Central Java is a province of Indonesia. This province is located in the middle of the island of Java, its administrative capital is Semarang. The province is bordered by West Java in the west, the Indian Ocean and the Special Region of Yogyakarta in the south, East Java in the east, the Java Sea in the north; the area is around 28.94 % of the total area of Java. The province of Central Java includes the island of Nusakambangan in the south, the Karimun Jawa Islands in the Java Sea. Central Java is a cultural concept that includes the Special Region and city of Yogyakarta as well as the Province of Central Java. However, administratively the city and its surrounding regencies have formed a separate special region since Indonesian independence, administrated separately. Central Java is known as the "heart" of Javanese culture. So, in this province there are other ethnic groups that have different cultures from the Javanese, such as the Sundanese in the border area with West Java. Besides there are Chinese-Indonesians, Arabs-Indonesians and Indian-Indonesians scattered throughout the province.
The province has been inhabited by humans since the prehistoric-era. Remains of the Homo erectus, popularly dubbed the "Java Man", were found along the banks of the Bengawan Solo River, these dates back to 1.7 million years ago. In the past, Central Java was under the control of several Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms, Islamic sultanates and the Dutch East Indies colonial government. Central Java was center of the Indonesian independence movement; as the majority of the modern-day Indonesian are of Javanese descent, both Central Java and East Java has a major impact on Indonesia's social and economic life. The province is 32,800.69 km2 in area a quarter of the total land area of Java. Its population was 33,753,023 at the 2015 Census; the origin of the name "Java" can be traced from the Sanskrit chronicle which mentions the existence of an island called yavadvip. Are these grains a millet or rice, both of which have been found on this island in the days before the entry of Indian influence, it is possible that this island has many previous names, including the possibility of originating from the word jaú which means "far away".
Yavadvipa is mentioned in one of Ramayana. According to the epic, the commander of the wanara from Sri Rama's army, sent his envoy to Yavadvip to look for the Hindu goddess Sita. Another possible assumption is that the word "Java" comes from the root words in Proto-Austronesian language, Awa or Yawa which means "home". An island called Iabadiu or Jabadiu is mentioned in Ptolemy's work called Geographia, made around 150 AD during the era of the Roman Empire. Iabadiu is said to mean "island of barley" rich in gold, has a silver city called Argyra at its western end; this name mentioned Java, which most origins from the Sanskrit term Java-dvipa. Chinese records from the Songshu and the Liangshu referred to Java as She-po, He-ling called it She-po again until the Yuan Dynasty, where they began to call Zhao-Wa. In the book Yingyai Shenglan, wrotten by the Chinese Ming explorer Ma Huan, the Chinese call Java as Chao-Wa, it was once called the She-pó; when Giovanni de' Marignolli returned from China to Avignon, he stopped at the kingdom of Saba, which he said had many elephants and was led by a queen.
Java has been inhabited by their ancestors since prehistoric times. In Central Java and the adjacent territories in East Java remains known as "Java Man" were discovered in the 1890s by the Dutch anatomist and geologist Eugène Dubois. Java Man belongs to the species Homo erectus, they are believed to be about 1.7 million years old. The Sangiran site is an important prehistoric site on Java. About 40,000 years ago, Australoid peoples related to modern Australian Aboriginals and Melanesians colonised Central Java, they were assimilated or replaced by Mongoloid Austronesians by about 3000 BC, who brought with them technologies of pottery, outrigger canoes, the bow and arrow, introduced domesticated pigs and dogs. They introduced cultivated rice and millet. Recorded history began in Central Java in the 7th century AD; the writing, as well as Hinduism and Buddhism, were brought to Central Java by Indians from South Asia. Central Java was a centre of power in Java back then. In 664 AD, the Chinese monk Hui-neng visited the Javanese port city he called Hēlíng or Ho-ling, where he translated various Buddhist scriptures into Chinese with the assistance of the Javanese Buddhist monk Jñānabhadra.
It is not known what is meant by the name Hēlíng. It used to be considered the Chinese transcription of Kalinga but it now most thought of as a rendering of the name Areng. Hēlíng is believed to be located somewhere between Jepara; the first dated inscription in Central Java is the Inscription of Canggal, from 732 AD. This inscription which hailed from Kedu, is written in Sanskrit in Pallava script. In this inscription it is written that a Shaivite king named Sri Sanjaya established a kingdom called Mataram. Under the reign of Sanjaya's dynasty several monuments such as the Prambanan temple complex were built. In the meantime a
Bengkulu is a province of Indonesia, located in the southwest coast of Sumatra. It was formed on 18 November 1968 by separating out the former Bengkulu Residency area from the province of South Sumatra under Law No. 9 of 1967 and was finalised by Government Regulation No. 20 of 1968. Spread over 19,813 km2, it is bordered by the provinces of West Sumatra to the north, Jambi to the northeast, Lampung to the southeast, South Sumatra to the east, the Indian Ocean to the northwest, south and west. Bengkulu is the 25th largest province by area. Bengkulu is the 26th largest province by population in Indonesia. According to a release by Badan Pusat Statistik, it has the eleventh highest Human Development Index among the provinces, with a score about 0.744 in 2013. By 2014, the province positions 28th highest in gross domestic product and 20th highest in life expectancy, 70.35 years. Bengkulu includes Mega Island and Enggano Island in the Indian Ocean. Bengkulu has 525 kilometres of coastline along the Indian Ocean on its western side, from Dusun Baru Pelokan in Muko-Muko Regency to Tebing Nasal in Kaur Regency.
Bengkulu is home to many natural resources such as coal and gold, has big and potential geothermal resources. However, it is less developed than other provinces in Sumatra. Traditional sources suggest that the name Bengkulu or Bangkahulu derived from the word bangkai and hulu which means'carcasses located in an stream'. According to the story, there was once a war between small kingdoms in Bengkulu, resulting in many casualties from both sides in the streams of Bengkulu; these casualties soon rotted as they were not buried, lying in river streams. This etymology is similar to the story of a war between the Majapahit Empire and the Pagaruyung Kingdom in Padang Sibusuk, an area once ruled by the Dharmasraya empire, which derives the name Padang Sibusuk from casualties rotting on the battlefield. During the European colonialism, the region was known as British Bencoolen; the region formed part of the Buddhist Srivijaya empire in the 8th century, but this south-west Sumatran part was never under any big local patronage as of neighboring Palembang or Jambi Sultanates.
There were only few smalls ‘kedatuan’ based on ethnicity such as in Sungai Serut, Pat Petulai, Balai Buntar, Sungai Lemau, Gedung Agung and Marau Riang. It was once a vassal region of Banten Sultanate and since 17th century was ruled by Minangkabau's Inderapura Sultanate; the first European visitors to the area were the Portuguese, followed by the Dutch in 1596. The English East India Company established a pepper-trading center and garrison at Bengkulu in 1685. In 1714 the British built Fort Marlborough; the trading post was never profitable for the British, being hampered by a location which Europeans found unpleasant, by an inability to find sufficient pepper to buy. It became an occasional port of call for the EIC's East Indiamen. If anything the rest of Sumatra and for the most part of Indonesia was under Dutch East Indies Bengkulu was the lone exception in that it belonged to British until an Anglo-Dutch Treaty in 1824. Sir Stamford Raffles was here, as were other British governors, as well as a number of monuments and forts.
Despite their difficulties, the British persisted, maintaining their presence for 140 years before ceding it to the Dutch as part of the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 in exchange for Malacca. Bengkulu remained part of the Dutch East Indies until the Japanese occupation in World War 2. During Sukarno's imprisonment by the Dutch in the early 1930s, the future first president of Indonesia lived in Bengkulu. Here he met his wife, who bore him several children, one of whom, Megawati Sukarnoputri, became Indonesia's first female President. During early independence, Bengkulu was included in the older'South Sumatera' Province with Lampung, the Bangka-Belitung Archipelago and what became South Sumatera itself, as a Residency, it gained its provincial status in 1968 as the 26th province. Bengkulu is prone to earthquakes and tsunamis; the June 2000 Enggano earthquake killed at least 100 people. A recent report predicts that Bengkulu is "at risk of inundation over the next few decades from undersea earthquakes predicted along the coast of Sumatra" A series of earthquakes struck Bengkulu during September 2007, killing 13 people.
Geographically, Bengkulu is located between 2° and 5° South Latitude and between 101° and 104° Eastern Longitude. The western part of Bengkulu province bordering the Indian Ocean coast that has a length of about 576 km and the eastern part of the condition is hilly with a plateau, prone to erosion. Bengkulu Province is located in the west side of the Bukit Barisan mountains; the total area of Bengkulu province reached 1.97887 million hectares or 19788.7 square kilometers. Bengkulu Province area extends from the border province of West Sumatra to the border province of Lampung and the distance is 567 kilometers. Judging from its geographical situation, Bengkulu Province lies between 2 ° 16'- 03 ° 31' latitude and 101 ° 01'-103 ° 41' east longitude. Bengkulu province in the north bordering the province of West Sumatra, in the southern Indian Ocean and Lampung province, in the west bordering the Indian Ocean and in the east with the province of Jambi and South Sumatra Province. Bengkulu province bordered by the Indian Ocean coastline of 525 kilometers.
Its western part is hilly with fertile plateaus, while the western part is lowland rela
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
Flag of the Netherlands
The flag of the Netherlands is a horizontal tricolour of red and blue. The current design originates as a variant of the late 16th century orange-white-blue Prinsenvlag, evolving in the early 17th century as the red-white-blue Statenvlag, the naval flag of the States-General of the Dutch Republic, making the Dutch flag the oldest tricolour flag in continuous use, it has inspired the seminal French flags. During the economic crisis of 1930s the old Prince's Flag with the colour orange gained some popularity among some people. To end the confusion, the colours red and blue and its official status as the national flag of the Kingdom of the Netherlands were reaffirmed by royal decree on 19 February 1937; the national flag of the Netherlands is a tricolour flag. The horizontal fesses are bands of equal size in the colours from top to bottom, red and blue; the flag proportions are 2:3. The color parameters were defined on 16 August 1949 as follows: The Dutch flag is identical to that of Luxembourg, except that it is shorter and its red and blue stripes are a darker shade.
Despite the visual similarity, there is no documented relationship between the two designs. The similarity of the two flags has given rise to a national debate to change the flag of Luxembourg, initiated by Michel Wolter in 2006, it has been suggested that during the 15th century, the colours red and blue were mentioned as the coastal signals for this area, with the 3 bands straight or diagonal, single or doubled, that the colours were taken from the coat of arms of the Bavarian house, the rulers of the county of Holland during 1354–1433, who used the Bavarian coat of arms quartered with the arms of the counts of Holland. At the end of the 15th century, when the majority of the Netherlands provinces were united under the Duke of Burgundy, the Cross of Burgundy Flag of the Duke of Burgundy was used for joint expeditions, which consisted of a red saltire resembling two crossed, roughly-pruned branches, on a white field. Under the House of Habsburg this flag remained in use. In 1568 provinces of the Low Countries rose in revolt against King Philip II of Spain, William Prince of Orange placed himself at the head of the rebels.
The etymology of the House of Orange is unrelated to the name of the colour. Usage of the colours orange and blue was based on the livery of William and was first recorded in the siege of Leiden in 1574, when Dutch officers wore orange-white-blue brassards; the first known full color depiction of the flag appeared in 1575. In Ghent in 1577, William was welcomed with a number of theatrical allegories represented by a young girl wearing orange and white; the first explicit reference to a naval flag in these colours is found in the ordonnances of the Admiralty of Zeeland, dated 1587, i.e. shortly after William's death. The colour combination of orange and blue is considered the first Dutch flag; the 400th anniversary of the introduction of the Dutch flag was commemorated in the Netherlands by the issue of a postage stamp in 1972. That was based on the fact that in 1572 the Watergeuzen, the pro-Dutch privateers, captured Den Briel in name of William, Prince of Orange. However, it is uncertain whether they took an orange-white-blue flag with them on the event, although they started using an orange-white-blue tricolour somewhat in the 1570s.
It became known as the Prinsenvlag and served as the basis for the former South African flag, the flags of New York City and the Flag of Albany, New York, all three former dominions of the Dutch Republic. Red as replacement for orange appeared as early as 1596, but more after about 1630, as indicated by paintings of that time, it has been suggested. It appears that prior to 1664, the red-white-blue tricolour was known as the "Flag of Holland". In 1664, the States of Zeeland, one of the other revolting provinces, complained about this, a resolution of the States-General introduced the name "States Flag"; the Dutch navy between 1588 and 1630 always displayed the Prince's Flag, after 1663 always the States Flag, with both flag variants being in use during the period of 1630–1662. The red-white-blue triband flag as used in the 17th century is said to have influenced the seminal Russian flag and the French flag. With the Batavian Revolution in the Netherlands in the last decade of the 18th century, the subsequent conquest by the French, the name "Prince's Flag" was forbidden and the red-white-blue of the Statenvlag was the only flag allowed, analogous as is was to France's own tricolour, chosen just a few months earlier influenced by that same Statenvlag.
In 1796 the red division of the flag was embellished with the figure of a Netherlands maiden, with a lion at her feet, in the upper left corner. In one hand she bore a shield with the Roman fasces and in the other a lance crowned with the cap of liberty; this flag had a life as short as that of the Batavian Republic. Louis Bonaparte, made king of Holland by his brother the Emperor Napoleon, wished to pursue a purely Dutch policy and to respect national sentiments as much as possible, he restored the old tricolour. His pro-Dutch policies led to conflicts with his brother and the Netherlands were incorporated into the French Empire. In 1810 its
Banten is the westernmost province on the island of Java, in Indonesia. Its provincial capital city is Serang; the province bordered West Java and the Special Capital Region of Jakarta to the east, the Java Sea to the north, the Indian Ocean to the south, the Sunda Strait to the west, which separates Java and the neighbouring island of Sumatra. The population of Banten was estimated at 11,834,087 at the start of 2014, up from over 10.6 million during the 2010 census. Part of the province of West Java, Banten became a separate province in 2000; the province is a transit corridor to the neighbouring Indonesian island of Sumatra. It has had a culture distinct from the rest of Java and that of the broader Indonesian archipelago. In recent years, the northern half those areas near Jakarta and the Java Sea coast, have experienced rapid rises in population and urbanization, while the southern half that facing the Indian Ocean, maintains more of its traditional character. Centuries ago, the area in what-is-now Banten is ruled by the Sundanese Tarumanagara kingdom.
After the fall of the Tarumanegara, Banten was controlled by many Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms, such as the Srivijaya Empire and the Sunda Kingdom. The spread of Islam in the region begins in the 15th century. By the late 16th century, Islam has replaced Hinduism and Buddhism as the dominant religion in the province, with the establishment of the Banten Sultanate. At that time however, Europeans traders started arriving in the region; the first was the Portuguese the British and the Dutch. In the end, through the Dutch East India Company, the Dutch controlled the economy in the region, causing a gradual decline of the Banten Sultanate in the region. On 22 November 1808, the Dutch Governor-General Herman Willem Daendels declared that the Sultanate of Banten had been absorbed into the territory of the Dutch East Indies; this marked the beginning of direct Dutch rule in the region for the next 150 years. In March 1942, the Japanese invaded the Indies and occupied the region for 3 years, before they surrendered in August 1945.
The area was returned to Dutch control for 5 years, before they handed the region to the new Indonesian government when the Dutch left in 1950. Banten was absorbed into the province of West Java. However, separatist sentiment led to the creation of the province of Banten in 2000. A diverse province, Banten is populated by many ethnic groups, the most dominant being the Bantenese, a sub-group of the Sundanese people. Therefore, the Sundanese language forms the lingua franca of the province, although Indonesian is the main official language; the Javanese language is spoken by many Javanese migrants from Central or East Java. In the Lebak Regency lives the semi-isolated Baduy people, who spoke the Baduy language, an archaic form of the Sundanese language. Nonetheless, most of the people in Banten can speak Indonesian fluently as their second language; the name "Banten" turns out to have several possible origins. The first possible origins comes from the Sundanese phrase katiban inten, which means "struck down by diamonds".
The phrase comes from the history of the Bantenese people, who were animist embraced Buddhism or Hinduism. After Islam began to spread in Banten, the community began to embrace Islam; this spread of Islam in Banten is described as "struck down by diamonds". Another story about the origin of the name "Banten" is when the Hindu God Batara Guru Jampang traveled from east to west arrived at a place called Surasowan; when arriving in Surasowan, Batara Guru Jampang sits on a rock, called watu gilang. The stone was glowing, presented to King Surasowan, it was told that Surasowan was surrounded by a clear river of water, as if this country was surrounded by stars. The place is described as a ring covered with diamonds, which evolved into the name "Banten". Another possible origin is that "Banten" comes from the Indonesian word bantahan, because the local Bantenese people resisted to be subjected to regulations enacted by the Dutch colonial government at that time. Apart from the story of the origin of the name "Banten" mentioned above, the word "Banten" has appeared long before the establishment of the Banten Sultanate.
This word is used to name a river, namely the Cibanten River. The higher plains on the edge of Cibanten River are called Cibanten Girang, abbreviated as Banten Girang. Based on the results of research conducted in Banten Girang, there have been settlements in this area since the 11-12th century. In the 16th century, this area developed rapidly; the development of settlements in Banten Girang extends towards Serang and towards the northern coast. The coastal area would became the Sultanate of Banten, founded by Sunan Gunung Jati; this Sultanate controlled all terriitory of the former Sunda Kingdom in West Java. But Sunda Kelapa or Batavia were captured by the Dutch, while Cirebon and the Parahiyangan region were captured by the Mataram Sultanate; the territory of the former Banten Sultanate was converted to a residentie by the Dutch. In the 5th century, Banten was part of the Kingdom of Tarumanagara; the Lebak relic inscriptions, found in lowland villages on the edge of the Cidanghiyang River in Munjul, Pandeglang were discovered in 1947 and contains two lines of poetry with Pallawa script and Sanskrit language.
The inscriptions which tells the life in the Tarumanegara kingdom under the reign of Purnawarman. After the collapse of the Tarumanagara kingdom, due to an attack by Srivijaya, power in western Java fell to the Kingdom of Sunda; the Chinese source, Chu-fan-chi, written circa 122
Autonomous administrative division
An autonomous administrative division is a subdivision or dependent territory of a country that has a degree of self-governance, or autonomy, from an external authority. It is either geographically distinct from the rest of the country or populated by a national minority. Decentralization of self-governing powers and functions to such divisions is a way for a national government to try to increase democratic participation or administrative efficiency or to defuse internal conflicts. Countries that include autonomous areas may be federations, or confederations. Autonomous areas can be divided into territorial autonomies, subregional territorial autonomies, local autonomies. Other Autonomous regions include, Puntland, Ethiopian Controlled Somalia, The Netherlands, Aruba and Saint Maarten. British Overseas Territories and Crown dependencies Jersey and the Isle of Man are self-governing Crown dependencies which are not part of the United Kingdom. Gibraltar is a self-governing overseas territory of the UK.
Most of the other 13 British Overseas Territories have autonomy in internal affairs through local legislatures. New Zealand dependent territoriesNew Zealand maintains nominal sovereignty over three Pacific Island nations; the Cook Islands and Niue are self-governing countries in free association with New Zealand that maintain some international relationships in their own name. Tokelau remains an autonomous dependency of New Zealand; the Chatham Islands—despite having the designation of Territory—is an integral part of the country, situated within the New Zealand archipelago. The territory's council is not autonomous and has broadly the same powers as other local councils, although notably it can charge levies on goods entering or leaving the islands. Dutch constituent countriesAruba, Curaçao, Sint Maarten are autonomous countries within the Kingdom of the Netherlands, each with their own parliament. In addition they enjoy autonomy in taxation matters as well as having their own currencies. French overseas collectivities, New Caledonia, Corsica The French constitution recognises three autonomous jurisdictions.
Corsica, a region of France, enjoys a greater degree of autonomy on matters such as tax and education compared to mainland regions. New Caledonia, a sui generis collectivity, French Polynesia, an overseas collectivity, are autonomous territories with their own government, legislature and constitution, they do not, have legislative powers for policy areas relating to law and order, border control or university education. Other smaller overseas collectivities have a lesser degree of autonomy through local legislatures; the five overseas regions, French Guiana, Martinique, Mayotte and Réunion, are governed the same as mainland regions. In Ethiopia, "special woredas" are a subgroup of woredas that are organized around the traditional homelands of an ethnic minority, are outside the usual hierarchy of a kilil, or region; these woredas have many similarities to autonomous areas in other countries. Other areas that are autonomous in nature but not in name are areas designated for indigenous peoples, such as those of the Americas: Aboriginal Indian reserve and Indian reservation, in Canada and the United States.
The five comarcas indígenas of Panama. Autonomous Silesian Voivodeship Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus in Albania. Autonomous republics of the Soviet Union Subcarpathian Ruthenia and Slovakia within Czechoslovakia. Grand Duchy of Finland of the Russian Empire. Magyar Autonomous Region of Socialist Republic of Romania Southern Ireland and Northern Ireland within the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. List of autonomous areas by country Autonomous administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China Autonomous administrative divisions of India Autonomous administrative divisions of Russia Autonomous administrative divisions of Spain Administrative division Region Devolution Personal union List of autonomous regions leaders Works cited M. Weller and S. Wolff, Self-governance and Conflict Resolution: Innovative Approaches to Institutional Design in Divided Societies. Abingdon, Routledge, 2005 From Conflict to Autonomy in Nicaragua: Lessons Learnt, report by Minority Rights Group International P.
M. Olausson and Islands, A Global Study of the Factors that determine Island Autonomy. Åbo: Åbo Akademi University Press, 2007. Thomas Benedikter, Solving Ethnic Conflict through Self-Government - A Short Guide to Autonomy in Europe and South Asia, EURAC Bozen 2009, http://www.eurac.edu/en/research/institutes/imr/Documents/Deliverable_No_9_Update_Set_educational_material.pdf Thomas Benedikter, The World's Modern Autonomy Systems, EURAC Bozen 2010.
Bangka Belitung Islands
The Bangka Belitung Islands is a province of Indonesia. Lying off the southeastern coasts of Sumatra, the province comprises two main islands and Belitung, several smaller ones. Bangka Belitung is bordered by the Bangka Strait to the west, the Natuna Sea to the north, the Java Sea is to the south, the Karimata Strait to the east; the capital and the largest city is Pangkal Pinang. As of the 2015 census, the population of Bangka Belitung was 1,372,813; the province has an equatorial climate with tropical rainforests, which however is disappearing due to deforestation. Mount Maras is the island of Bangka, with a height of 699 m. There are several rives such as the Sebuku River, Baturusa River and Mendo River; the province is ethnically and linguistically diverse. Bahasa Indonesia is the official language of the province, while the local Malay dialect and Hakka serves as the lingua franca of the province. Bangka Belitung alternated into the kingdoms of Sriwijaya and Palembang, before being a colony of foreign countries the Dutch, the British, the Japanese.
Bangka Belitung was a residency within the Dutch East Indies. Upon the independence of Indonesia, the region was administered under the province of Sumatra and South Sumatra. Bangka Belitung became the 31st province of Indonesia in 2000; the name "Bangka" is derived from the word wangka meaning "tin" in Sanskrit, because this region is indeed rich in tin mining. The name "Wangka" first appeared along with the name "Swarnabhumi" in the Indian literary book Milindrapantha from the 1st Century BC. Swarnabhumi is identified as the island of Sumatra, the strong allegation that the so-called "Wangka" is the island of Bangka. Louis-Charles Damais, in his book Epigraphy and History of the Nusantara, affirms that Bangka comes from the word vowel; the name "Belitung" is derived from Billitonite meaning the Black Meteorite in Dutch, found in the island of Belitung. This stone. On, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications began named the island Billitonite or Billiton. Nowadays, Billitonite or Black Meteorite, is a distinct souvenir from Belitung Island.
Bangka Belitung is an area that has a unique range of languages. Just like other provinces in Indonesia, Bangka Belitung has served as European and Japanese colonies. Prior to the colonies era, Bangka Belitung has become part of several kingdoms in Java. Sriwijaya and Majapahit are the kingdoms; the first Europeans arrived in Bangka was the English on 20 May 1812. However, with the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, English left Bangka Belitung, the Dutch took over. Due to the agreement, the Dutch were able to take control of the Pacific Islands. However, there is a coup attempt by local élite through Depati Barin and his son Depati Amir, well-known with the war of Depati Amir with wartime of about three years to oppose the colonization in Bangka Belitung. Yet, this war was won by the Dutch and that caused Depati Amir to be exiled to Kupang in East Nusa Tenggara. Therefore, Depati Amir became a national hero and her name was remembered through its regional airport, the Depati Amir Airport. Bangka Belitung has a long history with Chinese migration.
Chinese people in the 13th century had started to migrate into the Bangka region. In the 17th century, the rulers of Palembang saw there was extraordinary potential which they found tin mines in Belitung; the tin is the most reason why the Dutch decided to bring contract workers from mainland China that resettled in Belitung. The tin itself what helped drive the island's development and make it the place it is today. Since some of Chinese migrants have gone home while others decided to stay; the one who decided staying began assimilating with local people and is followed by intermarriages, they live coexisting peacefully in spite of differences in religion and ethnicity. When anti-Chinese riots occurred in some parts of Indonesia at the end of the Soeharto regime in 1998, the locals and those of Chinese descent not much concerned and still lived peacefully in the Bangka Belitung province. Bangka Belitung province is created as the 31st province by the Government of the Republic of Indonesia based on Law No. 27 of 2000 on the establishment of Bangka Belitung province, part of the South Sumatra province.
The provincial capital is Pangkalpinang. In 2007 the moisture in the Bangka Belitung Province ranged from 77.4% to 87.3% with an average monthly reach of 83.1%, with a rainfall of 58.3 mm to 476.3 mm and air pressure during 2007 1010.1 MBS. The average temperature during 2007 in the province reached 26.7 °C with an average maximum temperature of 29.9 °C and average minimum temperature of 24.9 °C. The maximum air temperature was highest in October, with temperatures of 31.7 °C, while the minimum temperature was lowest in February and March with temperatures of 23.2 °C. Bangka Belitung Islands have tropical climate influenced monsoons are experiencing a wet month for seven months throughout the year and dry month for five months continuously. In 2007 the dry months occurred in August to October with rainy days 11–15 days per month. For the month of wet rainy days 16–27 days per month, occurred in January to July and November to December. Bangka Belitung is surrounded by water, it is bordered by Natuna Sea to the north, Karimata Strait to the east, Java Sea to the south, Bangka Strait to the west.
The natural state of Bangka Belitung Province is a pl