Forceps are a handheld, hinged instrument used for grasping and holding objects. Forceps are used when fingers are too large to grasp small objects or when many objects need to be held at one time while the hands are used to perform a task; the term "forceps" is used exclusively within the medical field. Outside medicine, people refer to forceps as tweezers, pliers, clips or clamps. Mechanically, forceps employ the principle of the lever to apply pressure. Depending on their function, basic surgical forceps can be categorized into the following groups: Non-disposable forceps, they should withstand various kinds of physical and chemical effects of body fluids, cleaning agents, sterilization methods. Disposable forceps, they are made of lower-quality materials or plastics which are disposed after use. Surgical forceps are made of high-grade carbon steel, which ensures they can withstand repeated sterilization in high-temperature autoclaves; some are made of other high-quality stainless steel and vanadium alloys to ensure durability of edges and freedom from rust.
Lower-quality steel is used in forceps made for other uses. Some disposable forceps are made of plastic; the invention of surgical forceps is attributed to Stephen Hales. There are two basic types of forceps: non-locking and locking, though these two types come in dozens of specialized forms for various uses. Non-locking forceps come in two basic forms: hinged at one end, away from the grasping end and hinged in the middle, rather like scissors. Locking forceps are always hinged in the middle, though some forms place the hinge close to the grasping end. Locking forceps use various means to lock the grasping surfaces in a closed position to facilitate manipulation or to independently clamp, grasp or hold an object. Thumb forceps are held between the thumb and two or three fingers of one hand, with the top end resting on the first dorsal interosseous muscle at the base of the thumb and index finger. Spring tension at one end holds; this allows one to and grasp small objects or tissue to move and release it or to grasp and hold tissue with variable pressure.
Thumb forceps are used to hold tissue in place when applying sutures, to move tissues out of the way during exploratory surgery and to move dressings or draping without using the hands or fingers. Thumb forceps can have cross-hatched tips or serrated tips. Common arrangements of teeth are 1×2, 7×7 and 9×9. Serrated forceps are used on tissue. Smooth or cross-hatched forceps are used to move remove sutures and similar tasks. Locking forceps, sometimes called clamps, are used to hold objects or tissue; when they are used to compress an artery to forestall bleeding, they are called hemostats. Another form of locking forceps is the needle holder, used to guide a suturing needle through tissue. Many locking forceps use finger loops to facilitate handling; the finger loops are grasped by the thumb and middle or ring fingers, while the index finger helps guide the instrument. The most common locking mechanism is a series of interlocking teeth located near the finger loops; as the forceps are closed, the teeth engage and keep the instrument's grasping surfaces from separating.
A simple shift of the fingers is all, needed to disengage the teeth and allow the grasping ends to move apart. Forceps are used for surgery. Kelly forceps are a type of hemostat made of stainless steel, they resemble a pair of scissors with the blade replaced by a blunted grip. They feature a locking mechanism to allow them to act as clamps. Kelly forceps may be as such not used for surgery, they may be sterilized and used in operations, in both human and veterinary medicine. They may be either straight. In surgery, they may be used for occluding blood vessels, manipulating tissues, or for assorted other purposes, they are named for Howard Atwood Kelly, M. D. first professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. The "mosquito" variant of the tool has smaller, finer tips. Other varieties with similar, if more specialized, uses are Allis clamps, Kochers and tonsils. Other types of forceps include: Magill forceps, which are angled forceps used to guide a tracheal tube into the larynx or a nasogastric tube into the esophagus under direct vision.
They are used to remove foreign bodies. Alligator forceps Anesthesia forceps Artery forceps Atraumatic forceps Biopsy forceps Bone-cutting forceps Bone-reduction forceps Bone-holding forceps Bulldogs forceps Catheter forceps Cilia forceps Curettes forceps Cushing forceps Debakey forceps Dermal forceps & nippers Dressing forceps Ear forceps Eye forceps Gallbladder forceps Gerald forceps Hemostatic forceps Hysterectomy forceps Intestinal forceps Microsurgery forceps Nasal forceps Obstetrical forceps Postmortem forceps Splinter forceps Sponge forceps Spreading forceps Sterilizer forceps Suture sundries forceps Tenaculum forceps Thoracic forceps Thoracic surgical forceps Thumb forceps Tissue forceps Tongue forceps Tooth extracting forceps Tubing for
Veterinary medicine is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention and treatment of disease and injury in non-human animals. The scope of veterinary medicine is wide, covering all animal species, both domesticated and wild, with a wide range of conditions which can affect different species. Veterinary medicine is practiced, both with and without professional supervision. Professional care is most led by a veterinary physician, but by paraveterinary workers such as veterinary nurses or technicians; this can be augmented by other paraprofessionals with specific specialisms such as animal physiotherapy or dentistry, species relevant roles such as farriers. Veterinary science helps human health through the monitoring and control of zoonotic disease, food safety, indirectly through human applications from basic medical research, they help to maintain food supply through livestock health monitoring and treatment, mental health by keeping pets healthy and long living. Veterinary scientists collaborate with epidemiologists, other health or natural scientists depending on type of work.
Ethically, veterinarians are obliged to look after animal welfare. Archeological evidence, in the form of a cow skull upon which trepanation had been performed, shows that people were performing veterinary procedures in the Neolithic; the Egyptian Papyrus of Kahun is the first extant record of veterinary medicine. The Shalihotra Samhita, dating from the time of Ashoka, is an early Indian veterinary treatise; the edicts of Asoka read: "Everywhere King Piyadasi made two kinds of medicine available, medicine for people and medicine for animals. Where there were no healing herbs for people and animals, he ordered that they be bought and planted."Hippiatrica is a Byzantine compilation of hippiatrics, dated to the 5th or 6th century. The first attempts to organize and regulate the practice of treating animals tended to focus on horses because of their economic significance. In the Middle Ages, farriers combined their work in horseshoeing with the more general task of "horse doctoring"; the Arabic tradition of Bayṭara, or Shiyāt al-Khayl, originates with the treatise of Ibn Akhī Hizām.
In 1356, the Lord Mayor of London, concerned at the poor standard of care given to horses in the city, requested that all farriers operating within a seven-mile radius of the City of London form a "fellowship" to regulate and improve their practices. This led to the establishment of the Worshipful Company of Farriers in 1674. Meanwhile, Carlo Ruini's book Anatomia del Cavallo, was published in 1598, it was the first comprehensive treatise on the anatomy of a non-human species. The first veterinary school was founded in France in 1762 by Claude Bourgelat. According to Lupton, after observing the devastation being caused by cattle plague to the French herds, Bourgelat devoted his time to seeking out a remedy; this resulted in his founding a veterinary school in Lyon in 1761, from which establishment he dispatched students to combat the disease. The school received immediate international recognition in the eighteenth century and its pedagogical model drew on the existing fields of human medicine, natural history, comparative anatomy.
The Odiham Agricultural Society was founded in 1783 in England to promote agriculture and industry, played an important role in the foundation of the veterinary profession in Britain. A founding member, Thomas Burgess, began to take up the cause of animal welfare and campaign for the more humane treatment of sick animals. A 1785 Society meeting resolved to "promote the study of Farriery upon rational scientific principles." The physician James Clark wrote a treatise entitled Prevention of Disease in which he argued for the professionalization of the veterinary trade, the establishment of veterinary colleges. This was achieved in 1790, through the campaigning of Granville Penn, who persuaded the Frenchman, Benoit Vial de St. Bel to accept the professorship of the newly established Veterinary College in London; the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons was established by royal charter in 1844. Veterinary science came of age in the late 19th century, with notable contributions from Sir John McFadyean, credited by many as having been the founder of modern Veterinary research.
In the United States, the first schools were established in the early 19th century in Boston, New York and Philadelphia. In 1879, Iowa Agricultural College became the first land grant college to establish a school of veterinary medicine. Veterinary care and management is led by a veterinary physician; this role is the equivalent of a doctor in human medicine, involves post-graduate study and qualification. In many countries, the local nomenclature for a vet is a protected term, meaning that people without the prerequisite qualifications and/or registration are not able to use the title, in many cases, the activities that may be undertaken by a vet are restricted only to those people who are registered as vet. For instance, in the United Kingdom, as in other jurisdictions, animal treatment may only be performed by registered vets, it is illegal for any person, not registered to call themselves a vet or perform any treatment. Most vets work in clinical s
Nasogastric intubation is a medical process involving the insertion of a plastic tube through the nose, past the throat, down into the stomach. Orogastric intubation is a similar process involving the insertion of a plastic tube through the mouth. A nasogastric tube is used for feeding and administering drugs and other oral agents such as activated charcoal. For drugs and for minimal quantities of liquid, a syringe is used for injection into the tube. For continuous feeding, a gravity based system is employed, with the solution placed higher than the patient's stomach. If accrued supervision is required for the feeding, the tube is connected to an electronic pump which can control and measure the patient's intake and signal any interruption in the feeding. Nasogastric tubes may be used as an aid in the treatment of life threatening eating disorders if the patient is not compliant with eating. Nasogastric aspiration is the process of draining the stomach's contents via the tube. Nasogastric aspiration is used to remove gastrointestinal secretions and swallowed air in patients with gastrointestinal obstructions.
Nasogastric aspiration can be used in poisoning situations when a toxic liquid has been ingested, for preparation before surgery under anaesthesia, to extract samples of gastric liquid for analysis. If the tube is to be used for continuous drainage, it is appended to a collector bag placed below the level of the patient's stomach, it can be appended to a suction system, however this method is restricted to emergency situations, as the constant suction can damage the stomach's lining. In non-emergency situations, intermittent suction is applied giving the benefits of suction without the untoward effects of damage to the stomach lining. Suction drainage is used for patients who have undergone a pneumonectomy in order to prevent anesthesia-related vomiting and possible aspiration of any stomach contents; such aspiration would represent a serious risk of complications to patients recovering from this surgery. Types of nasogastric tubes include: Levin catheter, a single lumen, small bore NG tube.
It is more appropriate for administration of nutrition. Salem Sump catheter, a large bore NG tube with double lumen; this avails for aspiration in one lumen, venting in the other to reduce negative pressure and prevent gastric mucosa from being drawn into the catheter. Dobhoff tube, a small bore NG tube with a weight at the end intended to pull it by gravity during insertion. Before an NG tube is inserted, it must be measured from the tip of the patient's nose, loop around their ear and down to 5 cm below the xiphoid process; the tube is marked at this level to ensure that the tube has been inserted far enough into the patient's stomach. Many commercially available stomach and duodenal tubes have several standard depth markings, for example 18", 22", 26" and 30" from distal end; the end of a plastic tube is inserted into one of the patient's anterior nares. Treatment with 2.0 mg of IV midazolam reduces patient stress. The tube should be directed straight towards the back of the patient as it moves through the nasal cavity and down into the throat.
When the tube enters the oropharynx and glides down the posterior pharyngeal wall, the patient may gag. Once the tube is past the pharynx and enters the esophagus, it is inserted down into the stomach; the tube must be secured in place to prevent it from moving. Great care must be taken to ensure that the tube has not passed through the larynx into the trachea and down into the bronchi; the reliable method is to aspirate some fluid from the tube with a syringe. This fluid is tested with pH paper to determine the acidity of the fluid. If the pH is 4 or below the tube is in the correct position. If this is not possible correct verification of tube position is obtained with an X-ray of the chest/abdomen; this is the most reliable means of ensuring proper placement of an NG tube. The use of a chest x-ray to confirm position is the expected standard in the UK, with Dr/ physician review and confirmation. Future techniques may include measuring the concentration of enzymes such as trypsin and bilirubin to confirm the correct placement of the NG tube.
As enzyme testing becomes more practical, allowing measurements to be taken and cheaply at the bedside, this technique may be used in combination with pH testing as an effective, less harmful replacement of X-ray confirmation. If the tube is to remain in place a tube position check is recommended before each feed and at least once per day. Only smaller diameter nasogastric tubes are appropriate for long-term feeding, so as to avoid irritation and erosion of the nasal mucosa; these tubes have guidewires to facilitate insertion. If feeding is required for a longer period of time, other options, such as placement of a PEG tube, should be considered. Function of an NG tube properly placed and used for suction is maintained by flushing; this may be done by flushing small amounts of saline and air using a syringe or by flushing larger amounts of saline or water, air, assessing for the air to circulate
The blood vessels are a part of the circulatory system, microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body. These vessels are designed to transport nutrients and oxygen to the tissues of the body, they take waste and carbon dioxide and carry them away from the tissues and back to the heart. Blood vessels are needed to sustain life. There are three major types of blood vessels: the arteries, which carry the blood away from the heart; the word vascular, meaning relating to the blood vessels, is derived from the Latin vas, meaning vessel. Some structures -- such as cartilage, the epithelium, the lens and cornea of the eye -- do not contain blood vessels and are labeled avascular; the arteries and veins have three layers. The middle layer is thicker in the arteries than it is in the veins: The inner layer, tunica intima, is the thinnest layer, it is a single layer of flat cells glued by a polysaccharide intercellular matrix, surrounded by a thin layer of subendothelial connective tissue interlaced with a number of circularly arranged elastic bands called the internal elastic lamina.
A thin membrane of elastic fibers in the tunica intima run parallel to the vessel. The middle layer tunica media is the thickest layer in arteries, it consists of circularly arranged elastic fiber, connective tissue, polysaccharide substances, the second and third layer are separated by another thick elastic band called external elastic lamina. The tunica media may be rich in vascular smooth muscle. Veins don't have the external elastic lamina, but only an internal one; the tunica media is thicker in the arteries rather than the veins. The outer layer is the thickest layer in veins, it is made of connective tissue. It contains nerves that supply the vessel as well as nutrient capillaries in the larger blood vessels. Capillaries consist of little more than a layer of endothelium and occasional connective tissue; when blood vessels connect to form a region of diffuse vascular supply it is called an anastomosis. Anastomoses provide critical alternative routes for blood to flow in case of blockages. There is a layer of muscle surrounding the arteries and the veins which help contract and expand the vessels.
This creates enough pressure for blood to be pumped around the body. Blood vessels are part of the circulatory system, together with the blood; the biggest difference in the structure of arteries and veins is the presence of valves. Backflow of blood is prevented in arteries by the heart; however in veins, one-direction valves are used to prevent backflow as a result of a decrease in blood pressure as the blood passes through the circulatory system. There are various kinds of blood vessels: Arteries Elastic arteries Distributing arteries Arterioles Capillaries Venules Veins Large collecting vessels, such as the subclavian vein, the jugular vein, the renal vein and the iliac vein. Venae cavae. Sinusoids Extremely small vessels located within bone marrow, the spleen, the liver, they are grouped as "arterial" and "venous", determined by whether the blood in it is flowing away from or toward the heart. The term "arterial blood" is used to indicate blood high in oxygen, although the pulmonary artery carries "venous blood" and blood flowing in the pulmonary vein is rich in oxygen.
This is because they are carrying the blood to and from the lungs to be oxygenated. Blood vessels function to transport blood. In general and arterioles transport oxygenated blood from the lungs to the body and its organs, veins and venules transport deoxygenated blood from the body to the lungs. Blood vessels circulate blood throughout the circulatory system Oxygen is the most critical nutrient carried by the blood. In all arteries apart from the pulmonary artery, hemoglobin is saturated with oxygen. In all veins apart from the pulmonary vein, the saturation of hemoglobin is about 75%. In addition to carrying oxygen, blood carries hormones, waste products and nutrients for cells of the body. Blood vessels do not engage in the transport of blood. Blood is propelled through arterioles through pressure generated by the heartbeat. Blood vessels transport red blood cells which contain the oxygen necessary for daily activities; the amount of red blood cells present in your vessels has an effect on your health.
Hematocrit tests can be performed to calculate the proportion of red blood cells in your blood. Higher proportions result in conditions such as dehydration or heart disease while lower proportions could lead to anemia and long-term blood loss. Blood vessels transport red blood cells which contain the oxygen necessary for daily activities; the amount of red blood cells present in your vessels has an effect on your health. Hematocrit tests can be performed to calculate the proportion of red blood cells in your blood. Higher proportions result in conditions such as dehydration or heart disease while lower proportions could lead to anemia and long-term blood loss. Permeability of the endothelium is pivotal in the release of nutrients to the tissue, it is increased in inflammation in response to histamine and interleukins, which leads to most of the
A disposable is a product designed for a single use after which it is recycled or is disposed as solid waste. The term implies cheapness and short-term convenience rather than medium to long-term durability; the term is sometimes used for products that may last several months to distinguish from similar products that last indefinitely. The word "disposables" is not to be confused with the word "consumables", used in the mechanical world. In welding for example, welding rods, nozzles, etc. are considered to be "consumables" as they last only a certain amount of time before needing to be replaced. "Disposable" is an adjective meaning something not is disposed of after use. Many people now use the term as a noun or substantive, i.e. "a disposable" but in reality this is still an adjective as the noun is implied. Disposable income is the amount of money left over from one's salary or pay for spending, saving or whatever, after all living costs have been taken out. Disposable products are most made from paper, cotton, or polystyrene foam.
Products made from composite materials such as laminations are difficult to recycle and are more to be disposed of at the end of their use. Aluminum foil and aluminum pans Disposable dishware / drinkware Plastic cutlery Disposable table cloth Inexpensive tupperware products are reusable Cupcake wrappers, coffee filters are compostable Packages are intended for a single use; the waste hierarchy call for minimization of materials. Many package forms and materials are suited to recycling although the actual recycling percentages are low in many regions. Reuse and repurposing of packaging is increasing but containers will be recycled, incinerated, or landfilled. There are many container forms such as boxes, jars, etc. Materials include paper, metals, composites, etc. In 2002, Taiwan began taking action to reduce the use of disposable tableware at institutions and businesses, to reduce the use of plastic bags. Yearly, the nation of 17.7 million people was producing 59,000 tons of disposable tableware waste and 105,000 tons of waste plastic bags, increasing measures have been taken in the years since to reduce the amount of waste.
In 2013 Taiwan's Environmental Protection Administration banned outright the use of disposable tableware in the nation's 968 schools, government agencies and hospitals. The ban is expected to eliminate 2,600 metric tons of waste yearly. In Germany and Switzerland, laws banning use of disposable food and drink containers at large-scale events have been enacted; such a ban has been in place in Munich, since 1991, applying to all city facilities and events. This includes events of all sizes, including large ones. For small events of a few hundred people, the city has arranged for a corporation offer rental of crockery and dishwasher equipment. In part through this regulation, Munich reduced the waste generated by Oktoberfest, which attracts tens of thousands of people, from 11,000 metric tons in 1990 to 550 tons in 1999. China produces about 57 billion pairs of single-use chopsticks yearly. About 45 percent are made from trees – about 3.8 million of them – cotton wood and spruce, the remainder being made from bamboo.
Japan uses about 24 billion pairs of these disposables per year, globally the use is about 80 billion pairs are thrown away by about 1.4 million people. Reusable chopsticks in restaurants have a lifespan of 130 meals. In Japan, with disposable ones costing about 2 cents and reusable ones costing $1.17, the reusables better the $2.60 breakeven cost. Campaigns in several countries to reduce this waste are beginning to have some effect. Medical and surgical device manufacturers worldwide produce a multitude of items that are intended for one use only; the primary reason is infection control. Manufacturers of any type of medical device are obliged to abide by numerous standards and regulations. ISO 15223: Medical Devices and EN 980 cite that single use instruments or devices be labelled as such on their packaging with a universally recognized symbol to denote "do not re-use", "single use", or "use only once"; this symbol is the numeral 2, within a circle with a 45° line through it. Examples of single use items include: Hypodermic needles Toilet paper Disposable towels, paper towels Condoms and other contraception products Disposable enemas and similar products Cotton swabs and pads Medical and cleaning gloves Medical dust respirators Baby and adult diapers, training pants Shaving razors, safety razors, waxing kits and other hair control products Toothbrushes, dental floss, other oral care products Hospital aprons Disposable panties in postpartum Contact lenses Non-rechargeable batteries are considered hazardous waste and should only be disposed of as such.
Disposable ink cart Disposable cameras PlastiCuffs Garbage bags Vacuum cleaner bags, air and other filters vacuum cleaners Paper currency, withdrawn from circulation when worn Ballpoint pens and other writing implements Movie sets and theater sets Gift wrapping paper Labels and the associated release liners are single use and disposed after use. Dust respirators Aluminum foil Drinking straws Disposable tableware Consumable Extended producer responsibility Planned obsolescence Waste management Société Bic
In metallurgy, stainless steel known as inox steel or inox from French inoxydable, is a steel alloy, with highest percentage contents of iron and nickel, with a minimum of 10.5% chromium content by mass and a maximum of 1.2% carbon by mass. Stainless steels are most notable for their corrosion resistance, which increases with increasing chromium content. Additions of molybdenum increase corrosion resistance in reducing acids and against pitting attack in chloride solutions. Thus, there are numerous grades of stainless steel with varying chromium and molybdenum contents to suit the environment the alloy must endure. Stainless steel's resistance to corrosion and staining, low maintenance, familiar luster make it an ideal material for many applications where both the strength of steel and corrosion resistance are required. Stainless steels are rolled into sheets, bars and tubing to be used in: cookware, surgical instruments, major appliances. Stainless steel's corrosion resistance, the ease with which it can be steam cleaned and sterilized, no need for surface coatings has influenced its use in commercial kitchens and food processing plants.
Stainless steels do not suffer uniform corrosion, like carbon steel, when exposed to wet environments. Unprotected carbon steel rusts when exposed to the combination of air and moisture; the resulting iron oxide surface layer is fragile. Since iron oxide occupies a larger volume than the original steel this layer expands and tends to flake and fall away exposing the underlying steel to further attack. In comparison, stainless steels contain sufficient chromium to undergo passivation, spontaneously forming a microscopically thin inert surface film of chromium oxide by reaction with the oxygen in air and the small amount of dissolved oxygen in water; this passive film prevents further corrosion by blocking oxygen diffusion to the steel surface and thus prevents corrosion from spreading into the bulk of the metal. This film is self-repairing if it is scratched or temporarily disturbed by an upset condition in the environment that exceeds the inherent corrosion resistance of that grade; the resistance of this film to corrosion depends upon the chemical composition of the stainless steel, chiefly the chromium content.
Corrosion of stainless steels can occur. It is customary to distinguish between 4 forms of corrosion: uniform, galvanic and SCC. Uniform corrosion takes place in aggressive environments chemical production or use and paper industries, etc; the whole surface of the steel is attacked and the corrosion is expressed as corrosion rate in mm/year Corrosion tables provide guidelines This is the case when stainless steels are exposed to acidic or basic solutions. Whether a stainless steel corrodes depends on the kind and concentration of acid or base, the solution temperature. Uniform corrosion is easy to avoid because of extensive published corrosion data or easy to perform laboratory corrosion testing. However, stainless steels are susceptible to localized corrosion under certain conditions, which need to be recognized and avoided; such localized corrosion is problematic for stainless steels because it is unexpected and difficult to predict. Acidic solutions can be categorized into two general categories, reducing acids such as hydrochloric acid and dilute sulfuric acid, oxidizing acids such as nitric acid and concentrated sulfuric acid.
Increasing chromium and molybdenum contents provide increasing resistance to reducing acids, while increasing chromium and silicon contents provide increasing resistance to oxidizing acids. Sulfuric acid is one of the largest tonnage industrial chemical manufactured. At room temperature Type 304 is only resistant to 3% acid while Type 316 is resistant to 3% acid up to 50 °C and 20% acid at room temperature, thus Type 304 is used in contact with sulfuric acid. Type 904L and Alloy 20 are resistant to sulfuric acid at higher concentrations above room temperature. Concentrated sulfuric acid possesses oxidizing characteristics like nitric acid and thus silicon bearing stainless steels find application. Hydrochloric acid will damage any kind of stainless steel, should be avoided. All types of stainless steel resist attack from phosphoric acid and nitric acid at room temperature. At high concentration and elevated temperature attack will occur and higher alloy stainless steels are required. In general, organic acids are less corrosive than mineral acids such as hydrochloric and sulfuric acid.
As the molecular weight of organic acids increase their corrosivity decreases. Formic acid is a strong acid. Type 304 can be used with formic acid. Acetic acid is the most commercially important of the organic acids and Type 316 is used for storing and handling acetic acid. Stainless steels Type 304 and 316 are unaffected by any of the weak bases such as ammonium hydroxide in high concentrations and at high temperatures; the same grades of stainless exposed to stronger bases such as sodium hydroxide at high concentrations and high temperatures will experience some etching and cracking. Increasing chromium and nickel contents provide increasing resistance. All grades resist damage from aldehydes and amines, though in the latter
A tenaculum is a surgical instrument classified as a type of forceps. It consists of a slender sharp-pointed hook attached to a handle and is used in surgery for seizing and holding parts, such as blood vessels. Uses include: Steadying the cervix and uterus, as is done during insertion of an intrauterine device or during a surgical abortion. Seizing and holding arteries in various surgical procedures. Instruments used in general surgery