Offside (association football)
Offside is one of the laws of association football, codified in Law 11 of the Laws of the Game. The law states that players in a position, when the ball is touched or played by a teammate. When the offside offence occurs, the referee stops play and awards a free kick to the defending team from the position of the offending player. The offside offence is neither a foul nor a misconduct, players are never booked or sent off for offside, like fouls, any play that occurs after an offence has taken place but before the referee is able to stop the play is nullified. Players that continue such play may be booked based on the assessment of how significant or intentional the play was. One of the duties of the assistant referees is to assist the referee in adjudicating offside — their position on the sidelines giving a more useful view sideways across the pitch. Assistant referees communicate that an offence has occurred by raising a signal flag. However, as with all officiating decisions in the game, adjudicating offside is ultimately up to the referee, the application of the offside rule may be considered in three steps, offside position, offside offence and offside sanction. A player is in a position if he is in the opposing teams half of the field and is nearer to his opponents goal line than both the ball and the second-last opponent.
By the 2014/2015 Laws, the interpretation included the proviso that The arms are not included in this definition, in other words, a player is in an offside position if three conditions are met, The player is in the opposing teams half of the field. The player is closer to the goal line than the ball is. There are one or zero opposing players between the player and the goal line. Regardless of position, there is no offside offence if a player receives the ball directly from a goal kick, however, an offside offence may occur if a player receives the ball directly from either a direct free kick or an indirect free kick. Determining whether a player is in play can be complex. The quote, If youre not interfering with play, what are you doing on the pitch, has been attributed to Brian Clough and Danny Blanchflower. FIFA issued new guidelines for interpreting the law in 2003. This was further clarified by FIFA in 2015, the restart for an offside sanction is an indirect free kick for the opponent at the place where the offence occurred, even including if it is in the player’s own half of the field of play.
The difficulty of offside officiating is often underestimated by spectators, some researchers believe that offside officiating errors are optically inevitable
Liverpool is a major city and metropolitan borough in North West England.24 million people in 2011. Liverpool historically lay within the ancient hundred of West Derby in the south west of the county of Lancashire and it became a borough from 1207 and a city from 1880. In 1889 it became a county borough independent of Lancashire, Liverpool sits on the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary and its growth as a major port is paralleled by the expansion of the city throughout the Industrial Revolution. Along with general cargo, raw materials such as coal and cotton, the city was directly involved in the Atlantic slave trade. Liverpool was home to both the Cunard and White Star Line, and was the port of registry of the ocean liner RMS Titanic and others such as the RMS Lusitania, Queen Mary, and Olympic. The city celebrated its 800th anniversary in 2007, and it held the European Capital of Culture title together with Stavanger, several areas of Liverpool city centre were granted World Heritage Site status by UNESCO in 2004.
The Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City includes the Pier Head, Albert Dock, tourism forms a significant part of the citys economy. Liverpool is the home of two Premier League football clubs and Everton, matches between the two being known as the Merseyside derby, the world-famous Grand National horse race takes place annually at Aintree Racecourse on the outskirts of the city. The city is home to the oldest Black African community in the country. Natives of Liverpool are referred to as Liverpudlians and colloquially as Scousers, a reference to scouse, the word Scouse has become synonymous with the Liverpool accent and dialect. Pool is a place name element in England from the Brythonic word for a pond, inlet, or pit, cognate with the modern Welsh. The derivation of the first element remains uncertain, with the Welsh word Llif as the most plausible relative and this etymology is supported by its similarity to that of the archaic Welsh name for Liverpool Llynlleifiad. Other origins of the name have suggested, including elverpool.
The name appeared in 1190 as Liuerpul, and it may be that the place appearing as Leyrpole, in a record of 1418. King Johns letters patent of 1207 announced the foundation of the borough of Liverpool, the original street plan of Liverpool is said to have been designed by King John near the same time it was granted a royal charter, making it a borough. The original seven streets were laid out in an H shape, Bank Street, Castle Street, Chapel Street, Dale Street, Juggler Street, Moor Street, in the 17th century there was slow progress in trade and population growth. Battles for the town were waged during the English Civil War, in 1699 Liverpool was made a parish by Act of Parliament, that same year its first slave ship, Liverpool Merchant, set sail for Africa. Since Roman times, the city of Chester on the River Dee had been the regions principal port on the Irish Sea
Laws of the Game (association football)
The Laws of the Game are the codified rules that help define association football. They are the rules of association football subscribed to by the sports governing body FIFA. During a match, it is the task of the referee to interpret, there were various attempts to codify the rules of football in England in the mid-19th century. The extant Laws date back to 1863 where a ruleset was formally adopted by the newly formed Football Association, the original Laws were heavily influenced by the Cambridge rules and their early development saw substantial influence from the Sheffield Rules. Over time the Laws have been amended, and since 1886 they have maintained by the International Football Association Board. These laws are written in English Common Law style and are meant to be guidelines and goals of principle that are clarified through practice and enforcement by the referees. The actual law book has long contained 50 pages more of material, organized in numerous sections, the entire 2015/2016 edition is 144 pages.
Referees are expected to use their judgement and common sense in applying the laws, the laws are administered by the International Football Association Board. They meet at least once a year to debate and decide any changes to the text as it exists at that time, the meeting in winter generally leads to an update to the laws on 1 July of each year that take effect immediately. The laws govern all international matches and national matches of member organizations, a minimum of six of the eight seat IFAB board needs to vote to accept a rule change. Games which could be described in the most general sense as football had been popular in Britain since the Medieval period, Rules for these games, where they existed, were neither universal nor codified. A significant step towards unification was the drafting of the Cambridge rules in 1848 – though these were not universally adopted outside Cambridge University, the first and still oldest Football Club was Sheffield FC, who in 1858 codified the Sheffield rules of football.
The Sheffield rules were popular and adopted by several Northern and Midlands clubs, the Laws were first drawn up by Ebenezer Cobb Morley and approved at a meeting of the newly founded Football Association on 8 December 1863. These rules were based on the Cambridge rules which were codified in 1848. The Football Association Laws of 1863 were published on 5 December in Bells Life in London for approval, adoption of the laws was not universal among English football clubs. The Sheffield Rules continued to be used by many, at its meeting on 8 December the FA agreed that, as reported in Bells Life in London, John Lillywhite would publish the Laws. The first game to be played under the new rules was a 0-0 draw between Barnes and Richmond and their first meeting was in 1886. Before this, teams from different countries had to agree to which rules were used before playing
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
International Football Association Board
The International Football Association Board is the body that determines the Laws of the Game of association football. IFAB is known to take a conservative attitude regarding changes to the Laws of the Game. It is a body from FIFA, though FIFA is represented on the board. As a legacy of association footballs origins in the British Isles, amendments to the Laws require a three-quarter supermajority vote, meaning that FIFAs support is necessary but not sufficient for a motion to pass. Each UK association has one vote and FIFA has four, IFAB deliberations must be approved by three-quarters of the vote, which translates to at least six votes. Thus, FIFAs approval is necessary for any IFAB decision, as of 2016, all members must be present for a binding vote to proceed. The Board meets twice a year, once to decide on possible changes to the governing the game of Football. The first meeting is called the Annual General Meeting and the second is the Annual Business Meeting, in FIFA World Cup years, the AGM is held at FIFAs offices, otherwise, it rotates between Northern Ireland, Wales and Scotland in that order.
Four weeks before the AGM, the member associations must send their written proposals to the secretary of the host association, FIFA prints a list of suggestions that are distributed to all other associations for examination. The AGM is held either in February or March and the ABM is held between September and October, in cases of necessity, the Board can meet in a Special Meeting in addition to the two ordinary annual meetings. As of December 2012, the last Special Meeting was hosted by FIFA in Zurich on 5 July 2012, as well as permanent changes to the Laws, IFAB authorise trials of potential amendments. Though the rules of football had largely been standardised by the early 1880s and this posed a problem with international matches and when matches were played, the rules of whoever was the home team were used. While this solution was workable, it was hardly ideal, the conference created the first international competition, the British Home Championship, and proposed the establishment of a permanent board to regulate the laws of the game.
Therefore, the first meeting of IFAB took place at the FAs offices at Holborn Viaduct in London on Wednesday 2 June 1886, the FA, SFA, FAW and IFA each had equal voting rights. The growing popularity of the game led to the admittance of FIFA representatives to IFAB in 1913. Initially, they only had two votes and decisions required a majority to pass, meaning that the UK associations could still change the laws against FIFAs wishes if they all voted together. In 1958, the Board agreed on its current voting system, since Irish partition in 1921, the IFA has evolved to become the organising body for football in Northern Ireland. Football in the Republic of Ireland is now organised by the Football Association of Ireland, history of IFAB, including minutes of the meetings Soccer South Bay Referee Association FIFA/IFAB paper on the role of the IFAB FIFA
The Sheffield Rules were a code of football devised and played in the English city of Sheffield between 1857 and 1877. They were devised by Nathaniel Creswick and William Prest for use by the newly founded Sheffield Football Club, the rules were subsequently adopted as the official rules of Sheffield Football Association upon its creation in 1867. They spread beyond the city boundaries to other clubs and associations in the north, six years after the creation of the Sheffield Rules the Football Association rules were created. These were influenced by the Sheffield game but ongoing disputes meant that the Sheffield rules continued to be used, during this time many of the elements of the rules were incorporated into the association game. Regular games were played between Sheffield and London using both sets of rules and this led to an agreement on a single set of laws administered by the Football Association in 1877. The rules had a influence on how the modern game of football developed. Among other things they introduced into the laws of the game the concepts of corners, throw-ins, the abolition of the fair catch led to their teams to be the first to head the ball.
Games played under the rules are credited with the development of heading. The first inter-club football match and competitive tournament were played using Sheffield Rules. The oldest recorded football match in Sheffield occurred in 1794 when a game of mob football was played between Sheffield and Norton that took place at Bents Green, the game lasted three days, which was not unusual for matches at the time. It was noted that there were some injuries no-one was killed during the match. The Clarkehouse Road Fencing Club had been playing football since 1852, the city was home to a number of sports clubs and the popularity of cricket had led to the chairman of Sheffield Cricket Club to suggest the construction of Bramall Lane. By the 1850s there were versions of football played in public schools. Each school played by their own code despite an attempt by Cambridge University to unify them in 1848 and their rules were generally inaccessible outside of the schools. There the football tended to be unorganised and fairly lawless games known as mob football, although there are matches between small, equal numbered teams it remained a minority sport until the 1860s.
During the winter months in 1855 the players of Sheffield Cricket Club organised informal football matches in order to retain fitness until the start of the new season, two of the players were Nathaniel Creswick and William Prest, both of whom were born in Yorkshire. Creswick came from a Sheffield family of silver plate manufacturers that dated back several centuries, after being educated at the citys Collegiate School he became a solicitor. Prests family had moved from York while he was a child and his father bought a wine merchants that William subsequently took over
Artificial turf is a surface of synthetic fibers made to look like natural grass. It is most often used in arenas for sports that were originally or are played on grass. However, it is now being used on lawns and commercial applications as well. The main reason is maintenance—artificial turf stands up to use, such as in sports. Domed and partially covered stadiums may require artificial turf because of the difficulty of getting enough sunlight to stay healthy. But artificial turf does have its downside, limited life, periodic cleaning requirements, petroleum use, toxic chemicals from infill, artificial turf first gained substantial attention in the 1960s, when it was used in the newly constructed Astrodome. The specific product used was developed by Monsanto and called AstroTurf, AstroTurf remains a registered trademark, but is no longer owned by Monsanto. The first generation systems of the 1960s have been largely replaced by the second generation. That accomplishment led Sports Illustrated to declare Chaney as the man responsible for major league baseball.
Artificial turf was first installed in 1964 on a school recreation area in Rhode Island. The material came to prominence in 1966, when AstroTurf was installed in the Astrodome in Houston. The use of AstroTurf and similar surfaces became widespread in the U. S. and Canada in the early 1970s, more than 11,000 artificial turf playing fields have been installed nationally. More than 1,200 were installed in the U. S. in 2013 alone, maintaining a grass playing surface indoors, while technically possible, is prohibitively expensive. Artificial turf was first used in Major League Baseball in the Houston Astrodome in 1966, for most of the 1965 season, the Astros played on green-painted dirt and dead grass. The solution was to install a new type of grass on the field, ChemGrass. Because the supply of AstroTurf was still low, only a limited amount was available for the first home game, there was not enough for the entire outfield, but there was enough to cover the traditional grass portion of the infield.
The outfield remained painted dirt until after the All-Star Break, the team was sent on an extended road trip before the break, and on 19 July 1966, the installation of the outfield portion of AstroTurf was completed. The Chicago White Sox became the first team to install artificial turf in a stadium, as they used it in the infield
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe.
The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established and episkyros were Greek ball games.
An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
International System of Units
The International System of Units is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement. It comprises a coherent system of units of measurement built on seven base units, the system establishes a set of twenty prefixes to the unit names and unit symbols that may be used when specifying multiples and fractions of the units. The system was published in 1960 as the result of an initiative began in 1948. It is based on the system of units rather than any variant of the centimetre-gram-second system. The motivation for the development of the SI was the diversity of units that had sprung up within the CGS systems, the International System of Units has been adopted by most developed countries, the adoption has not been universal in all English-speaking countries. The metric system was first implemented during the French Revolution with just the metre and kilogram as standards of length, in the 1830s Carl Friedrich Gauss laid the foundations for a coherent system based on length and time.
In the 1860s a group working under the auspices of the British Association for the Advancement of Science formulated the requirement for a coherent system of units with base units and derived units. Meanwhile, in 1875, the Treaty of the Metre passed responsibility for verification of the kilogram, in 1921, the Treaty was extended to include all physical quantities including electrical units originally defined in 1893. The units associated with these quantities were the metre, second, kelvin, in 1971, a seventh base quantity, amount of substance represented by the mole, was added to the definition of SI. On 11 July 1792, the proposed the names metre, are and grave for the units of length, capacity. The committee proposed that multiples and submultiples of these units were to be denoted by decimal-based prefixes such as centi for a hundredth, on 10 December 1799, the law by which the metric system was to be definitively adopted in France was passed. Prior to this, the strength of the magnetic field had only been described in relative terms.
The technique used by Gauss was to equate the torque induced on a magnet of known mass by the earth’s magnetic field with the torque induced on an equivalent system under gravity. The resultant calculations enabled him to assign dimensions based on mass, length, a French-inspired initiative for international cooperation in metrology led to the signing in 1875 of the Metre Convention. Initially the convention only covered standards for the metre and the kilogram, one of each was selected at random to become the International prototype metre and International prototype kilogram that replaced the mètre des Archives and kilogramme des Archives respectively. Each member state was entitled to one of each of the prototypes to serve as the national prototype for that country. Initially its prime purpose was a periodic recalibration of national prototype metres. The official language of the Metre Convention is French and the version of all official documents published by or on behalf of the CGPM is the French-language version
Penalty kick (association football)
A penalty kick is a method of restarting play in association football, taken from 11 metres out from the goal, on the penalty mark. Penalty kicks are performed during normal play and they are awarded when a foul that is punishable by a direct free kick is committed within the offending players own penalty area. Similar kicks are made in a penalty shootout in some tournaments to determine which team is victorious after a drawn match, in practice, penalties are converted to goals more often than not, even against world class goalkeepers. This means that penalty awards are often decisive, especially in low-scoring games, the referee gives the ball to the non-offending team. The goalkeeper must stand on the line between the post until the ball is kicked. Lateral movement is allowed, but the keeper is not permitted to come off the goal line by stepping or lunging forward until the ball is in play. When the goalkeeper indicates to the referee that they are ready, once the shooter has started their approach to the ball, they are not permitted to interrupt it.
The ball must be stationary before the kick, and must be struck forwards, violation of these rules will result in a re-kick. After the penalty is taken properly, the ball may be played by any player except the one who executed the penalty kick. The kicker may not play the ball again until it has touched or played by another player on either team. For penalties taken near the end of time, play may be extended so that the penalty kick may be taken. A two-man penalty, or tap penalty, occurs when the penalty-taker, instead of shooting for goal, taps the ball slightly forward so that a team-mate can run on to it and shoot. The team-mate, like all other players, must be at least ten yards from the penalty mark when the ball is initially kicked and this strategy depends on the element of surprise, so that the team-mate can reach the ball ahead of any defenders. There is no requirement for the penalty taker to shoot for goal, the first recorded tap penalty was taken by Jimmy McIlroy and Danny Blanchflower of Northern Ireland against Portugal on 1 May 1957.
Another was taken by Rik Coppens and André Piters in the World Cup Qualifying match Belgium v Iceland on 5 June 1957, arsenal players Thierry Henry and Robert Pirès failed in an attempt at a similar penalty in 2005, during a Premier League match against Manchester City at Highbury. Lionel Messi tapped a penalty for Luis Suárez as Suárez completed his hat-trick on 14 February 2016 against league opponents Celta De Vigo, in the case of a player repeatedly infringing the laws during the penalty kick, the referee may caution the player for persistent infringement. Note that all offences that occur before kick may be dealt with in this manner, as with a direct free kick, the kicker may not touch the ball a second time, until another player has touched the ball. Another example of an infringement is when a player will run up, stop directly at the ball and this gives the goalkeeper no chance at saving it, and the result of this would be a free kick for the opposing team
John Norden was an English cartographer and antiquary. He planned a series of county maps and accompanying county histories of England and he was a prolific writer of devotional works. Norden is known to have born in Somerset, to a genteel family. He entered Hart Hall, Oxford, in 1564, and graduated BA in 1568 and he was married and had at least two sons, John Norden junior, and Josias. The first instalment of Nordens chorographical project was published in 1593 as the Speculum Britanniae, the First Parte, the manuscript in the British Library has corrections in Lord Burleighs handwriting. In 1595 he wrote a manuscript Chorographical Description of Middlesex, Surrey, Hampshire, Wight and Jersey, dedicated, in 1596 he published his Preparative to the Speculum Britanniae, dedicated to Burleigh. In 1598 there appeared the other part of the project to reach print in his lifetime, Speculi Britaniae Pars. He completed accounts of five counties in manuscript. In 1608 he was occupied with the surveying of crown woods, especially in Surrey and Devon.
Commission concerning new forests, to which he added in 1613 his Observations concerning Crown Lands and Woods, in the last of these the roads are indicated for the first time in English cartography. Several important cartographical works are lost and these include Nordens Map. of Battles fought in England from. 1604–6, and View of London Bridge, published in 1624. An earlier View of London by Norden, and an 1804 reprint of the View of London Bridge, are held in the Crace collection at the British Library. A map of Surrey by Norden, said to have been copied by Speed, Norden frequently experienced difficulty in finding patronage for his cartographical and chorographical work. A steadier source of income was his writing, of which he published twenty-four volumes between 1582 and his death. A Pensive Mans Practise, first published in 1584, reached more than forty editions in his lifetime and this denial has caused historians some difficulty, but Frank Kitchen has established beyond doubt that there was only one John Norden.
John Norden, estate surveyor, county mapmaker and devotional writer, Speculum Britanniae, regional study and science in Britain to 1700. John Norden and his maps of Cornwall and its nine hundreds, John Norden and his colleagues, surveyors of the Crown Lands
Hurling or Hurling the Silver Ball, is an outdoor team game played only in Cornwall, United Kingdom. It is played with a silver ball. Hurling is not to be confused with the Irish game, known as hurling, there are profound differences between the two sports. Once played widely in Cornwall, the game has similarities to other traditional football or inter parish mob games and it is considered by many to be Cornwalls national game along with Cornish wrestling. An old saying in the Cornish language goes, hyrlîan yw gen gwaré nyi which translated into English means, Hurling is our sport In August,1705, the parish burials register contains the following entry William Trevarthen buried in the church. Being disstroid to a hurling with Redruth men at the high dounes the 10th day of August and this is the only recorded death of a player during a hurling match. The ball for hurling is made of sterling silver which is hammered into two hemispheres and bound around a core of applewood which is held together with a band of silver, the band hold screws or nails which hold the ball together.
In St Columb the ball was crafted for a few years by John Turver, although since the 1990s, the winner of the ball has the right to keep it, but must have a new one made in its place for the next game. The price of a new ball is said to be around £1000, the current inscription on the St Columb ball is Town and Country, Do your best, which derives from the motto and Country - do your best -for in this parish - I must rest. The ball weighs just over a pound but there is no size or weight, as the ball is handmade. There are examples of hurling balls on public display at Truro Museum, Lanhydrock House, St Ives Museum, St Agnes Museum, many are held in private hands. One held at Penzance Museum is thought to be old and bears the following inscription in the Cornish language. 1704 The first two words signify Men of Paul, i. e. the owners of the ball. The last seven words may be translated literally into English as sweet play fair without hate to be called, which may be roughly translated as, Fair play is good play.
Another comes from the legend of Setanta, nephew to the King of Ulster, no evidence exists to support these two theories. In Brittany and Picardy a comparable game is known as la soule or choule, the earliest recorded game of Soule comes from Cornwall. Court records from 1283 show an entry in the plea rolls providing details of action taken when a man called Roger was accused of killing a fellow Soule player with a stone. One instance is recorded of a match between twenty-one Irish players from County Wexford and an number of Cornish players which was witnessed by George I of Great Britain