studio album Dare. By now The Human League were in their ascendancy and were becoming popular with the mainstream British public. In mid November 1981, with the Human League in the public eye, sales of the album Dare soaring, Virgin records decided to release one more single from Dare. Oakey had always disliked the track "Don't You Want Me". Virgin Records had more faith. Shot on 35mm film rather than videotape, the promo was filmed in late November 1981 in Slough, Berkshire; the scenario was "a movie shoot for a murder mystery film", is lyrically a conflicting duet between Oakey and Sulley with backing vocals from Catherall. Premiering in December 1981, the video was played on British television frequently; the memorable opening scene of the video has Catherall, in a fur coat standing on a rural road corner. The night is freezing, she is surrounded by swirling mist and accompanied by the deep opening synth chords.

The effects of the music and emotional lyrics, as well as t

Jean Paré

Jean Paré, CM is a Canadian caterer, author of the Company's Coming cookbook series, founder of Company’s Coming Publishing Limited. She is one of the top selling cookbook authors in the world, selling 30 million copies as of 2011, she wrote over 200 cookbooks before her retirement in 2011. In 2004, she was made a Member of the Order of Canada's highest civilian honor. Paré was born on December 7, 1927, in Irma, Canada to Edward and Ruby Elford; the family moved to Edmonton, Alberta. Jean married her first husband, Clarence Lovig in 1946. In 1959, they moved to Alberta where they owned and operated the Vermilion Auction Mart, they built and operated the Vegreville Auction Mart as well. Jean and Clarence were divorced in the mid 1960s, leaving Jean on her own with two school-age children to support. Using a $1,000 loan from a local bank, she opened a small cafe in Vermilion. There, she met Larry Paré, a single father of three children. Paré is the author of Company's Coming cookbooks and distributed by Company's Coming Publishing Limited, which she co-founded in 1981.

She oversaw publication of more than 17,000 kitchen-tested recipes and the publication of more than 200 cookbooks. After 30 years and 30 million cookbooks sold, she retired in February 2011. Among her accomplishments was her appointment as a Member of the Order of Canada. Paré was a principal shareholder in COMAC Food Group; that company owned Company's Coming Bakery Cafes, Grabbajabba Specialty Coffee, Pastels Cafes, the Canadian rights to the Domino's Pizza franchise. Prior to publishing cookbooks, Paré was a caterer in her home town of Alberta; because of requests for her recipes, she wrote and published her first cookbook in 1981 at the age of 53. To begin, 15,000 copies of 150 Delicious Squares were produced, sold in specially designed racks at gas stations, grocery stores and at local fairs; this first book was the start for Company's Coming Publishing Limited. Paré went on to have more than 200 Company's Coming cookbooks published before her retirement in 2011, her cookbooks are about a single subject with easy to follow recipes that rely upon available ingredients.

The Recipe for Success: The Life and Times of Jean Paré Jean Paré Image of Jean Paré

2002 Alabama gubernatorial election

The U. S. state of Alabama held its 2002 election for governor on November 5. The race pitted incumbent Governor Don Siegelman, a Democrat, against Representative Bob Riley, a Republican, Libertarian nominee John Sophocleus; the result was an narrow victory for Riley. The certified results showed Riley with 672,225 votes to Siegelman's 669,105. Sophocleus garnered 23,272 votes, 2,451 votes were for write-in candidate; the close and controversial election was marked by high turnout. Both of the principal contestants in the general election campaign faced primary-election opponents whose opposition turned out to be less than expected; the primaries were held on June 4, 2002. Charles Bishop, Commissioner of Agriculture and Industries Blake W. Harper, III, businessman Gladys Riddle, member of the Alabama Board of Pardons and Paroles Don Siegelman, incumbent Governor Mark "Rodeo Clown" Townsend Tim James and son of former Governor Fob James Bob Riley, U. S. Representative Steve Windom, Lieutenant Governor The closeness of the general election contest was reflected in its intensity and fervor.

At one point in the campaign, a clash erupted between the two principal campaigns over disclosure of the identities of large contributors to the Riley campaign. President George W. Bush appeared in Alabama at a July event, a private reception with a $50,000 admission was held to benefit the Riley campaign. Riley's campaign refused to identify the donors attending the event. Under pressure from the Siegelman campaign, Riley called on the national Republican Party, which had hosted the event, to release the names of donors; the Riley campaign was subjected to editorial criticism when the voluminous reports released made it difficult to trace the sources of donations from the event to Riley. During the campaign and National Rifle Association president Charlton Heston came to Alabama to campaign for Republican congressional candidates. While in the state, Heston released a written statement endorsing Siegelman, despite the fact that Riley had made a point of being seen in public with Heston. Spokesmen for both Riley and the Alabama Republican Party issued statements insinuating that Siegelman had taken advantage of Heston's diagnosed Alzheimer's disease to secure the endorsement.

After a firestorm of criticism from the NRA and editorial pages, the Republican spokesmen apologized to Heston, but not to Siegelman. Riley received the endorsements of The Birmingham News, the Mobile Press-Register, the Business Council of Alabama, the Auburn University Trustee Improvement PAC, an alumni group which opposed Siegelman's choices for trustees at the school. In addition to the NRA, Siegelman was endorsed by The Montgomery Advertiser, The Anniston Star, The Tuscaloosa News, various labor groups, including the Alabama State Employees Association. Siegelman was endorsed by Alabama Education Association executive secretary Paul Hubbert, although the Association itself remained neutral; the campaign set new spending records for an Alabama gubernatorial race. Before the final weeks of the campaign, the candidates had raised over $17,000,000. Riley, who raised and spent over twice the sum Siegelman raised, was backed by business groups and insurance companies. Siegelman received substantial contributions from labor groups and affiliates of the Alabama Education Association.

Both candidates were the beneficiaries of national party funding, contributions from political action committees made donations to both candidates difficult to trace. Polls taken in the final days of the campaign reflected the eventual close outcome. Riley's victory was controversial, caused many commentators to recall the Florida election recount of 2000. Initial returns showed Riley narrowly losing to Siegelman. Siegelman gave a victory speech on election night, the Associated Press declared him the winner. However, officials in Baldwin County conducted a recount and retabulation of that county's votes after midnight, after Democratic Party observers had gone home for the night. 6,000 votes credited to Siegelman were either removed from the total or reassigned to Riley in the recount, turning the statewide result in Riley's favor. Local Republican officials claimed the earlier returns were the result of a "computer glitch." Democratic requests to repeat the recount with Democratic observers present were rejected by Alabama courts and then-Attorney General Bill Pryor.

Siegelman and his supporters complained that these judges were either elected as Republicans or appointed by Republican presidents. After over a week of fights in courtrooms and in the media, Siegelman, on November 18, 2002, made a televised address, saying that, "I've decided that a prolonged election controversy would hurt Alabama, would hurt the people that we worked so hard to help", abandoned his efforts to secure a recount of the Baldwin County vote, allowing Riley to take office. In response to the allegation of a "computer glitch", Siegelman stated: "ow one would expect that if there was some kind of computer glitch or some kind of computer programming error, that it might have affected more than one race, but it further raised suspicions about vote stealing when the votes came back and they were certified, the only person who lost votes was Don Siegelman, the Democrat, the only person who gained votes was Bob Riley, the Republican."A number of analyses of the competing claims were undertaken at the time, with conflicting results.

In one such study, Auburn University political scientist James H. Gundlach concluded that a detailed analysis of the returns, compared with 1998 results and returns from undisputed counties

Rings of Gold

"Rings of Gold" is a single by American country music artists Dottie West and Don Gibson. Released in February 1969, it was the first single from Don; the song peaked at number 2 on the Billboard Hot Country Singles chart. It reached number 1 on the RPM Country Tracks chart in Canada; the duet – a mid-tempoed country pop-flavored song about a failing relationship – became the first of two duets pairing West and Gibson to reach the top 10 of the Billboard Hot Country Singles chart, the other being the No. 7 hit "There's a Story" in January 1970. "Rings of Gold" was West's biggest hit to that point in her career, her 1973 solo hit "Country Sunshine" would match it. For Gibson, it was his first top 10 hit in two years, the last coming with 1967's "Funny, Forgotten, Feelings", his biggest hit since "Lonesome Number One," a No. 2 hit in early 1962