Keith Jack "Jackie" Oliver is a British former Formula One driver and team-owner from England. He became known as the founder of the Arrows team as well as a racing driver, although during his driving career he won both the 24 Hours of Le Mans race and the Can-Am championship. Oliver began a long career in motorsport in 1961, he upgraded to a Lotus Elan and entered GT racing, scoring some excellent results, having a difficult time in Formula Three, where his natural speed was blighted by mechanical failures. For 1967 he was drafted into the Team Lotus Formula Two team, which saw him making his Grand Prix debut in the F2 class at the German Grand Prix, where he came fifth overall and won the F2 class. In 1968, he was called up by Colin Chapman to take over the works Formula One seat for Team Lotus after the death of Jim Clark, his contract did not include an F2 drive. In discussions with Tony Rudlin, a failed racing driver, at that time responsible for running the Herts and Essex Aero Club for ex-world motor cycling champion, Roger Frogley, a deal was struck to run in the club's colours.
Lotus supplied and ran the car, supplied the mechanics and acted as competition managers while Rudlin was team manager. The F2 team was reasonably successful. At the end of the year the team was invited to compete in the four races making up the Argentine Temporada; the Herts and Essex Team finished third overall in the series. The F1 season would turn out to be difficult, with Oliver struggling for finishes, he led the British Grand Prix until an engine failure, would only finish twice, his best result being third place at the season-closing Mexican Grand Prix. With Jochen Rindt signing for Lotus for 1969, Oliver switched to BRM, he was to suffer disappointing two years at the Bourne team, which would kill off his Grand Prix career. In two years, he would muster just four finishes, with his only points scores being sixth place in the 1969 Mexican Grand Prix, fifth in the 1970 Austrian Grand Prix. However, in 1970, he led much of the Race of Champions holding off Stewart and was a strong third for most of the Dutch and British GP.
The poor result in the Austrian GP which Team boss, Louis Stanley thought he should have won, saw the best car go to Pedro Rodríguez from on, but Oliver still led some laps at the slipstream Italian race. Stanley described Oliver, as'good, but not nearly as good as he thought'; the majority of his other races saw the BRM break down. Most pundits and sponsor, were surprised and disappointed after Oliver was sacked by BRM. Jackie Stewart, judged Oliver a good GP and Can-Am driver, his best results in these seasons would come from endurance racing, in John Wyer's Gulf Ford GT40, winning the 12 Hours of Sebring and 24 Hours of Le Mans events with Jacky Ickx in 1969, the 24 Hours of Daytona and the 1000 km Monza in 1971 with Rodríguez. In 1969, he debuted in CanAm for Autocoast in the TI-22, for Don Nichols' Shadow team. 1971 saw him out of a full-time Formula One drive. 1972 saw him concentrate on CanAm with Shadow, though he would take a one-off drive for BRM at the 1972 British Grand Prix, where he retired.
For 1973, Shadow entered F1, Oliver was nominated as team leader. The Shadow DN1 proved a difficult chassis, once again his season was blighted by mechanical errors. However, in the Canadian Grand Prix he ran well, many believe he won the race, but the lap charts were thrown into confusion by a rain shower meaning multiple pit-stops, a staggeringly inept deployment of a pace car by the organisers; as it was, Oliver was classified third, his only points finish of the year. 1974 saw. He was becoming more involved in the management side of Shadow, but would compete in Formula 5000 for the team for three seasons, briefly returned to F1, finishing fifth in the 1977 Race of Champions, taking 9th in the Swedish Grand Prix. At the end of 1977 he left Shadow along with financer Franco Ambrosio, designers Tony Southgate and Alan Rees, engineer Dave Wass and driver Riccardo Patrese to form the Arrows Grand Prix team. Arrows would become famous for competing in a record 382 Grands Prix without achieving a single victory.
However, the team would always have well-presented cars which would be competitive, if not front-runners, would give breaks to talented drivers - besides Patrese, Thierry Boutsen, Gerhard Berger, Marc Surer and Martin Donnelly would all drive for the team early in their career. Oliver sold much of his stake to the Japanese Footwork Corporation in 1990, remaining as director, but the team failed to move forward and the company pulled out at the end of 1993 due to financial trouble. Oliver had his team back, but money was tight, in 1996 he again sold most of his shares to Tom Walkinshaw's TWR group. Oliver remained on the board until 1999. "DRIVER: Oliver, Jackie". Autocourse Grand Prix Archive. Archived from the original on 21 December 2007. Retrieved 11 September 2007. "Jackie Oliver". Grand Prix Racing. Archived from the original on 14 November 2007. Retrieved 11 September 2007. Widdows, Rob. "Jackie Oliver: Nearly Man". Motor Sport magazine archive. P. 85. Retrieved 4 December 2017
1991 San Marino Grand Prix
The 1991 San Marino Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Imola on 28 April 1991. The 61-lap race was the third race of the 1991 Formula One season and was won from pole position by Ayrton Senna, driving a McLaren-Honda, with team-mate Gerhard Berger second and JJ Lehto third in a Dallara-Judd. With the team under new management having been sold by Cyril De Rouvre, Stefan Johansson was replaced at AGS by F1 debutant Fabrizio Barbazza. Ayrton Senna claimed his 55th pole position from Riccardo Patrese, Alain Prost, Nigel Mansell and Gerhard Berger. However, the formation lap saw two dramatic incidents - Prost spun off the track at Rivazza Turn, followed by Berger, able to continue; however Prost did not take the start. At the lights, Patrese took the lead ahead of Senna, whilst Mansell slow off the line with gearbox problems, retired at the end of lap 1 after a collision with Martin Brundle, he was followed out by Nelson Piquet who spun off on lap 2, Aguri Suzuki who spun off on lap 3 behind the leaders and Jean Alesi who spun off on lap 3 attempting a rather foolhardy pass on Stefano Modena.
In a strong lead, Patrese pitted for what appeared to be an early stop to slicks turned out to be more serious - a misfire with a faulty camshaft sensor. He restarted last before retiring for good 9 laps later. Berger was catching Senna, lapping 1.5 seconds quicker than his teammate. The lead was soon down to 5 seconds, with Modena a superb third from Satoru Nakajima and the two Minardis of Pierluigi Martini and Gianni Morbidelli. Both McLarens pitted for tyres with Senna maintaining his lead. Just after setting fastest lap, Berger was delayed in traffic, held up by the trio of Maurício Gugelmin, Julian Bailey and Thierry Boutsen. Bailey himself moved past Andrea de Cesaris into 6th, whilst Nakajima retired with transmission problems. Ivan Capelli spun into retirement from 4th to hand over to JJ Lehto's Dallara. Modena retired with transmission problems which meant that behind the two dominant McLarens, the order was now Roberto Moreno, Eric van de Poele for the little Modena team and Martini's Minardi.
Meanwhile de Cesaris would retire in the pits with gearbox problems on lap 38. Moreno's gearbox broke on lap 52 causing him to retire, whilst Senna was having problems with oil pressure caused by the special high-torque Honda V12; as the Leyton House of Maurício Gugelmin retired with an engine failure on lap 58. Berger put in a series of fastest laps to cut Senna's lead to just 1.7s at the line. As Eric van de Poele had retired on the last lap with the result of fuel pump problems and was classified 7th. Lehto was overjoyed to gain the first podium place of his career with Martini 4th. Van de Poele's drive ended when a fuel pump broke on the last lap - he was classified ninth overall; the Lotus drivers of Mika Häkkinen and Bailey took 5th and 6th, both scoring their first world championship points, an unexpected result for the troubled team since their cars had managed to enter the grid with Häkkinen 25th and Bailey 26th. This race was noted for being the only F1 point for Julian Bailey. Note: Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings
1991 Formula One World Championship
The 1991 FIA Formula One World Championship was the 45th season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 1991 Formula One World Championship for Drivers and the 1991 Formula One World Championship for Constructors, which were contested concurrently over a sixteen-race series that commenced on 10 March and ended on 3 November. Ayrton Senna won his third and last Drivers' Championship, McLaren-Honda won their fourth consecutive Constructors' Championship. Senna won seven of the sixteen races. Senna's fierce rival Alain Prost failed to win a race with Ferrari and was fired before the end of the season due to a dispute with the team. 1991 saw the debuts of future world champions Michael Schumacher and Mika Häkkinen, as well as the retirement of three-time champion Nelson Piquet. The following teams and drivers competed in the 1991 FIA Formula One World Championship. McLaren retained their successful 1990 lineup of Gerhard Berger. Williams re-signed their former driver Nigel Mansell on the promise that he would be the top driver in the team after several years as number two to Nelson Piquet at Williams and Alain Prost at Ferrari.
He was partnered by Riccardo Patrese, retained from 1990. Ferrari kept Alain Prost as lead driver and replaced the departed Mansell with Jean Alesi, a young driver who had impressed at Tyrrell. Benetton began the season with two experienced Brazilian drivers: Roberto Moreno and triple world champion Nelson Piquet. During the season, Moreno was controversially replaced by German rookie Michael Schumacher. Former greats Lotus had had a torrid 1990 with a severe career-ending accident for Martin Donnelly, loss of title sponsorship from Camel and a management buyout; the new cars and British Racing Green after decades of yellow or black, were piloted by rookie driver Mika Häkkinen, Julian Bailey who had made his F1 debut with Tyrrell in 1988, though Bailey was replaced by Johnny Herbert. The team had appointed Donnelly as'number one driver' as Martin was hoped to come back racing by April 1991, though his 1990 crash at Jerez ended his racing career. Lotus went back to using Judd V8 power in 1991 after a dismal 1990 using the fast but fragile Lamborghini V12 engine.
Three teams that started the 1990 season would not make the start of the 1991 season: EuroBrun had failed to complete the season. Onyx Grand Prix pulled out during 1990, but went as far as designing a 1991 car before folding, while the absence of Life, a team that failed to prequalify for every race, surprised no-one; the Osella team was now Fondmetal, though driver Olivier Grouillard was retained along with the 1989 Osella car and most of the staff. The Arrows team was renamed Footwork after an investment by Japanese businessman Wataru Ohashi, President of Footwork Express Co. Ltd. There were two new entrants for the 1991 season, their drivers were Bertrand Gachot and Andrea de Cesaris, though Gachot's incarceration for assault partway through the season would mean that Michael Schumacher, Alessandro Zanardi and Roberto Moreno drove the car. The other new team was the Modena Team, it began life in late 1990 as GLAS with Mexican investment. Former Arrows, Alfa Romeo and Spirit driver, Mauro Baldi, was one of the proposed drivers and they had brokered a deal with Lamborghini that would see the Italian marque, operating under Lamborghini Engineering and build a chassis for the team as well as supply their V12 engines.
But, the Mexican investors pulled out before the season began. Lamborghini stepped in and provided financial assistance to save the team and relocated the team to Modena and initiated the subsequent name-change; the team signed up Eric van de Poele. Although the team was a de facto factory effort by Lamborghini, Lamborghini entered the team under a separate name to avoid being associated with a struggling team, but this did not stop fans alike from referring to the team as Lambo though. 1991 would be a difficult year for the team, as aside from the drivers failing to qualify their cars, finances become an issue after Lamborghini's once off investment in the team had dried up. 1991 would in fact turn out to be the team's only season in the sport. At the start of the season, pre-qualifying was needed for five teams: both cars of the Jordan and Modena teams and the single entrants of the Fondmetal and Coloni teams. A change to the points system in 1991 saw the winning driver now awarded 10 points instead of 9 as previously.
More points from all races would now count towards the championship, instead of only each driver's best eleven results as previously. The season started off at the Phoenix street circuit that had a modified layout to make it more of a challenge to drivers. Senna took pole ahead of Prost, Mansell and Alesi. At the start and Prost maintained their places while Mansell sliced ahead of Patrese and Piquet lost out to Alesi and Berger; the order at the end of lap 1 was: Senna, Mansell, Patrese and Berger. Early on, as Senna was pulling away from Prost, Alesi got past Patrese for fourth. However, Patrese closed up on Mansell, he shot into an escape road and rejoined behind Alesi and Berger. He closed up on them with Berger attacking Alesi but unable to pass. Patrese passed Berger on lap 34. On the next lap, Mansell's gearbox failed and soon afterward, on lap 36, Berger had fuel pump
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
In motorsport the pole position is the position at the inside of the front row at the start of a racing event. This position is given to the vehicle and driver with the best qualifying time in the trials before the race; this number-one qualifying driver is referred to as the pole sitter. Grid position is determined by a qualifying session prior to the race, where race participants compete to ascend to the number 1 grid slot, the driver, pilot, or rider having recorded fastest qualification time awarded the advantage of the number 1 grid slot ahead of all other vehicles for the start of the race; the fastest qualifier was not the designated pole-sitter. Different sanctioning bodies in motor sport employ different qualifying formats in designating who starts from pole position. A starting grid is derived either by current rank in the championship, or based on finishing position of a previous race. In important events where multiple qualification attempts spanned several days, the qualification result was segmented or staggered, by which session a driver qualified, or by which particular day a driver set his qualification time, only drivers having qualified on the initial day eligible for pole position.
In a phenomenon known as race rigging, where race promoters or sanctioning bodies invert their starting grid for the purpose of entertainment value, the slowest qualifier would be designated as pole-sitter. In contrast to contemporary motorsport, where only a race participant is designated pole-sitter, prior to World War II, the pace car was designated as official pole-sitter for the Indianapolis 500; the term has its origins in horse racing, in which the fastest qualifying horse would be placed on the inside part of the course, next to the pole. In Grand Prix racing, grid positions, including pole, were determined by lottery among the drivers. Prior to the inception of the Formula One World Championship, the first instance of grid positions being determined by qualifying times was at the 1933 Monaco Grand Prix. Since the FIA have introduced many different qualifying systems to Formula One. From the long-standing system of one session on each of Friday and Saturday, to the current knockout-style qualifying leaving 10 out of 20 drivers to battle for pole, there have been many changes to qualifying systems.
Between 1996 and 2006, the FIA made 6 significant changes to the qualifying procedure, each with the intention of making the battle for pole more interesting to viewers at home. Traditionally, pole was always occupied by the fastest driver due to low-fuel qualifying; the race-fuel qualifying era between 2003 and 2009 changed this. Despite the changing formats, drivers attempting pole were required between 2003 and 2009 to do qualifying laps with the fuel they would use to start the race the next day. An underfuelled slower car and driver would therefore be able to take pole ahead of a better but heavier-fueled car. In this situation, pole was not always advantageous to have in the race as the under-fueled driver would have to pit for more fuel before their rivals. With the race refueling ban introduced, low-fuel qualifying returned and these strategy decisions are no longer in play; when Formula One enforced the 107% rule between 1996 and 2002, a driver's pole time might affect slower cars posting times for qualifying, as cars that could not get within 107% of the pole time were not allowed start the race unless the stewards decided otherwise.
Since the reintroduction of the rule in 2011, this only applies to the quickest first session time, not the pole time. From 2014 to 2017, the FIA awarded a trophy to the driver who won the most pole positions in a season without sponsorship. From 2018, the FIA Pole Trophy has been renamed the Pirelli Pole Position Award, with the polesitter at each race winning a Pirelli wind tunnel tyre with the name of the polesitter and their time; the driver with the most pole positions at the end of the season wins a full-size engraved Formula 1 tyre. indicates that the driver won the World Championship in the same season. IndyCar uses four formats for qualifying: one for most oval tracks, one for Iowa Speedway, one for the Indianapolis 500, another for road and street circuits. Oval qualifying is like the Indianapolis 500, with two laps, instead of four, averaged together with one attempt, although with just one session. At Iowa, each car takes one qualifying lap, the top six cars advance to the feature race for the pole position.
Positions from 7th onward are assigned to their races, based on time, with cars in the odd-numbered finishing order starting in one race, cars in the even-numbered finishing order starting in the second race. The finishing order for the odd-numbered race starts on the inside, starting in Row 6, even-numbered race on the outside based on finishing position, again from Row 6, except for the top two in each race, which start in the inside and outside of the race for the pole position; the result of the feature race determines positions 1–10. All three races are 50 laps. On road and street courses, cars are drawn randomly into two qualifying groups. After each group has one twenty-minute session, the top six cars from each group qualify for a second session; the cars that finished seventh or worse are lined up by their times, with the best of these times starting 13th. The twelve remaining cars run a 15-minute session, after which the top six cars move on to a final 10-minute session to determine positions one through six on the grid.
The Iowa format was instituted in 2012 with major modifications (times set based on open qualifying session in second pract
1996 Formula One World Championship
The 1996 FIA Formula One World Championship was the 50th season of FIA Formula One motor racing. The championship ended on 13 October after sixteen races. Two World Championship titles were awarded, one for Drivers and one for Constructors. Damon Hill won the Drivers' Championship two years after being beaten by a point by Michael Schumacher, making him the first son of a World Champion to have won the title himself. Hill, who had finished runner-up for the past two seasons, was threatened only by his teammate, newcomer Jacques Villeneuve, the 1995 IndyCar and Indianapolis 500 champion. Williams-Renault won the Constructors' title, as there was no other competitor strong enough to post a consistent challenge throughout the championship; this was the beginning of the end of Williams's 1990s dominance, as it was announced that Hill and designer Adrian Newey would depart at the conclusion of the season, with engine manufacturer Renault leaving after 1997. Two-time defending world champion Michael Schumacher had moved to Ferrari and despite numerous reliability problems, they had developed into a front-running team by the end of the season.
Defending Constructors' Champion Benetton began their decline towards the middle of the grid, having lost key personnel due to Schumacher's departure, failed to win a race. Olivier Panis took the only victory of his career at the Monaco Grand Prix; the numbering system used since 1974 was dropped. Ferrari was given the numbers 1 and 2 after hiring the defending champion Michael Schumacher, despite finishing the previous year's Constructors' Championship in third, Benetton received numbers 3 and 4 for winning the Constructors' Championship, Williams got numbers 5 and 6 for finishing second, McLaren got 7 and 8 for finishing fourth, Ligier got 9 and 10 for finishing fifth, so on; the following teams and drivers competed in the 1996 FIA Formula One World Championship. Forti Grand Prix were declared bankrupt after the British Grand Prix and took no further part in the championship. By receiving an Italian licence the defending Constructors' Champion Benetton became an Italian constructor, though continued to be based in Britain.
Jordan gained a new title sponsor in British cigarette brand Benson & Hedges, who joined oil supplier Total and engine company Peugeot in the team's official name. Meanwhile, Tyrrell lost their title sponsor, Finnish communications company Nokia, becoming known as Tyrrell Yamaha. Forti lost the sponsorship of Italian dairy corporation Parmalat, as well as any official connection to Ford, although they continued to use Ford engines. Scuderia Italia decided to end their two-year working relationship with Minardi, so the team once again became known as Minardi Team. Two teams disappeared from the entry list entirely. Larrousse had missed the early races of 1995 before announcing their withdrawal before the San Marino Grand Prix. Gérard Larrousse claimed several times the team would reappear in 1996, but a combination of legal and financial difficulties meant this never materialised. Pacific withdrew from the sport at the end of 1995. Defending champion Michael Schumacher left Benetton for Ferrari, citing the need for a new challenge.
He displaced Jean Alesi. Gerhard Berger was offered the chance to stay as Schumacher's teammate, but opted to join Alesi at Benetton. Ferrari filled the seat with Jordan's Eddie Irvine. Berger's decision to join Benetton ousted Johnny Herbert, who joined Sauber alongside Heinz-Harald Frentzen. Sauber's other seat had been filled in 1995 by both Karl Wendlinger, who left F1 still struggling to recover from injuries sustained at the 1994 Monaco Grand Prix, Jean-Christophe Boullion, who returned to his testing role at Williams. Williams dropped David Coulthard, instead recruiting Canadian rookie Jacques Villeneuve, who had won the 1995 CART Championship, to partner Damon Hill. Coulthard joined McLaren alongside Mika Häkkinen, replacing Mark Blundell, who moved into CART with PacWest Racing. Martin Brundle left Ligier in order to replace the Ferrari-bound Irvine at Jordan, where he would partner Rubens Barrichello. Ligier replaced him by bringing in Forti's Pedro Diniz alongside Olivier Panis. Aguri Suzuki, who had shared Brundle's seat in 1995, left F1 altogether.
Footwork had an new line-up in 1996, dispensing with all three of their 1995 drivers. Gianni Morbidelli became a test driver for Jordan, before returning to a race seat in 1997 with Sauber, while fellow Italian Max Papis moved to America to race in the CART Series. Taki Inoue was rumoured to have secured a drive with both Tyrrell and Minardi, but lost out on both seats and moved to sports cars. Footwork replaced them with Jos Verstappen from the now-defunct Simtek team, 1995 International Formula 3000 runner-up Ricardo Rosset. Simtek's other driver, Domenico Schiattarella left F1 completely. Luca Badoer moved from Minardi to Forti; as his replacement, Minardi brought in Giancarlo Fisichella, racing with Alfa Romeo in the International Touring Car Championship, to partner Pedro Lamy. Badoer's teammate at Forti would be Andrea Montermini, who had raced for the now-extinct Pacific team in 1995, he replaced Roberto Moreno. Tyrrell was the only team on the grid with an unchanged line-up from 1995, in Ukyo Katayama and Mika Salo.
Due to his commitments with Alfa Romeo in the International Touring Car Championship, Giancarlo Fisichella missed several races for Minardi. European Formula 3000 driver Tarso Marques raced at the Brazilian and Argentine Grands Prix, while Giovanni Lavaggi, who had raced for Pacific in 199
Gianni Morbidelli is an Italian racing driver. He participated in 70 Formula One Grands Prix, debuting on 11 March 1990, he achieved one podium, scored a total of 8.5 championship points. He competes in the TCR International Series. Morbidelli was born in Pesaro, his father, Giancarlo Morbidelli, was the founder of the Morbidelli motorcycle company which had some success in Grand Prix motorcycle racing. Morbidelli started karting in 1980, he won the EUR-AM championship before moving to Italian Formula Three. He became Italian Formula 3 and Formula 3 European Cup champion in 1989, as well as winning two races in Italian Touring Cars, he moved to the Scuderia Italia Formula One team, doing the first 2 races of the 1990 F1 season as stand-in for Emanuele Pirro, before concentrating on Formula 3000. He won 1 race and finished 5th in the 1990 championship, as well as undertaking test driver duties for Scuderia Ferrari for that year. Resuming his F1 career at the end of the 1990 season, Morbidelli competed in the final two races of the season with Minardi, where he remained until the end of 1992.
He joined Ferrari for the 1991 Australian Grand Prix, drafted in after Alain Prost was fired by the team, where Morbidelli earned his first Formula One points, earning half a point for 6th after a rain-shortened race. A lack of sponsorship led to him leaving Minardi to rejoin Italian Touring Cars for 1993, where he drove an Alfa Romeo 155 to two wins for Alfa Corse, before being hired by Footwork Arrows for 1994, he managed four-point-scoring positions in two years with the team, including his only podium place finish in the 1995 Australian Grand Prix, earning third place in a race of high attrition. Morbidelli became Footwork Arrows' most successful driver, with a total of eight points for the team. Morbidelli competed in the Italian Superturismo Championship for 1995, scoring two race wins, after spending a year out in 1996 testing for Jordan, gained another podium that year. Back in Formula One for 1997, he raced in several mid-season events for Sauber as a replacement for Nicola Larini.
He was not classified in the championship for that year. His unsuccessful season, two injuries by separate testing accidents, led to Morbidelli retiring from Formula One racing. In 1998 he drove for Volvo in the British Touring Car Championship, but was not as competitive as his teammate Rickard Rydell, who won that year's title, his only competitive showing was in the summer meeting at Thruxton, where he charged from near the back of the back to finish fourth, passing many cars in the process. Morbidelli spent several years in various European touring car series', with a high point in the 2001 European Touring Car Championship, where he raced the BMW 320i to fifth place in the championship, winning the last race at Estoril. Morbidelli raced in the Italian round of the 2004 season in a SEAT Toledo, but scored no points and did not contest in further meetings. Morbidelli drove a Lamborghini in several grand tourer races in 2005, moved back to touring cars for 2006. Competing in the World Touring Car Championship for N-Technology, he managed two second places in an Alfa Romeo 156.
Not as competitive as when he was driving the BMW, he moved back to GT racing for 2007, winning two races in the ADAC GT Masters series. He has had considerable success in the Italian Superstars Championship, where Morbidelli won the title with both Audi RS4 and BMW M3 three years in a row from 2007; the short-lived Speedcar Series gave him another championship title, where he won the 2008–09 championship. The season featured a close fight with defending champion Johnny Herbert, with Morbidelli finishing one place ahead in the final round to win the title, he is making his WTCC return in 2014. He made his debut in the FIA World Rallycross Championship with the same team at his home round in 2015. † Driver was classified as he completed over 90 % of the race distance. † Not eligible for points. † Driver did not finish the race, but was classified as he completed over 75% of the race distance. † Driver was classified as he completed over 90 % of the race distance. Gianni Morbidelli page on GTMasters.org Driver for Reiter Engineering Official website Gianni Morbidelli career summary at DriverDB.com