The Dassault Rafale is a French twin-engine, canard delta wing, multirole fighter aircraft designed and built by Dassault Aviation. Equipped with a wide range of weapons, the Rafale is intended to perform air supremacy, aerial reconnaissance, ground support, in-depth strike, anti-ship strike and nuclear deterrence missions; the Rafale is referred to as an "omnirole" aircraft by Dassault. In the late 1970s, the French Air Force and Navy were seeking to replace and consolidate their current fleets of aircraft. In order to reduce development costs and boost prospective sales, France entered into an arrangement with UK, Germany and Spain to produce an agile multi-purpose fighter, the Eurofighter Typhoon. Subsequent disagreements over workshare and differing requirements led to France's pursuit of its own development programme. Dassault built a technology demonstrator which first flew in July 1986 as part of an eight-year flight-test programme, paving the way for the go-ahead of the project; the Rafale is distinct from other European fighters of its era in that it is entirely built by one country, involving most of France's major defence contractors, such as Dassault and Safran.
Many of the aircraft's avionics and features, such as direct voice input, the RBE2 AA active electronically scanned array radar and the optronique secteur frontal infra-red search and track sensor, were domestically developed and produced for the Rafale programme. Scheduled to enter service in 1996, the Rafale suffered significant delays due to post-Cold War budget cuts and changes in priorities; the aircraft is available in three main variants: Rafale C single-seat land-based version, Rafale B twin-seat land-based version, Rafale M single-seat carrier-based version. Introduced in 2001, the Rafale is being produced for both the French Air Force and for carrier-based operations in the French Navy; the Rafale has been marketed for export to several countries, was selected for purchase by the Indian Air Force, the Egyptian Air Force, the Qatar Air Force. The Rafale has been used in combat over Afghanistan, Mali and Syria. Several upgrades to the weapons and avionics of the Rafale are planned to be introduced by 2018.
In the mid-1970s, both the French Air Force and Navy had requirements for a new generation of fighters to replace those in or about to enter service. Because their requirements were similar, to reduce cost, both departments issued a common request for proposal. In 1975, the French Ministry of Aviation initiated studies for a new aircraft to complement the upcoming and smaller Dassault Mirage 2000, with each aircraft optimised for differing roles. In 1979, the French company Dassault joined the MBB/BAe "European Collaborative Fighter" project, renamed the "European Combat Aircraft"; the French company contributed the aerodynamic layout of a prospective twin-engine, single-seat fighter. In 1983, the "Future European Fighter Aircraft" programme was initiated, bringing together Italy, West Germany and the United Kingdom to jointly develop a new fighter, although the latter three had their own aircraft developments. A number of factors led to the eventual split between the other four countries. Around 1984 France reiterated its requirement for a carrier-capable version and demanded a leading role.
It insisted on a swing-role fighter, lighter than the design favoured by the other four nations. West Germany, the UK and Italy established a new EFA programme. In Turin on 2 August 1985, West Germany, the UK and Italy agreed to go ahead with the Eurofighter, confirmed that France, along with Spain, had chosen not to proceed as a member of the project. Despite pressure from France, Spain rejoined the Eurofighter project in early September 1985; the four-nation project resulted in the development of the Eurofighter Typhoon. In France, the government proceeded with its own programme; the French Ministry of Defence required an aircraft capable of air-to-air and air-to-ground, all-day and adverse weather operations. Unlike other contemporary European fighter projects that required some level of international collaboration and cost-sharing, France was the sole developer of the Rafale's airframe, propulsion system and armament, as such the aircraft was to replace a multitude of aircraft in the French Armed Forces.
The Rafale would perform roles filled by an assortment of specialised platforms, including the Jaguar, Mirage F1C/CR/CT, Mirage 2000C/-5/N in the Armée de l'air, the F-8P Crusader, Étendard IVP/M and Super Étendard in the Aéronavale. During October–December 1978, prior to France's joining of the ECA, Dassault received contracts for the development of project ACT 92; the following year, the National Office for Aviation Studies and Research began studying the possible configurations of the new fighter under the codename Rapace. By March 1980, the number of configurations had been narrowed down to four, two of which had a combination of canards, delta wings and a single vertical tail-fin. In October 1982, the French Ministry of Defence announced that Dassault would build a technology demonstrator named Avion de Combat expérimental, in short ACX. France wanted to collaborate with West Germany and the UK on the project, but was prepared to build the ACX by itself. In 1984, the government decided to proceed with a combat variant of the ACX due to the co
President of the French Republic
The President of the French Republic is the executive head of state of France in the French Fifth Republic. In French terms, the presidency is the supreme magistracy of the country; the powers and duties of prior presidential offices, as well as their relation with the Prime Minister and Government of France, have over time differed with the various constitutional documents since 1848. The President of the French Republic is the ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra, Grand Master of the Legion of Honour and the National Order of Merit; the officeholder is honorary proto-canon of the Basilica of St. John Lateran in Rome, although some have rejected the title in the past; the current President of the French Republic is Emmanuel Macron, who succeeded François Hollande on 14 May 2017. The presidency of France was first publicly proposed during the July Revolution of 1830, when it was offered to the Marquis de Lafayette, he demurred in favor of Prince Louis Phillipe. Eighteen years during the opening phases of the Second Republic, the title was created for a popularly elected head of state, the first of whom was Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, nephew of Emperor Napoleon.
Bonaparte served in that role until he staged an auto coup against the republic, proclaiming himself Napoleon III, Emperor of the French. Under the Third Republic and Fourth Republic, which were parliamentary systems, the office of President of the Republic was a ceremonial and powerless one; the Constitution of the Fifth Republic increased the President's powers. A 1962 referendum changed the constitution, so that the President would be directly elected by universal suffrage and not by the Parliament. In 2000, a referendum shortened the presidential term from seven years to five years. A maximum of two consecutive terms was imposed after the 2008 constitutional reform. Since the referendum on the direct election of the President of the French Republic in 1962, the officeholder has been directly elected by universal suffrage. After the referendum on the reduction of the mandate of the President of the French Republic, 2000, the length of the term was reduced to five years from the previous seven.
President Jacques Chirac was first elected in 1995 and again in 2002. At that time, there was no limit on the number of terms, so Chirac could have run again, but chose not to, he was succeeded by Nicolas Sarkozy on 16 May 2007. Following a further change, the constitutional law on the modernisation of the institutions of the Fifth Republic, 2008, a President cannot serve more than two consecutive terms. François Mitterrand and Jacques Chirac are the only Presidents to date who have served a full two terms. In order to be admitted as an official candidate, potential candidates must receive signed nominations from more than 500 elected officials mayors; these officials must be from at least 30 départements or overseas collectivities, no more than 10% of them should be from the same département or collectivity. Furthermore, each official may nominate only one candidate. There are 45,543 elected officials, including 33,872 mayors. Spending and financing of campaigns and political parties are regulated.
There is a cap on spending, at 20 million euros, government public financing of 50% of spending if the candidate scores more than 5%. If the candidate receives less than 5% of the vote, the government funds €8,000,000 to the party. Advertising on TV is forbidden, but official time is given to candidates on public TV. An independent agency regulates party financing. French presidential elections are conducted via run-off voting, which ensures that the elected president always obtains a majority: if no candidate receives a majority of votes in the first round of voting, the two highest-scoring candidates arrive at a run-off. After the president is elected, he or she goes through a solemn investiture ceremony called a "passation des pouvoirs"; the French Fifth Republic is a semi-presidential system. Unlike many other European presidents, the French President is quite powerful. Although it is the Prime Minister of France, the Government as well as the Parliament that oversee much of the nation's actual day-to-day affairs in domestic issues, the French President wields significant influence and authority in the fields of national security and foreign policy.
The President's greatest power is his/her ability to choose the Prime Minister. However, since the French National Assembly has the sole power to dismiss the Prime Minister's government, the President is forced to name a Prime Minister who can command the support of a majority in the assembly, he or she has the duty of abritrating the well-functioning of governmental authorities for efficient service, as the Head of State of France. When the majority of the Assembly has opposite political views to that of the President, this leads to political cohabitation. In that case, the President's power is diminished, since much of the de facto power relies on a supportive Prime Minister and National Assembly, is not directly attributed to the post of President; when the majority of the Assembly sides with them, the President can take a more active role and may, in effect, direct government policy. The Prime Minister is the personal choice of the President, can be replaced if the administration becomes unpopular.
This device has bee
Nicolas Paul Stéphane Sarközy de Nagy-Bocsa KOGF, GCB is a retired French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 16 May 2007 until 15 May 2012. Born in Paris, he is of 1/4 Greek Jewish and 1/4 French Catholic origin. Mayor of Neuilly-sur-Seine from 1983 to 2002, he was Minister of the Budget under Prime Minister Édouard Balladur during François Mitterrand's second term. During Jacques Chirac's second presidential term he served as Minister of the Interior and as Minister of Finances, he was the leader of the Union for a Popular Movement party from 2004 to 2007. He won the French presidential election, 2007 by a 53.1% to 46.9% margin to Socialist Ségolène Royal. During his term, he faced the Arab Spring, he initiated the reform of the pension reform. He married Italian-French singer-songwriter Carla Bruni in 2008 at the Élysée Palace in Paris. In the 2012 election, François Hollande, candidate of the Socialist Party, defeated Sarkozy by a 3.2% margin.
After leaving the presidential office, Sarkozy vowed to retire from public life before coming back in 2014, being subsequently reelected as UMP leader. Being defeated at the Republican presidential primary in 2016, he retired from public life, he is charged with corruption by French prosecutors in two cases, notably concerning the alleged Libyan interference in the 2007 French elections. Sarkozy was born in Paris, is the son of Pál István Ernő Sárközy de Nagy-Bócsa, a Protestant Hungarian aristocrat, Andrée Jeanne "Dadu" Mallah, whose Greek Jewish father converted to Catholicism to marry Sarkozy's French Catholic maternal grandmother, they were married in the Saint-François-de-Sales church, 17th arrondissement of Paris, on 8 February 1950, divorced in 1959. During Sarkozy's childhood, his father became wealthy; the family lived in a mansion owned by Sarkozy's maternal grandfather, Benedict Mallah, in the 17th Arrondissement of Paris. The family moved to Neuilly-sur-Seine, one of the wealthiest communes of the Île-de-France région west of Paris.
According to Sarkozy, his staunchly Gaullist grandfather was more of an influence on him than his father, whom he saw. Sarkozy was raised Catholic. Sarkozy said that being abandoned by his father shaped much of who he is today, he has said that, in his early years, he felt inferior in relation to his wealthier and taller classmates. "What made me who I am now is the sum of all the humiliations suffered during childhood", he said later. Sarkozy was enrolled in the Lycée Chaptal, a well regarded public middle and high school in Paris' 8th arrondissement, where he failed his sixième, his family sent him to the Cours Saint-Louis de Monceau, a private Catholic school in the 17th arrondissement, where he was a mediocre student, but where he nonetheless obtained his baccalauréat in 1973. Sarkozy enrolled at the Université Paris X Nanterre, where he graduated with an M. A. in private law and with a D. E. A. degree in business law. Paris X Nanterre had been the starting place for the May'68 student movement and was still a stronghold of leftist students.
Described as a quiet student, Sarkozy soon joined the right-wing student organization, in which he was active. He completed his military service as a part-time Air Force cleaner. After graduating from university, Sarkozy entered Sciences Po, where he studied between 1979 and 1981, but failed to graduate due to an insufficient command of the English language. After passing the bar, Sarkozy became a lawyer specializing in business and family law and was one of Silvio Berlusconi's French lawyers. Sarkozy married his first wife, Marie-Dominique Culioli, on 23 September 1982, they had two sons, now a hip-hop producer, Jean now a local politician in the city of Neuilly-sur-Seine where Sarkozy started his own political career. Sarkozy's best man was the prominent right-wing politician Charles Pasqua to become a political opponent. Sarkozy divorced Culioli in 1996; as mayor of Neuilly-sur-Seine, Sarkozy met former fashion model and public relations executive Cécilia Ciganer-Albéniz, when he officiated at her wedding to television host Jacques Martin.
In 1988, she left her husband for Sarkozy, divorced one year later. She and Sarkozy married with witnesses Martin Bouygues and Bernard Arnault, they have one son, born 23 April 1997. Between 2002 and 2005, the couple appeared together on public occasions, with Cécilia Sarkozy acting as the chief aide for her husband. On 25 May 2005, the Swiss newspaper Le Matin revealed that she had left Sarkozy for French-Moroccan national Richard Attias, head of Publicis in New York. There were other accusations of a private nature in Le Matin. In the meantime, he was said to have had an affair with a journalist of Anne Fulda. Sarkozy and Cécilia divorced on 15 October 2007, soon after his election as president. Less than a mont
France and weapons of mass destruction
France is one of the five "Nuclear Weapons States" under the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, but is not known to possess or develop any chemical or biological weapons. France was the fourth country to test an independently developed nuclear weapon in 1960, under the government of Charles de Gaulle; the French military is thought to retain a weapons stockpile of around 300 operational nuclear warheads, making it the third-largest in the world, speaking in terms of warheads, not megatons. The weapons are part of the national Force de frappe, developed in the late 1950s and 1960s to give France the ability to distance itself from NATO while having a means of nuclear deterrence under sovereign control. France did not sign the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, which gave it the option to conduct further nuclear tests until it signed and ratified the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty in 1996 and 1998 respectively. France denies having chemical weapons, ratified the Chemical Weapons Convention in 1995, acceded to the Biological Weapons Convention in 1984.
France had ratified the Geneva Protocol in 1926. France was one of the nuclear pioneers, going back to the work of Marie Skłodowska Curie. Curie's last assistant Bertrand Goldschmidt became the father of the French nuclear weapons program. French Professor Frédéric Joliot-Curie, High Commissioner for Atomic Energy, told the New York Herald Tribune that the 1945 "Report on atomic Energy for Military Purposes" wrongfully omitted the contributions of French scientists. After World War II France's former position of leadership suffered because of the instability of the Fourth Republic, the lack of finance available. During the Second World War Goldschmidt invented the now-standard method for extracting plutonium while working as part of the British/Canadian team participating in the Manhattan Project, but after the Liberation in 1945, France had to start its own program from scratch. The first French reactor went critical in 1948 and small amounts of plutonium were extracted in 1949. There was no formal commitment to a nuclear weapons program at that time, although plans were made to build reactors for the large scale production of plutonium.
Francis Perrin, French High-Commissioner for Atomic Energy from 1951 to 1970, stated that from 1949 Israeli scientists were invited to the Saclay Nuclear Research Centre, this cooperation leading to a joint effort including sharing of knowledge between French and Israeli scientists those with knowledge from the Manhattan Project, the French believed that cooperation with Israel could give them access to international Jewish nuclear scientists. According to Lieutenant Colonel Warner D. Farr in a report to the USAF Counterproliferation Center while France was a leader in nuclear research "Israel and France were at a similar level of expertise after the war, Israeli scientists could make significant contributions to the French effort. Progress in nuclear science and technology in France and Israel remained linked throughout the early fifties. Farr reported that Israeli scientists helped construct the G-1 plutonium production reactor and UP-1 reprocessing plant at Marcoule."However, in the 1950s a civilian nuclear research program was started, a byproduct of which would be plutonium.
In 1956 a secret Committee for the Military Applications of Atomic Energy was formed and a development program for delivery vehicles was started. The intervention of the United States in the Suez Crisis that year is credited with convincing France that it needed to accelerate its own nuclear weapons program to remain a global power; as part their military alliance during the Suez Crisis in 1956 the French agreed to secretly build the Dimona nuclear reactor in Israel and soon after agreed to construct a reprocessing plant for the extraction of plutonium at the site. In 1957, soon after Suez and the resulting diplomatic tension with both the Soviet Union and the United States, French president René Coty decided on the creation of the C. S. E. M. in the French Sahara, a new nuclear testing facility replacing the CIEES. In 1957 Euratom was created, under cover of the peaceful use of nuclear power the French signed deals with Germany and Italy to work together on nuclear weapons development; the West German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer told his cabinet that he "wanted to achieve, through EURATOM, as as possible, the chance of producing our own nuclear weapons".
The idea was short-lived. In 1958 de Gaulle became Germany and Italy were excluded. With the return of Charles de Gaulle to the presidency of France in the midst of the May 1958 crisis, the final decisions to build an atomic bomb were taken, a successful test took place in 1960 with Israeli scientists as observers at the tests and unlimited access to the scientific data. Following tests de Gaulle moved to distance the French program from involvement with that of Israel. Since France has developed and maintained its own nuclear deterrent, one intended to defend France if the United States refused to risk its own cities by assisting Western Europe in a nuclear war; the United States began providing technical assistance to the French program in the early 1970s through the 1980s. The aid was secret, unlike the relationship with the British nuclear program; the Nixon administration, unlike previous presidencies, did not oppose its allies' possession of atomic weapons and believed that the Soviets would find having multiple nuclear-armed Western opponents more difficult.
Because the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 prohibited sharing information on nuclear weapon design, a method known as "negative guidance" or "Twenty Questions" was used. S. counterparts their re
Strategic Air Forces Command
The Strategic Air Forces is a command of the French Air Force. It was created on January 14, 1964, directs France's nuclear bombardment force; the first alert conducted by a bombardier Mirage IV armed with AN-11 and a KC-135 was executed on October 8, 1964: that date marked the beginning of operational permanence of French nuclear deterrence. Accordingly, the French aircraft carrier Verdun was envisaged to have deployed bomber aircraft at sea. In April 1965, the initiative and confirmed will to establish a launch missile base « ground-to-ground strategic ballistics » under the Command of the Strategic Air Forces was executed; the latter was established on plateau Albion of Aerial Base 200 Apt-Saint-Christol and equipped with underground launch missile silos. The latter was an operational base from August 2, 1971, until dismantling on September 16, 1996. In the spring of 1966, with 9 Escadrons/Squadrons of Mirage IV, the ensemble of the first composite of the deterrence force was realized. In 1973, this deterrence force comprised 60 Mirage IV spread on nine bases of the French metropolitan territory.
Since the 1990s, aircraft of the Strategic Air Forces intervene in foreign exterior operations in conventional combat missions as well. As of 1963 and until 2007, the Strategic Air Forces Command was headquartered at an underground command centre, which welcomed the same year the Operations Center of the Strategic Air Forces; the command post was accordingly built 50 meters under the ground, with a fallout shelter destined for the executive power in case of Nuclear war. The general headquarter staff as of September 26, 2007 is situated on another Aerial Base, at origin, a secondary operations center. Since Aerial Bases change and relocate continuously while the concerned Air Fleet accordingly gets relocated on permanent or temporary basis. In 1968, at the peak of the highest alert phases, 62 Mirage IV formed the nucleus of the 3 Escadres Bombardment representing several bombardments units out of which 1 training center: EB 1/91 « Gascogne » formed 1 October 1964 at Air Base 118 Mont-de-Marsan at Mont-de-Marsan EB 2/94 « Marne » formed 24 February 1965 at Saint-Dizier Air Base EB 2/91 « Bretagne » formed 1 April 1965, at Cazaux Air Base at Cazaux.
EB 3/91 « Beauvaisis » formed 1 June 1965 at Creil Air Base. Dissolved 30 June 1976. EB 3/93 « Sambre » le 6 July 1965 at Cambrai Air Base at Cambrai. Dissolved 30 June 1976. EB 2/93 « Cevennes » formed 31 July 1965 at BA 115 at Orange. Redesignated « EB 3/91 Cévennes », the Escadron/Squadron was dissolved in 1983. EB 1/93 « Guyenne » le 15 October 1965 at Istres-Le Tube Air Base at Istres. Redesignated EB 1/94 on 30 June 1976 and transferred to Avord Air Base. EB 1/94 « Bourbonnais » on 1 March 1966 at Avord Air Base at Avord. Dissolved on 30 June 1976 EB 3/94 « Arbois » on 1 June 1966 at Aerial Base 116 Luxeuil-Saint Sauveur at Luxeuil Instruction Center of Strategic Air Forces 328 created on 25 at Bordeaux-Mérignac Air BaseJointly, can be added 12 Boeing C-135F aerial refuelling aircraft, dispersed into 3 Escadrons: ERV 4/91 « Landes » created on 1 January 1964 at Mont-de-Marsan Air Base at Mont-de-Marsan ERV 4/93 « Aunis » created on 13 July 1965 on Aerial Base 125 Istres-Le Tubé at Istres.
Became ERV 4/94 « Bretagne » ERV 4/94 « Sologne » created on 15 April 1966 at Avord Air Base at Avord. In addition to the command, can be added Aerial Base Apt-Saint-Christol, created in April 1967 under the Plateau d'Albion and transformed to a newly designated garrison as of June 16, 1999. Independent from the Strategic Air Forces, several installations were utilized by the latter: The center of experimentation of the Pacific in French Polynesia, created on July 1, 1963, composed of: one headquarter staff Papeete, advanced Aerial Base 185 Hao at Hao created on July 1, 1966 and dissolved in 2000, one testing surface area at Moruroa one testing surface area at FangataufaIn 2008, 60 Mirage 2000N of the Strategic Air Forces are stationed at two Aerial Bases. In 2014, two nuclear squadrons equipped with more than 43 aircraft compose the Strategic Air Forces and number around 1400 personnel: Escadron de Chasse 1/4 Gascogne at Saint-Dizier – Robinson Air Base, armed with more than 20 Rafale B aircraft.
Escadron de Chasse 2/4 La Fayette at Istres-Le Tubé Air Base, armed with more than 20 Mirage 2000N aircraft. In September 2018, the Mirage 2000N will be retired from service with the La Fayette Squadron converting to Rafale B. Both fighter squadrons will consolidate at the Saint-Dizier
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti