Kashrut is a set of Jewish religious dietary laws. Food that may be consumed according to halakha is termed kosher, from the Ashkenazi pronunciation of the Hebrew term kashér, meaning "fit". Among the numerous laws that form kashrut are prohibitions on the consumption of certain animals, mixtures of meat and milk, the commandment to slaughter mammals and birds according to a process known as shechita. There are laws regarding agricultural produce that might impact the suitability of food for consumption. Most of the basic laws of kashrut are derived from the Torah's Books of Deuteronomy, their details and practical application, are set down in the oral law and elaborated on in the rabbinical literature. Although the Torah does not state the rationale for most kashrut laws, some suggest that they are only tests for man's obedience, while others have suggested philosophical and hygienic reasons. Over the past century, many rabbinical organizations have started to certify products and restaurants as kosher using a symbol to indicate their support.
About a sixth of American Jews or 0.3% of the American population keep kosher, there are many more who do not follow all the rules but still abstain from some prohibited foods. The Seventh-day Adventist Church, a Christian denomination, have a health message that expects adherence to the kosher dietary laws. Jewish philosophy divides the 613 commandments into three groups—laws that have a rational explanation and would be enacted by most orderly societies, laws that are understood after being explained but would not be legislated without the Torah's command, laws that do not have a rational explanation; some Jewish scholars say that kashrut should be categorized as laws for which there is no particular explanation since the human mind is not always capable of understanding divine intentions. In this line of thinking, the dietary laws were given as a demonstration of God's authority, man must obey without asking why. However, Maimonides believed; some theologians have said that the laws of kashrut are symbolic in character: Kosher animals represent virtues, while non-kosher animals represent vices.
The 1st-century BCE Letter of Aristeas argues that the laws "have been given... to awake pious thoughts and to form the character". This view reappears in the work of the 19th century Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch; the Torah prohibits "seething the kid in its mother's milk". While the Bible does not provide a reason, it has been suggested that the practice was perceived as cruel and insensitive. Hasidic Judaism believes that everyday life is imbued with channels connecting with Divinity, the activation of which it sees as helping the Divine Presence to be drawn into the physical world; these sparks of Holiness are released. The Hasidic argument is that animals are imbued with signs that reveal the release of these sparks, the signs are expressed in the biblical categorization of ritually clean and ritually unclean. According to Christian theologian Gordon J. Wenham, the purpose of kashrut was to help Jews maintain a distinct and separate existence from other peoples. Wenham argued that since the impact of the food laws was a public affair, this would have enhanced Jewish attachment to them as a reminder of their distinct status as Jews.
There have been attempts to provide empirical support for the view that Jewish food laws have an overarching health benefit or purpose. One of the earliest is that of Maimonides in The Guide for the Perplexed. In 1953, David Macht, an Orthodox Jew and proponent of the theory of biblical scientific foresight, conducted toxicity experiments on many kinds of animals and fish, his experiment involved lupin seedlings being supplied with extracts from the meat of various animals. At the same time, these explanations are controversial. Scholar Lester L. Grabbe, writing in the Oxford Bible Commentary on Leviticus, says "n explanation now universally rejected is that the laws in this section have hygiene as their basis. Although some of the laws of ritual purity correspond to modern ideas of physical cleanliness, many of them have little to do with hygiene. For example, there is no evidence that the'unclean' animals are intrinsically bad to eat or to be avoided in a Mediterranean climate, as is sometimes asserted."
The laws of kashrut can be classified according to the origin of the prohibition and whether the prohibition concerns the food itself or a mixture of foods. Biblically prohibited foods include: Non-kosher animals and birds: mammals require certain identifying characteristics, while birds require a tradition that they can be consumed. Fish require fins. All invertebrates are non-kosher apart from certain types of locust, on w
Ricky Dene Gervais is an English stand-up comedian, director and singer. Gervais worked in the music industry, attempting a career as a pop star in the 1980s as the singer of the new wave act Seona Dancing and working as the manager of the then-unknown band Suede before turning to comedy. Gervais appeared on The 11 O'Clock Show on Channel 4 between 1998 and 2000. In 2000, he was given a Channel 4 talk show, Meet Ricky Gervais, achieved greater mainstream fame a year with his BBC television series The Office, it was followed by Extras in 2005. He co-directed both series with Stephen Merchant. In addition to writing and directing the shows, he played the lead roles of David Brent in The Office and Andy Millman in Extras, he reprised his role as Brent in the comedy film David Brent: Life on the Road. Gervais began his stand-up career in the late 1990s, he has performed five multi-national stand-up comedy tours, wrote the Flanimals book series. Gervais and Karl Pilkington created the podcast, The Ricky Gervais Show, which has spawned various spin-offs starring Pilkington and produced by Gervais and Merchant.
He has starred in the Hollywood films Ghost Town, Muppets Most Wanted, wrote and starred in The Invention of Lying and the Netflix-released Special Correspondents. He hosted the Golden Globe Awards in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2016, appears on the game show Child Support. Gervais has won seven BAFTA Awards, five British Comedy Awards, two Emmy Awards, three Golden Globe Awards and the 2006 Rose d'Or, as well as a Screen Actors Guild Award nomination. In a 2004 poll for the BBC, he was named the third-most influential person in British culture. In 2007, he was voted the 11th-greatest stand-up comic on Channel 4's 100 Greatest Stand-Ups and again in the updated 2010 list as the 3rd-greatest stand-up comic. In 2010, he was named on the Time 100 list of the world's most influential people. Gervais was born at Battle Hospital in Reading, he was raised in Whitley, along with brother Larry, sister Marsha, brother Robert. His father, Lawrence Raymond "Jerry" Gervais, a Franco-Ontarian from Pain Court, emigrated to the UK whilst on foreign duty during the Second World War and worked as a labourer and hod carrier.
He met Gervais' mother, Eva Sophia, English, during a blackout. She died, aged 74, of lung cancer, he attended Whitley Park Infants and Junior Schools, received his secondary education at Ashmead Comprehensive School. He intended to study biology but changed to philosophy after two weeks, earned an upper second-class honours degree in the subject. During his time at UCL, he met Jane Fallon, with whom he has been in a relationship since 1982. In 1983, during his final year as a student at University College London and college friend Bill Macrae formed the new wave pop duo Seona Dancing, they were signed by London Records, which released two of their singles—"More to Lose" and "Bitter Heart". The songs failed to chart inside the UK top 75. Despite not being successful in the UK, Seona Dancing did manage to score a hit in the Philippines with "More to Lose", he worked as the manager for Suede before they became successful in the 1990s. In 2013, Gervais performed a live tour as David Brent along with a band under the name "Foregone Conclusion".
Gervais and the band performed songs written under the Brent character including songs such as "Equality Street" and "Free Love Freeway". Gervais produced a series of YouTube videos under the title'Learn Guitar with David Brent', featuring acoustic guitar versions of nine songs. In 2016, as part of the Life on Road film promotion, Gervais published the David Brent Songbook containing 15 songs; these were recorded for the album Life on the Road, under the name of David Brent and Foregone Conclusion. Gervais worked as an assistant events manager for the University of London Union moved from ULU to a job as head of speech at the alternative radio station Xfm. Needing an assistant, Gervais interviewed the first person, it belonged to Stephen Merchant. In 1998 Gervais was made redundant. Around this time he was a regular contributor to Mary Anne Hobbs' Radio 1 show, performing vox pop interviews in unlikely locations. After the first series of The Office and Merchant returned to Xfm in November 2001 for a Saturday radio show.
This was when the pair first worked with Karl Pilkington, who produced the shows and collaborated with them on their series of podcasts. In October 2017, Gervais began hosting the weekly radio show Ricky Gervais Is Deadly Sirius on Sirius XM. On 5 December 2005, Guardian Unlimited began offering free weekly podcasts, including The Ricky Gervais Show featuring Gervais and Karl Pilkington. Throughout January and February 2006 the podcast was ranked the number-one podcast in the world. Two more series—each with six podcasts—were released between February and September 2006. In late 2006, three more free podcasts were released. Together called "The Podfather Trilogy", they debuted individually at Halloween and Christmas; these three were known by Gervais and Merchant as "The Fourth Season". In October 2007 another free full-length podcast was released through iTunes.
Jane Marie Lynch is an American actress, author and comedian. She is best known for her role as Sue Sylvester in the musical television series Glee, she gained fame in Christopher Guest's improv mockumentary pictures such as Best in Show. A native of Dolton, Lynch's television cameos include an appearance in the Nickelodeon situation comedy iCarly and the Showtime dark comedy series Weeds. Lynch had a recurring role in the Warner Bros. situation comedy Two and a Half Men from 2004 to 2014 and was nominated for a Primetime Emmy Award for her performance in 2010. She has had other notable roles in numerous mainstream comedies, such as Talladega Nights: The Ballad of Ricky Bobby, The 40-Year-Old Virgin, Role Models and The Three Stooges. On September 4, 2013, Lynch received the 2,505th star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in the category of television located at 6640 Hollywood Blvd. Lynch has lent her voice to multiple animated films, including Space Chimps, Ice Age: Dawn of the Dinosaurs, Shrek Forever After and Wreck-It Ralph.
Since 2013, she has hosted the NBC game show Hollywood Game Night, for which she has won two Emmy Awards. She has hosted Earth Live for National Geographic. Lynch was born in Evergreen Park and raised in Dolton, the daughter of a banker father, Frank Lynch, a homemaker-secretary mother, Eileen, her father was of Irish descent, his parents having come from Swinford County Mayo, her mother was of Irish and Swedish ancestry. She attended Thornridge High School. Lynch spent 15 years in Chicago, acting in the Steppenwolf Theatre Company and, at the time of her audition, she starred in CSI was one of only two women picked to join The Second City comedy troupe, she continued to hone her comical and improvisational skills at Annoyance Theater, playing Carol Brady in the theater's The Real Live Brady Bunch. Andy Richter played, he and Lynch became good friends. Lynch got her start in films in 1988. In 1993, she had a secondary role as a doctor alongside Harrison Ford in The Fugitive. During the 1990s, she made numerous television commercials, including one for Frosted Flakes for an adult audience, directed by Christopher Guest.
A few years Guest would remember Lynch, as he chose actors for his 2000 dog show mockumentary, Best in Show. Lynch played a butch lesbian personal dog handler to trophy wife Sheri Ann Cabot. From there, she became a staple actress in Guest's casts, appearing in the director's A Mighty Wind as porn actress-turned-folk singer Laurie Bohner and in For Your Consideration as an entertainment reporter. Audiences and critics took notice of Lynch for her turn in Judd Apatow's The 40-Year-Old Virgin, she told Fresh Air's Terry Gross that the role was intended for a man but that, at the urging of Steve Carell's wife Nancy Walls, was offered to Lynch instead. From there, she took supporting roles in a series of films including Role Models, Talladega Nights: The Ballad of Ricky Bobby, Alvin & the Chipmunks, Walk Hard: The Dewey Cox Story, Space Chimps, The Rocker, The Hammer, Another Cinderella Story, Ice Age: Dawn of the Dinosaurs, Wreck-It Ralph, Spring Breakdown. In Adventures of Power, a critically acclaimed comedy about air-drumming released in 2008, Lynch reunited with Michael McKean, her former co-star from For Your Consideration, in the role of Aunt Joanie and starring alongside Ari Gold, Adrian Grenier, Chiu Chi Ling, Shoshannah Stern.
In a role similar to that of her contributions as Sue Sylvester on the Fox musical comedy-drama series Glee, Lynch's role as the encouraging Aunt Joanie to Power, a young musician who plays the air drums because he never had access to musical instruments, promotes the initiative to support music education. In Julie and Julia, she portrayed Julia Child's sister. Entertainment Weekly dedicated an article on its website to the possibility of her performance receiving an Academy Award nomination. However, she was not nominated. Lynch has appeared in many television shows, including The X Files, L. A. Law, Judging Amy, The West Wing, 7th Heaven, Desperate Housewives, NewsRadio, Married With Children, 3rd Rock From The Sun, Dawson's Creek, Arrested Development, Lovespring International, Two and a Half Men, Veronica Mars, Boston Legal, L Word, Criminal Minds, Help Me Help You, Gilmore Girls, New Adventures of Old Christine, Monk, The Marvelous Mrs. Maisel, The King of Queens and Frasier, she starred with John Hannah and William Fichtner in 2002's MDs and has appeared in the crime drama Criminal Minds as Spencer Reid's schizophrenic mother.
In 2008 she narrated Out & Proud in Chicago, a documentary which tells about LGBT life in Chicago from the Civil War to 2008 through the stories of 20 everyday Chicagoans, from age 30 to age 80. Beginning in 2009, Lynch appeared as a regular cast member of the Fox series Glee; the role echoed previous guest appearances in The X-Files and Veronica Mars, being her third time cast as a harsh high school teacher. She won glowing reviews for her role as Sue Sylvester. Mary McNamara of the Los Angeles Times wrote, "Lynch alone makes Glee worth watching." Before her work with Glee, she was a series regular on the Starz comedy Party Down. Though the series was renewed for a second season, Lynch would not be returning, due to her work on Glee. In Glee's early days, Lynch continued to pursue other projects. Lynch hosted Saturday Night Live on October 9, 2010. Lynch had guest-starred on the Nickelodeon comedy i
A character actor or character actress is a supporting actor who plays unusual, interesting, or eccentric characters. The term contrasted with that of leading actor, is somewhat abstract and open to interpretation. In a literal sense, all actors can be considered character actors since they all play "characters", but in the usual sense it is an actor who plays a distinctive and important supporting role. A character actor may play characters who are different from the actor's off-screen real-life personality, while in another sense a character actor may be one who specializes in minor roles. In either case, character actor roles are more substantial than non-speaking extras; the term is used to describe television and film actors. An early use of the term was in the 1883 edition of The Stage, which defined a character actor as "one who portrays individualities and eccentricities". Actors with a long career history of playing character roles may be difficult for audiences to recognize as being the same actor.
Unlike leading actors, they are seen as less glamorous. While a leading actor has physical beauty needed to play the love interest, a character actor may be short or tall, heavy or thin, older, or unconventional-looking and distinctive in some physical way. For example, the face of Chicago character actor William Schutz was disfigured in a car accident when he was five years old, but his appearance despite reconstructive surgery helped him to be memorable and distinctive to theater audiences; the names of character actors are not featured prominently in movie and television advertising on the marquee, since a character actor's name is not expected to attract film audiences. The roles that character actors play in film or television are identified by only one name, such as "Officer Fred", while roles of leading actors have a full name, such as "Captain Jack Sparrow"; some character actors have distinctive voices or accents. A character actor with a long career may not have a well-known name, yet may be recognizable.
During the course of an acting career, an actor can sometimes shift between leading roles and secondary roles. Some leading actors, as they get older, find that access to leading roles is limited by their increasing age. In the past, actors of color, who were barred from roles for which they were otherwise suited, found work performing ethnic stereotypes. Sometimes character actors have developed careers based on specific talents needed in genre films, such as dancing, acrobatics, swimming ability, or boxing. Many up-and-coming actors find themselves typecast in character roles due to an early success with a particular part or in a certain genre, such that the actor becomes so identified with a particular type of role that casting directors steer the actor to similar roles; some character actors play the same character over and over, as with Andy Devine's humorous but resourceful sidekick, while other actors, such as Sir Laurence Olivier, have the capacity of submerging themselves in any role they play.
That being said, some character actors can be known as "chameleons", actors who can play roles that vary wildly. One such example of this is Gary Oldman; some character actors develop a cult following with a particular audience, such as with the fans of Star Trek or The Rocky Horror Picture Show. Character actors tend to play the same type of role throughout their careers, including Harvey Keitel as a "tough and determined guy", Dame Maggie Smith as an "upstanding lady matriarch", Christopher Lloyd as an eccentric, Claude Rains as a "sophisticated, sometimes ambiguously moral man", Abe Vigoda as a "leathery, sunken-eyed" and tired hoodlum on the verge of retirement, Christopher Walken as a "speech maker", Vincent Schiavelli as "the confused guy", Fairuza Balk as a "moody goth girl", Steve Buscemi as "a quirky, smart guy with a mind just outside of reality" and Forest Whitaker as a "calm, composed character with an edge and potential to explode". Ed Lauter portrayed a menacing figure because of his "long, angular face", recognized in public, although audiences knew his name.
Character actors can play a variety of types, such as the femme fatale, sidekick, town drunk, whore with a heart of gold, many others. A character actor's roles are perceived as being different from their perceived real-life persona, meaning that they do not portray an extension of themselves, but rather a character different from their off-screen persona. Character actors subsume themselves into the characters they portray, such that their off-screen acting persona is unrecognizable. According to one view, great character actors are out of work, have long careers that span decades, they are often regarded by fellow actors. Commedia dell ` David. Quinlan's Illustrated Directory of Film Character Actors. USA: Batsford Press. ISBN 0713470402. Voisin, Scott. Character Kings: Hollywood's Familiar Faces Discuss the Art & Business of Acting. BearManor Media. ISBN 978-1-59393-342-5
Waiting for Guffman
Waiting for Guffman is a 1996 American mockumentary comedy film written by Christopher Guest and Eugene Levy, directed by Guest. The film's ensemble cast includes Guest, Catherine O'Hara, Fred Willard, Parker Posey; the film's title is a reference to Samuel Beckett's play Waiting for Godot. As in the other mockumentary films created by Guest, the majority of the dialogue is improvised; because the film is about the production of a stage musical, it contains several original musical numbers written by Guest, Michael McKean and Harry Shearer. The film's score was composed by William Ross. In the fictional small town of Blaine, Missouri, a handful of residents prepare to put on a community theater production led by eccentric director Corky St. Clair; the show, a musical chronicling the town's history titled Red and Blaine, is to be performed as part of the town's 150th-anniversary celebration. Cast in the leads are Ron and Sheila Albertson, a pair of married travel agents who are regular amateur performers.
High school teacher Lloyd Miller is the show's frustrated musical director. Corky has used connections from his "Off-Off-Off-Off-Broadway" past to invite Mort Guffman, a Broadway producer, to critique Red and Blaine. Corky leads the cast to believe that a positive review from Guffman could mean their show might go all the way to Broadway; the program itself is designed to musically retell the history of Blaine, whose founding father was a buffoon incapable of distinguishing the geography of middle Missouri from the Pacific coastline. We learn why the town obtusely refers to itself as "the stool capital of the United States." The music is a series of poorly performed songs such as "Nothing Ever Happens on Mars" a reference to the town's supposed visit by a UFO, "Stool Boom". Central to the film are Corky's stereotypically gay mannerisms, he has a wife called Bonnie, whom no one in Blaine has met or seen. He uses her to explain his habit of shopping for women's clothing and shoes; when Johnny is forced by his suspicious father to quit the show, Corky takes over his roles, which were intended for a young, masculine actor, playing a lusty young frontiersman, a heartbroken soldier, a little boy wearing a beanie and shorts.
Corky never sheds his dainty demeanor, bowl haircut, lisp, or earring in spite of his historical roles, his face is pasted with an overkill of stage rouge and eyeliner. Corky is faced with creating his magic on a shoestring budget, at one point quitting the show after storming out of a meeting with the City Council, which turns down his request for $100,000 to finance the production, but the distraught cast and persuasive city fathers convince Corky to return. At the show's performance, Guffman's seat is seen to be empty, much to the dismay of the cast. Corky reassures them that Broadway producers always arrive a bit late for the show, sure enough a man soon takes Guffman's reserved seat; the show is well received by the audience, whereupon Corky invites the assumed Guffman backstage to talk to the actors. The man is Roy Loomis, who has come to Blaine to witness the birth of his niece's baby, but he does enjoy the show. Corky reads a telegram stating that Guffman's plane was grounded by snowstorms in New York City, meaning that, like the "Godot" being spoofed, the real Guffman himself is destined never to arrive.
An epilogue shows the fates of the cast: Libby Mae has returned to Dairy Queen. Alan and the Albertsons have pursued their dreams of being entertainers and Sheila traveling to Los Angeles, California to work as extras, Alan now performing for elderly Jews in Miami, Florida retirement communities. Corky has returned to New York City, where he has opened a Hollywood-themed novelty shop, which includes such items as Brat Pack bobblehead dolls, My Dinner with Andre action figures, The Remains of the Day lunch boxes. Christopher Guest as Corky St. Clair Eugene Levy as Dr. Alan Pearl Fred Willard as Ron Albertson Catherine O'Hara as Sheila Albertson Parker Posey as Libby Mae Brown Lewis Arquette as Clifford Wooley Bob Balaban as Lloyd Miller Matt Keeslar as Johnny Savage David Cross as UFO Expert Linda Kash as Mrs. Pearl Brian Doyle-Murray as Red Savage Paul Benedict as Roy Loomis Paul Dooley as UFO Abductee The film received a 91% approval rating on Rotten Tomatoes based on 54 reviews, with an average rating of 7.8/10.
The site's critical consensus reads, "This riotously deadpan mockumentary about aspiring community theater performers never stoops to ridicule oft-ridiculous characters." The film received a score of 71 out of 100 on Metacritic, based on 19 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews." During opening weekend in 1997, the film made $37,990. With a budget of $4 million, the film earned less than $3 million worldwide. American Film Institute recognition: AFI's 100 Years... 100 Laughs – Nominated Waiting for Guffman on IMDb Waiting for Guffman at AllMovie Waiting for Guffman at Box Office Mojo
A solo performance, sometimes referred to as a one-man show or one-woman show, features a single person telling a story for an audience for the purpose of entertainment. This type of performance comes in many varieties, including autobiographical creations, comedy acts, novel adaptations, poetry and dance. In 1996, Rob Becker’s Defending The Caveman became the longest running solo play in the history of Broadway. Solo performance is used to encompass the broad term of a single person performing for an audience; some key traits of solo performance can include the lack of the fourth wall and audience participation or involvement. Solo performance does not need to be written and produced by a single person-- a solo performance production may utilize directors, writers and composers to bring the piece to life on a stage. An example of this collaboration is Eric Bogosian in the published version of his show Wake Up And Smell the Coffee, by Theatre Communications Group, New York City, it is assumed that individuals have told stories in front of other members of their tribe or society for thousands of years.
They would have orally passed down many of today's legends in this manner. So it is a style of performance, with us for generations developing through theatrical people such as Greek Monologists, the strolling Minstrels of Medieval England and the French Troubadors. Edgar Allan Poe both lectured and recited poetry as a platform performer between 1843 and 1849; the reading tours of Charles Dickens in Britain and America between 1858 and 1870 created a sensation. His American tour of 1867–68 was unparalleled until the arrival of the Beatles in the early 1960s. Solo performance enjoyed an unprecedented artistic and commercial vogue in the United States during the second half of the nineteenth century. Literary historians associate the Victorian period with the highest development of the dramatic monologue as a poetic form. There were several discussions about the importance and distinction between the literary monologue and the performance monologue during the nineteenth century, this discussions confirms a continuous interchange between literature and performance, which may at times appear competitive but is more productive.
By the time the United States entered the 20th century, the number and variety of professional solo performances presented throughout the country had grown large. This renaissance of solo performance created ripples in the larger sense of American theatre. By the 1960s, the term performance art became popular and involved any number of performance acts or happenings, as they were known. Many performers, like Laurie Anderson, developed through these happenings and are still performing today; the backgrounds of solo performers over the decades range from vaudeville, poetry, the visual arts, cabaret and dance. Solo performers include Rob Becker, Lily Tomlin, Andy Kaufman, Rod Maxwell, Lord Buckley, Eric Bogosian, Whoopi Goldberg, Jade Esteban Estrada, Eddie Izzard, John Leguizamo, Marga Gomez, Anna Deavere Smith, Bill Hicks, Brother Blue and Lenny Bruce. Several performers have presented solo shows in tribute to famous personalities; the blueprint for this type of show may have been drafted by Hal Holbrook, who has performed as Mark Twain in his solo show, Mark Twain Tonight, more than 2,000 times since 1954.
Examples since that time include Julie Harris in the Emily Dickinson biography, The Belle of Amherst. A few actors adapted entire novels for the stage including Patrick Stewart who played all 43 parts in his version of A Christmas Carol, which played three times on Broadway and at The Old Vic in London. Solo performance may be autobiographical creations; this ranges from the intensely confessional but comedic work of Spalding Gray, the semi-autobiographical A Bronx Tale by Chaz Palminteri, or Holly Hughes' solo piece World without End, in which she attempts to make sense of her relationship with her mother who had died. Another example of this is In The Body of the World and performed by Eve Ensler in 2018. Still other shows may rally around a central theme, such as pop culture in Pat Hazel's The Wonderbread Years, relationships in Robert Dubac's The Male Intellect, the history of the New York City transit system in Mike Daisey's Invincible Summer, or fighting the system in Patrick Combs' Man 1, Bank 0.
These themes could be centered around a certain topic such as a political or social issue. Tim Miller explores the topic of gay culture and society surrounding the LGBTQ community in his production of My Queer Body. Karen Finley expressed her frustration with the standards women are held to and the issues surrounding them such as rape and abortion in her solo piece titled We Keep Our Victims Ready. Sometimes, solo shows are traditional plays written by playwr