Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, is the county seat of Allegheny County. As of 2018, a population of 308,144 lives within the city limits, making it the 63rd-largest city in the U. S; the metropolitan population of 2,362,453, is the largest in both the Ohio Valley and Appalachia, the second-largest in Pennsylvania, the 26th-largest in the U. S. Pittsburgh is located in the south west of the state, at the confluence of the Allegheny and Ohio rivers. Pittsburgh is known both as "the Steel City" for its more than 300 steel-related businesses and as the "City of Bridges" for its 446 bridges; the city features 30 skyscrapers, two inclined railways, a pre-revolutionary fortification and the Point State Park at the confluence of the rivers. The city developed as a vital link of the Atlantic coast and Midwest, as the mineral-rich Allegheny Mountains made the area coveted by the French and British empires, Whiskey Rebels, Civil War raiders. Aside from steel, Pittsburgh has led in manufacturing of aluminum, shipbuilding, foods, transportation, computing and electronics.
For part of the 20th century, Pittsburgh was behind only New York and Chicago in corporate headquarters employment. S. stockholders per capita. America's 1980s deindustrialization laid off area blue-collar workers and thousands of downtown white-collar workers when the longtime Pittsburgh-based world headquarters moved out; this heritage left the area with renowned museums, medical centers, research centers, a diverse cultural district. Today, Apple Inc. Bosch, Uber, Autodesk, Microsoft and IBM are among 1,600 technology firms generating $20.7 billion in annual Pittsburgh payrolls. The area has served as the long-time federal agency headquarters for cyber defense, software engineering, energy research and the nuclear navy; the area is home to 68 colleges and universities, including research and development leaders Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh. The nation's eighth-largest bank, eight Fortune 500 companies, six of the top 300 U. S. law firms make their global headquarters in the area, while RAND, BNY Mellon, FedEx, Bayer and NIOSH have regional bases that helped Pittsburgh become the sixth-best area for U.
S. job growth. In 2015, Pittsburgh was listed among the "eleven most livable cities in the world"; the region is a hub for Environmental Design and energy extraction. In 2019, Pittsburgh was deemed “Food City of the Year” by the San Francisco-based restaurant and hospitality consulting firm af&co. Many restaurants were mentioned favorable, among them were Superior Motors in Braddock, Driftwood Oven in Lawrenceville, Spork in Bloomfield, Fish nor Fowl in Garfield and Bitter Ends Garden & Luncheonette in Bloomfield. Pittsburgh was named in 1758 by General John Forbes, in honor of British statesman William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham; as Forbes was a Scot, he pronounced the name PITS-bər-ə. Pittsburgh was incorporated as a borough on April 22, 1794, with the following Act: "Be it enacted by the Pennsylvania State Senate and Pennsylvania House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania... by the authority of the same, that the said town of Pittsburgh shall be... erected into a borough, which shall be called the borough of Pittsburgh for ever."
From 1891 to 1911, the city's name was federally recognized as "Pittsburg", though use of the final h was retained during this period by the city government and other local organizations. After a public campaign, the federal decision to drop the h was reversed; the area of the Ohio headwaters was long inhabited by the Shawnee and several other settled groups of Native Americans. The first known European to enter the region was the French explorer/trader Robert de La Salle from Quebec during his 1669 expedition down the Ohio River. European pioneers Dutch, followed in the early 18th century. Michael Bezallion was the first to describe the forks of the Ohio in a 1717 manuscript, that year European fur traders established area posts and settlements. In 1749, French soldiers from Quebec launched an expedition to the forks to unite Canada with French Louisiana via the rivers. During 1753–54, the British hastily built Fort Prince George before a larger French force drove them off; the French built Fort Duquesne based on LaSalle's 1669 claims.
The French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War, began with the future Pittsburgh as its center. British General Edward Braddock was dispatched with Major George Washington as his aide to take Fort Duquesne; the British and colonial force were defeated at Braddock's Field. General John Forbes took the forks in 1758. Forbes began construction on Fort Pitt, named after William Pitt the Elder while the settlement was named "Pittsborough". During Pontiac's Rebellion, native tribes conducted a siege of Fort Pitt for two months until Colonel Henry Bouquet relieved it after the Battle of Bushy Run. Fort Pitt is notable as the site of an early use of smallpox for biological warfare. Lord Jeffery Amherst ordered blankets contaminated from smallpox victims to be distributed in 1763 to the tribes surrounding the fort; the disease spread into other areas, infected other tribes, killed hundreds of thousands. During this period, the powerful nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, based in New York, had maintained control of much of the Ohio Valley as hunting grounds by right of conquest after defeating other tribes.
By the terms of the 1768 Treaty of
George Washington was an American political leader, military general and Founding Father who served as the first president of the United States from 1789 to 1797. He led Patriot forces to victory in the nation's War of Independence, he presided at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 which established the new federal government, he has been called the "Father of His Country" for his manifold leadership in the formative days of the new nation. Washington received his initial military training and command with the Virginia Regiment during the French and Indian War, he was elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses and was named a delegate to the Continental Congress, where he was appointed Commanding General of the nation's Continental Army. Washington allied with France, in the defeat of the British at Yorktown. Once victory for the United States was in hand in 1783, Washington resigned his commission. Washington played a key role in the adoption and ratification of the Constitution and was elected president by the Electoral College in the first two elections.
He implemented a strong, well-financed national government while remaining impartial in a fierce rivalry between cabinet members Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton. During the French Revolution, he proclaimed a policy of neutrality while sanctioning the Jay Treaty, he set enduring precedents for the office of president, including the title "President of the United States", his Farewell Address is regarded as a pre-eminent statement on republicanism. Washington utilized slave labor and trading African American slaves, but he became troubled with the institution of slavery and freed them in his 1799 will, he was a member of the Anglican Church and the Freemasons, he urged tolerance for all religions in his roles as general and president. Upon his death, he was eulogized as "first in war, first in peace, first in the hearts of his countrymen." He has been memorialized by monuments, geographical locations and currency, many scholars and polls rank him among the top American presidents. Washington's great-grandfather John Washington immigrated in 1656 from Sulgrave, England to the British Colony of Virginia where he accumulated 5,000 acres of land, including Little Hunting Creek on the Potomac River.
George Washington was born February 22, 1732 at Popes Creek in Westmoreland County and was the first of six children of Augustine and Mary Ball Washington. His father was a justice of the peace and a prominent public figure who had three additional children from his first marriage to Jane Butler; the family moved to Little Hunting Creek to Ferry Farm near Fredericksburg, Virginia. When Augustine died in 1743, Washington inherited ten slaves. Washington did not have the formal education that his older brothers received at Appleby Grammar School in England, but he did learn mathematics and surveying, he was talented in draftsmanship and map-making. By early adulthood, he was writing with "considerable force" and "precision."Washington visited Mount Vernon and Belvoir, the plantation that belonged to Lawrence's father-in-law William Fairfax, which fueled ambition for the lifestyle of the planter aristocracy. Fairfax became Washington's patron and surrogate father, Washington spent a month in 1748 with a team surveying Fairfax's Shenandoah Valley property.
He received a surveyor's license the following year from the College of Mary. He resigned from the job in 1750 and had bought 1,500 acres in the Valley, he owned 2,315 acres by 1752. In 1751, Washington made his only trip abroad when he accompanied Lawrence to Barbados, hoping that the climate would cure his brother's tuberculosis. Washington contracted smallpox during that trip, which immunized him but left his face scarred. Lawrence died in 1752, Washington leased Mount Vernon from his widow. Lawrence's service as adjutant general of the Virginia militia inspired Washington to seek a commission, Virginia's Lieutenant Governor Robert Dinwiddie appointed him as a major in December 1752 and as commander of one of the four militia districts; the British and French were competing for control of the Ohio Valley at the time, the British building forts along the Ohio River and the French doing between Lake Erie and the Ohio River. In October 1753, Dinwiddie appointed Washington as a special envoy to demand that the French vacate territory which the British had claimed.
Dinwiddie appointed him to make peace with the Iroquois Confederacy and to gather intelligence about the French forces. Washington met with Half-King Tanacharison and other Iroquois chiefs at Logstown to secure their promise of support against the French, his party reached the Ohio River in November, they were intercepted by a French patrol and escorted to Fort Le Boeuf where Washington was received in a friendly manner. He delivered the British demand to vacate to French commander Saint-Pierre, but the French refused to leave. Saint-Pierre gave Washington his official answer in a sealed envelope after a few days' delay, he gave Washington's party food and extra winter clothing for the trip back to Virginia. Washington completed the precarious mission in 77 days in difficult winter conditions and achieved a measure of distinction when his report was published in Virginia and London. In February 1754, Dinwiddie promoted Washington to lieutenant colonel and second-in-command of the 300-strong Virginia R
The Allegheny Front is the major southeast- or east-facing escarpment in the Allegheny Mountains in southern Pennsylvania, western Maryland, eastern West Virginia, USA. The Allegheny Front forms the boundary between the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians to its east and the Appalachian Plateau to its west; the Front is associated with the Appalachian Mountains' Eastern Continental Divide, which in this area divides the waters of the Ohio/Mississippi river system, flowing to the Gulf of Mexico, from rivers flowing into Chesapeake Bay and from there into the Atlantic Ocean. However, the Front and the Divide do not always coincide; the Allegheny Front is one of the windiest spots east of the Mississippi, leading to the recent establishment of wind farming there. The Allegheny Front forms part of the Appalachian Structural Front, separating the Appalachian Plateau from the Appalachians' Ridge and Valley Province; the various other escarpments along this structural feature include the Catskill Escarpment to the northeast and the Cumberland Escarpment to the southwest.
The Allegheny Front itself extends for about 180 miles southwesterly from south-central Pennsylvania through western Maryland divides the eastern panhandle of West Virginia from the rest of that state. The name "Allegheny Front" is applied to the escarpment throughout much of its extent, although it is little used in Maryland; the highest part of the crest of the Allegheny Front is its southernmost high point, Mount Porte Crayon at 4,770 feet, on the Pendleton/Randolph county line in West Virginia. Its lowest point, 790 feet, is along the North Branch of the Potomac River near Keyser, West Virginia. Other high points along the Front include the Dolly Sods area in West Virginia, a broad, rocky plateau at an elevation of about 4,000 feet. Local segments of the Eastern Continental Divide pass within a few miles of the Allegheny Front, in many places coincide with it. A number of eastward-flowing creeks and rivers have their headwaters incised into Allegheny Front, displacing the Divide westward from the Front, including the North Branch of the Potomac River west of Cumberland, which originates well into the Appalachian Plateau at the Fairfax Stone, just south of Maryland's southwestern tip.
No waterway crosses the Front from east to west. The Allegheny Plateau, the Eastern drainage divide, the emphasis the cartographer placed on the Allegheny Front is obvious in this minimalist styled 19th century map. So settled were the lands, the cartographer has traced known trails proven wagon tracks throughout, exposed the unsettled lands and shows their convergence through the few climbable gaps in the Allegheny Front. Note this map is three years after the legislation authorizing the Allegheny Portage Railroad and the Main Line of Public Works and Pennsylvania Canal System that would connect Philadelphia to the Ohio River; the portage railroad ascends the gap due east of the mining town of Ebensburg, PA. The Allegheny Front begins in central Pennsylvania just northwest of the town of Lock Haven and extends southwest paralleling, Bald Eagle Mountain, Brush Mountain to its east; the Front continues to a point a little north of the Pennsylvania/Maryland boundary where it is offset about 10 miles to the east as it changes from the bold escarpment that characterized it west of Altoona to its more gentle rise in Maryland.
Across the Mason–Dixon line in Maryland, the Front becomes Dans Mountain, west of Cumberland, which reaches 2,895 feet in elevation at Dan's Rock. Along Maryland's southern border, the North Branch of the Potomac River cuts down through the Front at 790 feet just west of Keyser, West Virginia. South of the Potomac, in West Virginia, the Front continues through the Mount Storm area passes along the eastern edge of Dolly Sods, a wide plateau of Pottsville conglomerate bedrock at about 4,000 feet elevation. From the Sods, the front continues southward as an steep escarpment west of the North Fork of the South Branch of the Potomac River, with the Roaring Plains continuing the high plateaus of the Dolly Sods area along the escarpment's crest; the Allegheny Front's southern end is Mount Porte Crayon, after which the land drops steeply to Seneca Creek, west of Seneca Rocks. South of Mount Porte Crayon and Seneca Creek, the Appalachian Structural Front is less unified. Pottsville-capped Spruce Mountain and east of Seneca Creek, continues the Allegheny Front's geology southward.
Steep escarpments sharing much of the same geologic structure are present nearby along the eastern slopes of Allegheny Mountain and Back Allegheny Mountain, but these mountains lack the Pottsville caps characteristic of the Allegheny Front. Allegheny Mountain's long, nearly level crest is about 4,000 to 4,200 feet in elevation, with Paddy Knob reach
Indigenous peoples of the Americas
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the Pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture; the impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, city-states, states and empires. Among these are the Aztec and Maya states that until the 16th century were among the most politically and advanced nations in the world, they had a vast knowledge of engineering, mathematics, writing, medicine and irrigation, mining and goldsmithing. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples.
At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but cater to modern needs; some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples. Indigenous peoples of the United States are known as Native Americans or American Indians and Alaska Natives. Application of the term "Indian" originated with Christopher Columbus, who, in his search for India, thought that he had arrived in the East Indies; those islands came to be known as the "West Indies", a name still used. This led to the blanket term "Indies" and "Indians" for the indigenous inhabitants, which implied some kind of racial or cultural unity among the indigenous peoples of the Americas.
This unifying concept, codified in law and politics, was not accepted by the myriad groups of indigenous peoples themselves, but has since been embraced or tolerated, by many over the last two centuries. Though the term "Indian" does not include the culturally and linguistically distinct indigenous peoples of the Arctic regions of the Americas—such as the Aleuts, Inuit or Yupik peoples, who entered the continent as a second more recent wave of migration several thousand years before and have much more recent genetic and cultural commonalities with the aboriginal peoples of the Asiatic Arctic Russian Far East—these groups are nonetheless considered "indigenous peoples of the Americas". Indigenous peoples are known in Canada as Aboriginal peoples, which includes not only First Nations and Arctic Inuit, but the minority population of First Nations-European mixed race Métis people who identify culturally and ethnically with indigenous peoplehood; this is contrasted, for instance, to the American Indian-European mixed race mestizos of Hispanic America who, with their larger population, identify as a new ethnic group distinct from both Europeans and Indigenous Americans, but still considering themselves a subset of the European-derived Hispanic or Brazilian peoplehood in culture and ethnicity.
The term Amerindian and its cognates find preferred use in scientific contexts and in Quebec, the Guianas and the English-speaking Caribbean. Indígenas or pueblos indígenas is a common term in Spanish-speaking countries and pueblos nativos or nativos may be heard, while aborigen is used in Argentina and pueblos originarios is common in Chile. In Brazil, indígenas or povos indígenas are common if formal-sounding designations, while índio is still the more often-heard term and aborígene and nativo being used in Amerindian-specific contexts; the Spanish and Portuguese equivalents to Indian could be used to mean any hunter-gatherer or full-blooded Indigenous person to continents other than Europe or Africa—for example, indios filipinos. The specifics of Paleo-Indian migration to and throughout the Americas, including the exact dates and routes traveled, are the subject of ongoing research and discussion. According to archaeological and genetic evidence and South America were the last continents in the world to gain human habitation.
During the Wisconsin glaciation, 50–17,000 years ago, falling sea levels allowed people to move across the land bridge of Beringia that joined Siberia to northwest North America. Alaska was a glacial refugium; the Laurentide Ice Sheet covered most of North America, blocking nomadic inhabitants and confining them to Alaska for thousands of years. Indigenous genetic studies suggest that the first inhabitants of the Americas share a single ancestral population, one that developed in isolation, conjectured to be Beringia; the isolat
James Grant (British Army officer, born 1720)
James Grant, Laird of Ballindalloch was a British Army officer who served as a major general during the American War of Independence. He served as Governor of East Florida from 1763 to 1771, between 1773 and 1802 he had seats in the House of Commons. Grant was born on the family estate of Ballindalloch in Banffshire in the Northeast of Scotland, he began his military career by purchasing a commission as captain in the Royal Scots on 24 October 1744. The regiment was shipped to the Continent and Grant fought with them in the Battle of Fontenoy. By 1757, Grant was a major of the 77th Regiment of Foot, fighting in the French and Indian War. In 1758, he led part of the regiment in an expedition led by General John Forbes. On this expedition, he became acquainted with others who would play larger parts in the American Revolutionary War: George Washington, Francis Marion, Hugh Mercer, among others, he gained a contempt for the colonial or militia troops that would colour his views. In September, Grant was assigned to lead an advance part of around 800 men to determine the French strength at Fort Duquesne.
The force was made up of militia, but he took along a number of officers from the regulars, since he had little respect for the colonial troops. He decided to split his force hoping to encourage a French attack that he could surprise and overwhelm. Having no wilderness experience, he was ambushed himself by Indians and French on 14 September 1758. At this engagement, the Battle of Fort Duquesne, the British force was repelled with 342 men killed, wounded or captured; the prisoners consisted of 18 of his men. He was paroled soon after, tried to blame his defeat on the failure of the colonial militia to follow orders. In 1761, he commanded an expedition against the Cherokee during the Anglo-Cherokee War. After being stationed at Fort Ticonderoga, his regiment was moved to the Caribbean Theatre of the Seven Years' War, they fought at the Siege of Havana, held by Spanish forces, which ended in the surrender of the city. When the war was over, the regiment was disbanded in America in 1763. With the Treaty of Paris, Britain gained control of Florida from the Spanish.
They divided it into two colonies, James Grant was named governor of East Florida in 1764. He resided in the Governor's House, he ended Indian raids with the Treaty of Fort Picolata in attempts at maintaining peaceful relations between American Indian groups and Florida colonists and to entice future immigrants to his colony. During the Anglo-Cherokee War of 1759-1761, Grant had become familiar with systems of gift exchange and reciprocity used by Southeast Indian groups, which he sought to implement in Florida. Grant established the Florida-Georgia border. Grant's ventures were profitable, but most attempts failed to produce results, he encouraged new agriculture, setting up trade in cotton, indigo and cochineal. He gained and developed several plantations as grants. In 1771, illness forced him to return to England. Patrick Tonyn replaced him as governor. Grant appointed Dr. David Yeats, the Secretary of the Colony, to manage his plantations in his absence. Yeats' letters to Grant concerning the properties have long interested Florida colonial historians.
Back home in Scotland, Grant was elected to Parliament in 1773 as an MP for Tain Burghs. In the period leading up to the American Revolutionary War, he became one of the most outspoken of the anti-American members. In a speech early in 1775, he remarked that the colonists "...could not fight...", declared that he could "go from one end of America to other and geld all the males." By the summer of 1775, he was returned to active service, Colonel Grant was ordered to America. He arrived in Boston on 30 July. In the aftermath of the Battle of Bunker Hill, he urged General Gage to move the troops to New York City, to have room to manoeuvre, his advice was ignored at the time, he remained as a supernumerary until December, when he was made colonel and commander of the 55th Regiment of Foot. He would hold that command until 1791, his prediction that Boston was an untenable position was proved correct the following spring, and, on 17 March 1776, he accompanied the general withdrawal to Halifax, Nova Scotia.
By the summer of 1776, General William Howe had replaced Gage as commander, took Grant's advice about New York. Grant was given the provisional rank of major-general, played several key parts in Howe's movements. For the Americans, Howe refused advice from Grant, who proposed burning Boston, New York, Philadelphia; as the New York Campaign sought to give the British control of New York City, Grant had become Howe's primary planning officer. He developed two plans, each of, designed to both gain control of territory and to deal a serious or fatal blow to the American army; these resulted in the Battle of Brooklyn, Battle of White Plains. Both of these were British victories, as was the overall campaign, but General Washington avoided the death blow each time. In the Battle of Long Island on 26 and 27 August, Major General Grant led the division that landed on the left wing, he was to engage the American right and divert attention from Howe's flanking manoeuvre with the main body. An advance unit of his troops engaged the Americans at the Red Lion Inn, the first engagement of the battle.
Grant completed his mission, defeated the American General William Alexander's division. After the event, Grant was unfairly criticised by some for allowing the escape of most of this force, it is true that he had 7,000 men in ten regiments opposing Alexander's 1,600 Continentals, but there are two factors that miti
Seven Years' War
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763. It involved every European great power of the time and spanned five continents, affecting Europe, the Americas, West Africa and the Philippines; the conflict split Europe into two coalitions, led by the Kingdom of Great Britain on one side and the Kingdom of France, the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Spain, the Swedish Empire on the other. Meanwhile, in India, some regional polities within the fragmented Mughal Empire, with the support of the French, tried to crush a British attempt to conquer Bengal; the war's extent has led some historians to describe it as World War Zero, similar in scale to other world wars. Although Anglo-French skirmishes over their American colonies had begun with what became the French and Indian War in 1754, the large-scale conflict that drew in most of the European powers was centered on Austria's desire to recover Silesia from the Prussians. Seeing the opportunity to curtail Britain's and Prussia's ever-growing might and Austria put aside their ancient rivalry to form a grand coalition of their own, bringing most of the other European powers to their side.
Faced with this sudden turn of events, Britain aligned itself with Prussia, in a series of political manoeuvres known as the Diplomatic Revolution. However, French efforts ended in failure when the Anglo-Prussian coalition prevailed, Britain's rise as among the world's predominant powers destroyed France's supremacy in Europe, thus altering the European balance of power. Conflict between Great Britain and France broke out in 1754–1756 when the British attacked disputed French positions in North America. Hostilities were heightened when a British unit led by a 22 year old Lt. Colonel George Washington ambushed a small French force at the Battle of Jumonville Glen on 28 May 1754; the conflict exploded across the colonial boundaries and extended to the seizure of hundreds of French merchant ships at sea. Meanwhile, rising power Prussia was struggling with Austria for dominance within and outside the Holy Roman Empire in central Europe. In 1756, the major powers "switched partners". Realising that war was imminent, Prussia pre-emptively struck Saxony and overran it.
The result caused uproar across Europe. Because of Austria's alliance with France to recapture Silesia, lost in the War of the Austrian Succession, Prussia formed an alliance with Britain. Reluctantly, by following the imperial diet, which declared war on Prussia on 17 January 1757, most of the states of the empire joined Austria's cause; the Anglo-Prussian alliance was joined by smaller German states. Sweden, seeking to regain Pomerania joined the coalition, seeing its chance when all the major powers of Europe opposed Prussia. Spain, bound by the Pacte de Famille, intervened on behalf of France and together they launched an utterly unsuccessful invasion of Portugal in 1762; the Russian Empire was aligned with Austria, fearing Prussia's ambition on the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, but switched sides upon the succession of Tsar Peter III in 1762. Many middle and small powers in Europe, as in the previous wars, tried to steer clear away from the escalating conflict though they had interests in the conflict or with the belligerents.
Denmark–Norway, for instance, was close to being dragged into the war on France's side when Peter III became Russian emperor and switched sides. The Dutch Republic, a long-time British ally, kept its neutrality intact, fearing the odds against Britain and Prussia fighting the great powers of Europe, tried to prevent Britain's domination in India. Naples-Sicily, Savoy, although sided with the Franco-Spanish alliance, declined to join the coalition under fear of British naval power; the taxation needed for war caused the Russian people considerable hardship, being added to the taxation of salt and alcohol begun by Empress Elizabeth in 1759 to complete her addition to the Winter Palace. Like Sweden, Russia concluded a separate peace with Prussia; the war ended with the Treaty of Paris between France and Great Britain and the Treaty of Hubertusburg between Saxony and Prussia, in 1763. The war was successful for Great Britain, which gained the bulk of New France in North America, Spanish Florida, some individual Caribbean islands in the West Indies, the colony of Senegal on the West African coast, superiority over the French trading outposts on the Indian subcontinent.
The Native American tribes were excluded from the settlement. In Europe, the war began disastrously for Prussia, but with a combination of good luck and successful strategy, King Frederick the Great managed to retrieve the Prussian position and retain the status quo ante bellum. Prussia emerged as a new European great power. Although Austria failed to retrieve the territory of Silesia from Prussia, its military prowess was noted by the other powers; the involvement of Portugal and Sweden did not return them to their former status as great powers. France was deprived of many of it
Gaps of the Allegheny
The gaps of the Allegheny, meaning gaps in the Allegheny Ridge in west-central Pennsylvania, is a series of escarpment eroding water gaps along the saddle between two higher barrier ridge-lines in the eastern face atop the Allegheny Ridge or Allegheny Front escarpment. The front extends south through Western Maryland and forms much of the border between Virginia and West Virginia, in part explaining the difference in cultures between those two post-Civil War states. While not impenetrable to daring and energetic travelers on foot, passing the front outside of the water gaps with sure footed mules was nearly impossible without navigating terrain where climbing was necessary on slopes burros would find difficult; the gaps, formed by small streams, provide several usable incline planes, or ramps, connecting the eastern river valley lowlands to the highlands atop the plateau to the west and north, that would otherwise have been unnavigable by animal powered wagons before the mid-1930s. As the map at right indicates, there were but five ways west from the eastern seaboard to beyond the Appalachians barrier ridges.
The gaps in the Allegheny, all west of present-day Hollidaysburg and Altoona, are by Hurlbert grouped as part of the Kittanning Gorge, with the eponymous name borrowed from the Lenape, but made immigrants forced west of the Mountains into empty lands during the 18th century. The streams cutting those various gaps either let out into the Susquehanna River tributaries, the Juniata River, or the West Branch of the Susquehanna, so gave the rich Pennsylvania Dutch country access to the interior and the ramp-like valleys climbing to the divide, as did the Main Branch of the Susquehanna and its tributaries climbing to the ridges overlooking both the Hudson and the Mohawk Valleys. Hurlbert, in his study The Paths of Inland Commerce, makes a distinction between the gaps leading up from the Susquehanna across the divide from the Allegheny River, those in between the Monongahela and the Allegheny, those reachable across the divide between the Potomac River, the Monongahela and the Cheat Rivers — only grouping the first batch in his usage of gaps of the Allegheny.
Traversing the line of the Alleghenies southward, the eye notes first the break in the wall at the Delaware Water Gap, that long arm of the Susquehanna, the Juniata, reaching out through dark Kittanning Gorge to its silver playmate, the dancing Conemaugh. Here amid its leafy aisles ran the brown and red Kittanning Trail, the main route of the Pennsylvania traders from the rich region of York and Chambersburg. On this general alignment the Broadway Limited flies today toward Chicago. A little to the south another important pathway from the same region led, by way of Carlisle and Ligonier, to the Ohio; the "Highland Trail" the Indian traders called it, for it kept well on the watershed dividing the Allegheny tributaries on the north from those of the Monongahela on the south. Farther to the south the scene shows a change, for the Atlantic plain widens considerably; the Potomac River, the James, the Pedee, the Savannah flow through valleys much longer than those of the northern rivers. Here in the South commerce was carried on by shallop and pinnace.
The trails of the Indian skirted the rivers and offered for trader and explorer passageway to the West to the towns of the Cherokees in the southern Alleghanies or Unakas. Trails from Winchester in Virginia and Frederick in Maryland focused on Cumberland at the head of the Potomac. Beyond, to the west, the fingertips of the Potomac interlocked with the Monongahela and Youghiogheny, through this network of mountain and river valley, by the "Shades of Death" and Great Meadows, coiled Nemacolin's Path to the Ohio. Today this ancient route is in part followed by the Baltimore and Ohio and the Western Maryland Railway; the terms gaps of the Allegheny and the formal geology term, the Allegheny Front, are from two different disciplines. The former is used by historians describing the local measures taken during the French and Indian War and Native American territories before the United States Constitution, or discussing the transport network east to west before the 1930s depression's public works projects drove hundreds of roads into and through the mountains years after wagon road turnpikes established corporate through-ways that went out of business with the rise of railroads.
These low water gaps of the Allegheny are located in an arc in the depression between higher barrier ridge-lines, a family or succession of half-mountain passes letting out in a similar series of water courses, albeit rising more from the west, where the depressed upland was caused by the weight of the immense plateau glacier that flattened the Appalachian Plateau long ago. In the days before academia began traveling to fancy conferences in vacation cities and formed committees to standardize terms, place names were applied locally, copied by the USGS making regional maps, in that era the last escarpment rising to the Allegheny Plateau was known as Allegheny Mountain or the Allegheny Ridgeor just The Allegheny; the modern term of art, the Allegheny Front, was coined by physical geologists and other earth scientists interested in geomorphology reasoning out the processes that make