The Football War was a brief war fought between El Salvador and Honduras in 1969. Existing tensions between the two countries coincided with rioting during a 1970 FIFA World Cup qualifier; the war began on 14 July 1969. The Organization of American States negotiated a cease-fire on the night of 18 July, which took full effect on 20 July. Salvadoran troops were withdrawn in early August. Although the nickname "Football War" implies that the conflict was due to a football match, the causes of the war go much deeper; the roots were issues over land reform in Honduras and immigration and demographic problems in El Salvador. Honduras is more than five times the size of neighboring El Salvador, but in 1969 the population of El Salvador was some 40% higher than that of Honduras. At the beginning of the 20th century, Salvadorans had begun migrating to Honduras in large numbers. By 1969 more than 300,000 Salvadorans were living in Honduras; these Salvadorans made up 20% of the present population of Honduras.
In Honduras, as in much of Central America, a large majority of the land was owned by large landowners or big corporations. The United Fruit Company owned 10 % of the land. In 1966 United Fruit banded together with many other large companies to create la Federación Nacional de Agricultores y Ganaderos de Honduras. FENAGH was anti-peasantry as well as anti-Salvadoran; this group put pressure on the Honduran president, Gen. Oswaldo López Arellano, to protect the property rights of wealthy landowners. In 1962 Honduras enacted a new land reform law. Enforced by 1967, this law gave the central government and municipalities much of the land occupied illegally by Salvadoran immigrants and redistributed it to native-born Hondurans as specified by the Land Reform Law; the land was taken from both immigrant farmers and squatters regardless of their claims to ownership or immigration status. This created problems for Hondurans who were married. Thousands of Salvadoran laborers were expelled from Honduras, including both migrant workers and longer-term settlers.
This general rise in tensions led to a military conflict. In June 1969, Honduras and El Salvador met in a two-leg 1970 FIFA World Cup qualifier. There was fighting between fans at the first game in the Honduran capital of Tegucigalpa on 8 June 1969, which Honduras won 1–0; the second game, on 15 June 1969 in the Salvadoran capital of San Salvador, won 3–0 by El Salvador, was followed by greater violence. On 27 June 1969, the day the play-off match took place in Mexico City, El Salvador dissolved all diplomatic ties with Honduras, stating that in the ten days since the game in El Salvador 11,700 Salvadorans had been forced to flee Honduras, it said that as Honduras had "done nothing to prevent murder, rape and the mass expulsion of Salvadoreans", there was little point in maintaining relations. It further claimed that "the government of Honduras has not taken any effective measures to punish these crimes which constitute genocide, nor has it given assurances of indemnification or reparations for the damages caused to Salvadorans".
El Salvador won the decisive third game 3–2 after extra time. Late in the afternoon of 14 July 1969, the concerted military action began. El Salvador was put on a blackout and the Salvadoran Air Force, using passenger airplanes with explosives strapped to their sides as bombers, attacked targets inside Honduras. Salvadoran air-raid targets included Toncontín International Airport, which left the Honduran Air Force unable to react quickly; the larger Salvadoran Army launched major offensives along the two main roads connecting the two nations and invaded Honduras. The invasion phase was perpetrated by three main contingents: the Chalatenago Theater, the North Theater, the East Theater; the Chalatenango Theater was based on the northwest side of El Salvador, including the departments of Santa Ana and Chalatenango, across the mountain range close to the border, the Sumpul River. This was a strategic region due to its rich climate; the North Theater was composed of a large amount of manpower. The East Theater was to deploy in the departments of La Morazán.
This Theater was composed of a large mechanized division, armored fighting vehicles such as the M3 Stuart and a large amount of artillery such as the 105mm M101. Nicaraguan dictator Anastasio Somoza Debayle helped Honduras by providing weapons and ammunition. Rapid progress was made by the Salvadordoran army within striking distance of the Honduran capital Tegucigalpa; the momentum of the advance did not last, however. The Honduran air force reacted by striking the Salvadoran Ilopango airbase. Honduran bombers attacked for the first time in the morning of 16 July; when the bombs began to fall, Salvadoran anti-air artillery started firing, repelling some of the bombers. The bombers had orders to attack the Acajutla Port, where the main oil facilities of El Salvador were based. Honduran air-raid targets included minor oil facilities such as the ones in Cutuco. By the evening of 16 July, huge pillars of smoke arose in the Salvadoran coastline from the burning oil depots, bombed. Both sides deployed World War II era design aircraft.
All planes in the engagement were of U. S. origin. Cavalier P-51D Musta
Giovanni Bongioanni was an Italian film director, cinematographer, camera operator, editor and occasional actor. He was one of the earliest directors to adopt an authentic, neo-realistic approach to Italian film-making, his film La svolta pericolosa is considered the first Italian television series. In addition, Bongioanni was involved in the Italian TV and radio broadcasting industries, in which he worked for several years before making his first feature film, Tre per una rapina. Gianni Bongioanni was born in Turin on August 6, 1921, his mother was an housewife and his father was a turner. At the age of 11, he started working as a turner in his father's store while attending middle school, he found his life at home unsatisfying, the cinema offered him the best chance of escape from this lifestyle. At the age of 5, he saw his first film and was so excited by this film that he began to believe that his life could be just like an American film. Bongioanni began attending the two inexpensive cinemas below his house as as he could.
At the age of 11, he took up swimming in order to emulate the Austro-Hungarian American swimmer and actor Johnny Weissmuller, who played Tarzan in 1932. As a teenager, Bongioanni's two main passions were swimming and films. In 1939, Bongioanni was introduced to Turin's CINEGUF, a Cinema Department founded within Turin University for students who wanted to enter the film industry; this gave him an excellent opportunity to gain experience as a camera operator. In 1941, he joined the Cinema Department of the General Staff of the Italian Royal Army, where he was able to view many of the best foreign films of the 1930s; as a result, he became familiar with the work of the most important and influential directors of the time, including Charlie Chaplin, Frank Capra, Fritz Lang, Ernst Lubitsch, William A. Wellman and Marcel Carné amongst others. Bongioanni was able to watch the original versions of these films, because they had been taken from captured enemy ships. During this period, he made several documentaries about the war.
In 1944, Bongioanni became the presenter of the radio station Radiotevere, based in Milan. Shortly afterwards, despite being only 23 years old, he became the director of the radio station. In 1946, after the end of the war, he started his career as a reviewer of films and radio shows at the magazine Film, directed by Mino Doletti. During this year, he wrote an article called Abbasso i tromboni!, in which he attacked the current state of Italian cinema, lambasting certain directors and actors who continued to create films in an antiquated style, despite the prevalent neo-realism of the period. In 1952, Bongioanni joined the rising national TV and radio broadcasting company "RAI", becoming the technical manager of its Cinema Production Department under the direction of Sergio Pugliese. In 1957, he decided to begin making his own films, his first film, Filo d'erba was awarded the Prix Italia, an international radio and television prize. Between 1959 and 1967, Bongioanni was the producer and director in several TV productions which demonstrated his ability to understand detailed aspects of Italian society.
These included La svolta pericolosa, considered the first Italian television series, Fine di una solitudine and La madre di Torino. In 1964, he made his first feature film, Tre per una rapina, an action film based on the life of a young Italian immigrant moving to Germany. After directing various documentaries, Bongioanni returned to fiction in the 1970s with a series of TV series which are considered some of the best in Italian TV history; as a result, Bongioanni has been praised as a director who has tried to bring the painful, forgotten, truth to light.. These films marked him out as a keen observer of the harsh realities of Italian life, they included Dedicato a un bambino, Una pistola nel cassetto, Una donna, Un matrimonio di provincia, Mia figlia and several others. In 2011, at the age of 90, Bongioanni decided to make a new film, Di quell'amor, collaborating with a small group of younger film-makers; this film is about love in old age. Bongioanni created films in the style of documentaries, with a direct sound and spontaneous acting which requires little or no time to set up.
He was responsible for introducing talented new Italian actors such as Giuliana De Sio, Francesco Salvi, Maria Monti, Angiola Baggi and Carlotta Wittig to the film industry. His filming techniques embedded fragmented editing and the narrator's commentary within the film; the result of this process is a film in which the narrator is able to express his thoughts, however abstract they may be, in the same style as a contemporary essay or novel. Radiotevere Radiofiera Dossier Giöngessy Il naso di Mussolini Giovani d'oggi Il futuro delle Puglie Chiamata urgente I rotoli della Bibbia La coltivazione del deserto L'alimentazione del futuro Filo d'erba La svolta pericolosa La madre di Torino Dedicato ad un bambino Una pistola nel cassetto Una donna Un matrimonio di provincia Mia figlia Giovanni da una madre all'altra Follia amore mio Piange al mattino il figlio del cuculo Tre per una rapina Di quell'amor In 1967, Bongioanni played a smal
The spouse of the Governor-General of Australia assists the office-holder in welcoming ambassadors and their spouses, in performing their other official duties. The governor-general's spouse traditionally participates in celebratory occasions, attends functions and, as a patron of various voluntary associations, works to promote the activities of those associations. None of the activities have any official status; the current spouse is wife of David Hurley. Both the governor-general and their spouse are entitled to the style "His/Her Excellency" during the governor-general's term of office, but not thereafter; the governor-general is entitled to the style "The Honourable" for life. Except for Dame Quentin Bryce, all Australian governors-general have been male, all spouses but her husband Michael Bryce have been female. No governor-general has been single throughout their term, but two spouses died during the governor-general's term: Jacqueline Sidney, Viscountess De L'Isle, wife of William Sidney, 1st Viscount De L'Isle.
Kerr remarried during his term. The longest-serving spouse has been Zara Hore-Ruthven, Countess of Gowrie, wife of the longest-serving governor-general, Alexander Hore-Ruthven, 1st Earl of Gowrie, who served nine years from 1936 to 1945; the shortest-serving spouse was Alison Morrison, Viscountess Dunrossil, wife of William Morrison, 1st Viscount Dunrossil, who died in 1961, one year and one day after taking up the office, being the only governor-general to die in office. Most of the spouses of governors-general have been content to be background figures providing the office-holder with support; some have been all but unknown to the general Australian public. However, some have been notable in their own right, details are shown in the following table. King consort Queen consort Spouse of the Prime Minister of Australia
Danila Valeryevich Kozlovsky is a Russian actor and director. Danila Kozlovsky was born in Moscow, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union, his mother, Nadezhda Zvenigorodskaya, is a stage actress, his father, Valery Kozlovsky, was a professor at Moscow State University specializing in marketing and mass communications. He has an older brother, a younger brother, Ivan; as a child Danila was overweight. From a young age, Danila was placed in dance and music classes, learning to play the saxophone and the alto. During his early years, he changed schools due to discipline issues, he made his big screen debut in 1998, playing the troubled sixth grader Denis on the Russian television series Simple Truths. In 1996, he was accepted into the Kronshtadt Naval Military School, which he attended until his graduation in 2002. Upon graduation, he matriculated to the Saint Petersburg State Theatre Arts Academy, entering the acting/directing course supervised by Lev Dodin. During his fourth year he made his debut on the stage of the Little Drama Theatre, playing the part of Edgar in King Lear.
The role brought him his first theatre award: a special prize of Expert Council of the "Golden Sofit" for Best Debut. There was a role in the play Life and Fate, which premiered in Paris and the diploma performance "Warsaw Melody". After graduating from the Academy in 2007, Danila Kozlovskiy was admitted to the staff of the Little Drama Theatre. In his repertoire were added performances Lord of the Flies, where he played Ralph and Love and The Cherry Orchard. In 2005, he received his first important film role — in the picture Garpastum; the film, set during the time of the First World War, tells the story of two brothers who wish to build their own football stadium. Kozlovsky received the Russian Guild of Film Critics "White Elephant Award" for the best male lead actor. Kozlovsky gained wider publicity in 2008 with his starring role in the film Black Hunters. There he played the role of robber archaeologist Sergei Filatov, transported into the past together with his friends when making illegal excavations.
In 2009, he portrayed drag queen Lusya in the comedy-drama Jolly Fellows. It was screened in the Panorama section of the 2010 Berlin International Film Festival. In 2011, he appeared as Marcus Blackwell in Need for Speed: The Run. After Kozlovsky starred in the 2012 film Soulless he became a household name in Russia, he played the lead role of Max Andreev, a young ambitious executive manager who begins to reevaluate his priorities in life and career. The film was a hit and grossed $13 million, he received the National Golden Eagle Award for Soulless. The film was followed by a sequel in 2015. Kozlovsky played the role of Yegor Dorin, in the 2012 film The Spy, based on the Boris Akunin novel. In 2013, he portrayed ice-hockey player Valeri Kharlamov in the sports drama Legend № 17; the film was a box-office success, earning $29.5 million at the box-office. Danila starred in his first Hollywood film in 2014; the year 2016 saw Kozlovsky star in five films — romantic comedy Status: non engaged, sci-fi action film Hardcore Henry, comedy film Friday, disaster film Flight Crew and historical action film Viking.
Out of the aforementioned films, the most popular ones at the box-office were Flight Crew, earning $27 million, Viking which grossed $34 million. He played Count Vorontzov in the film Matilda, which told the story of the romance between Emperor Nicholas II and ballerina Mathilde Kschessinska; the film became controversial after State Duma deputy Natalia Poklonskaya led a campaign to ban the film on religious grounds. In 2017, it was announced that Kozlovsky will appear as Oleg of Novgorod in the sixth season of popular Canadian historical drama Vikings. In 2018, Kozlovsky played a supporting role in Dovlatov; the biographical picture about writer Sergei Dovlatov premiered at the 2018 Berlinale in competition. Danila Kozlovsky's directorial debut Coach was released in 2018. In 2013, GQ Russia picked Danila Kozlovsky as Man of the Year. Kozlovsky appeared in advertisements for Chanel's Coco Mademoiselle alongside Keira Knightley in 2015. For a number of years, he was cited as a sex symbol by various media outlets in Russia.
In the Autumn of 2008, Danila married the Maly Drama Theatre actress Urszula Małka. In 2011, they divorced. 2006 - King Lear - Edgar 2006 - Whim - Barkalov, the manager of the estate 2007 - The Warsaw Melody - Victor 2007 - Life and Fate - Novikov 2009 - The Lord of the Flies - Ralph 2010 - Lorenzaccio - Lorenzaccio 2012 - Intrigue and Love - Ferdinand 2013 - The Cherry Orchard - Lopakhin 2016 - Hamlet - Hamlet 2012 — Shoot / Get Treasure / Repeat by Mark Ravenhill, director Dmitri Volktostrelov — Dictator Danila Kozlovsky on Twitter Danila Kozlovsky on IMDb
Human rights in Yemen are seen as problematic in numerous ways. The security forces have been responsible for torture, inhumane treatment and extrajudicial executions, but according to the Embassy of Yemen, in recent years there has been some improvement, with the government signing several international human rights treaties, appointing a woman, Dr. Wahiba Fara’a, to the role of Minister of the State of Human Rights. Other sources state that many problems persist alongside allegations that these reforms have not been implemented and that abuses still run rampant in the areas of women's rights, freedom of the press and police brutality. There are arbitrary arrests of citizens as well as arbitrary searches of homes. Prolonged pretrial detention is a serious problem, judicial corruption and executive interference undermine due process. Freedom of speech, the press and religion are all restricted. In 2018 and 2019, numerous sources, including the United Nations described the human rights situation in Yemen as being the worst in the world.
Yemen is a party to the following human rights agreements: The Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women The Convention Relating the Status of Refugees The Convention on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights The International Covenant on Economic and Cultural Rights The International Convention on the Ban of Genocide The International Convention on War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity The International Convention on Women's Political Rights The Convention on Marriage Consent and Minimum Marriage Age and Marriage Contracts Registration The Convention on the Ban of Human Trading and Exploitation The International Convention on the Prohibition of Racial Discrimination The International Convention on the Rights of the Child The International Convention on Anti-Torture, Cruel Treatment and Inhumanity The 1994 Geneva Agreement and their 1997 Annexed Protocol In spite of the Yemeni Constitution of 1994, which stipulates equal rights for Yemeni citizens, women are still struggling with various constraints and secondary status.
Yemen's Personal Status Law in particular, which covers matters of marriage, child custody and inheritance, gives women fewer rights than men, excludes women from decision making, deprives them of access to, control over and assets. The right to divorce is not given to women equally, it is far more difficult for a woman to divorce a man. A man may divorce a woman at will. While a man may divorce without justifying his action in court, a woman must present adequate justification. Women face many practical and financial negative considerations in divorce procedure. One significant case to gain worldwide publicity was that of Nujood Ali, who succeeded in obtaining a divorce at age ten, with the help of a prominent female Yemeni lawyer who agreed to represent her. Yemen has one of the worst records of child marriage in the world, with UNICEF recording in 2005 that 48.4% of Yemeni women aged 20–24 had been married before they were 18. Prior to the unification of Yemen in 1990, the law set the minimum age of marriage at 16 in South Yemen and 15 in the north.
After unification, the law was set at 15. In 1999, the civil status law was amended and the minimum age was abolished. From April 2010, a controversial new law set the minimum age for marriage at 17; the bill was opposed by conservative parliamentarians on the basis that fixing a minimum age of marriage contradicts Islam. Other factors contributing to child marriage include embedded cultural traditions, economic pressures on girls' parents, the value placed on young girls' virginity and consequent desire to protect them from sexual relationships outside of marriage. Other potential factors include older husbands' desire for young, submissive wives, the belief that young girls are less to be carriers of HIV and AIDS; the dangers of early marriage to girls include the increased health risks associated with early pregnancies, social isolation, an increased risk of exposure to domestic violence and a cutting short of girls' education, further contributing to the'feminisation of poverty'. Women's access to maternal health care is restricted.
In most cases, husbands decide women's fertility. It is hard for women to obtain contraception, or to take operation for treatment without a husband's permission. Yemen's high child mortality rate and the fourth fastest growing population in the world are attributed to a lack of women's decision-making in their pregnancy and access to healthcare services. Women are vulnerable to sexual assault by prison guards, there is a lower, if any, punishment for violence against women than men; the law stipulates protection of women from domestic violence, but in fact there are few protections for women who suffer from domestic violence and no systematic investigation of such occurrences has been conducted. Spousal abuse or domestic violence is not reported to the police because of social norms and customs, meaning that women remain silent under these abuses. In 2005, Yemen ranked 136th of 167 nations in terms of press freedom; the government holds a monopoly on all television and radio and bans journalists for publishing "incorrect" information.
In 2001, journalists at the newspaper Al-Shura received 80 lashes for defaming Abdul Majeed al-Zindani, the leader of the country's largest Islamist party. The newspaper was shut down. According to Human Rights Watch, "Under the regulations for the 1990 Press Law, issued in 1993 and 1998, newspapers have to apply to the Ministry of Information for annual renewal of their license... in mid-2000 only about half of Yemen's 200 publications had been gr
Richmond Jewish Foundation is a charity based in Richmond, Virginia, USA. It is a non-profit organization; the Richmond Jewish Foundation was established in 1979. Like a community foundation, it is an independent philanthropic organization working in a defined geographic area, over time, builds up a collection of endowed funds from many donors in the community; the Foundation provides funding to charitable and religious causes outside of the region, including but not limited to Jewish causes. It provides services to the community and its donors, makes grants and undertakes community leadership and partnership activities to address a wide variety of needs in its service area. By 2006, the Richmond Jewish Foundation had over 200 subcomponents that include endowments, donor-advised funds and life income gifts that include charitable remainder trusts. Affiliated agencies include Beth Sholom Campus and Weinstein Jewish Community Center, Jewish Community Federation of Richmond, Richmond area Jewish congregations such as Temple Beth El and Congregation Kol Emes, museums like Virginia Holocaust Museum and Congregation Beth Ahabah Museum and Archives, schools like Rudlin Torah Academy and programs like Hillel.
A broadly representative volunteer board serves to oversee the organization and to function as its ambassadors with various constituencies including individuals, agencies and the general community. As a mission-focused independent charity, partnering in community, Richmond Jewish Foundation operates in a manner similar to such charities as the San Diego Jewish Community Foundation and the Jewish Community Foundation of Kansas City and Tidewater Jewish Foundation. Richmond Jewish Foundation includes the Genesis Fund and "Create a Jewish Legacy". Among the offerings of the Foundation are field of interest funds, special purpose funds, life income plans and donor-advised funds. Values associated with Richmond Jewish Foundation include Tzedakah, which translates as justice or charity, Tikkun Olam or repair of the world. Richmond is a pilot community for United Jewish Communities Create a Jewish Legacy program that encourages bequests for permanent endowments. A feature of this program is the training of representatives of affiliated agencies, congregations and schools to ask their most loyal supporters to commit to gifts through wills or estate plans for permanent endowments.
Other features of Create a Jewish Legacy include donor recognition. This program, modeled on success in communities like San Diego, may be compared to the Leave a Legacy program of the National Committee on Planned Giving. Richmond Jewish Foundation, with the Richmond-based law firm Hirschler Fleischer, offers an annual continuing education seminar for lawyers, financial planners, insurance providers and other interested professionals; the late Edward S. Hirschler, an early president of Richmond Jewish Foundation co-founded the Hirschler Fleischer law firm. After the attorney's death, the partners of the firm established a fund at Richmond Jewish Foundation to provide annually for this seminar. A variety of professionals, business leaders, community volunteers and others steward Richmond Jewish Foundation as members of the Board of Directors; some such leaders have been prominent. Circuit City founder Samuel Wurtzel was among the early the organizers of Richmond Jewish Foundation. Other prominent Virginians associated with the organization include Jeffrey M. Lacker, Richmond Federal Reserve and the late US Congressman Norman Sisisky and his wife.
The Richmond Jewish Foundation website