Geologically, a fjord or fiord is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created by a glacier. There are many fjords on the coasts of Alaska, British Columbia, Greenland, the Faroe Islands, Kamchatka, the Kerguelen Islands, New Zealand, Novaya Zemlya, Nunavut, Quebec, South Georgia Island, Washington state. Norway's coastline is estimated at 29,000 kilometres with nearly 1,200 fjords, but only 2,500 kilometres when fjords are excluded. A true fjord is formed when a glacier cuts a U-shaped valley by ice segregation and abrasion of the surrounding bedrock. According to the standard model, glaciers formed in pre-glacial valleys with a sloping valley floor; the work of the glacier left an overdeepened U-shaped valley that ends abruptly at a valley or trough end. Such valleys are fjords. Thresholds above sea level create freshwater lakes. Glacial melting is accompanied by the rebounding of Earth's crust as the ice load and eroded sediment is removed. In some cases this rebound is faster than sea level rise.
Most fjords are deeper than the adjacent sea. Fjords have a sill or shoal at their mouth caused by the previous glacier's reduced erosion rate and terminal moraine. In many cases this sill causes large saltwater rapids. Saltstraumen in Norway is described as the world's strongest tidal current; these characteristics distinguish fjords from rias, which are drowned valleys flooded by the rising sea. Drammensfjorden is cut in two by the Svelvik "ridge", a sandy moraine that during the ice cover was under sea level but after the post-glacial rebound reaches 60 m above the fjord. Jens Esmark in the 19th century introduced the theory that fjords are or have been created by glaciers and that large parts of Northern Europe had been covered by thick ice in prehistory. Thresholds at the mouths and overdeepening of fjords compared to the ocean are the strongest evidence of glacial origin, these thresholds are rocky. Thresholds are related to sounds and low land where the ice could spread out and therefore have less erosive force.
John Walter Gregory argued that fjords are of tectonic origin and that glaciers had a negligible role in their formation. Gregory's views were rejected by subsequent research and publications. In the case of Hardangerfjord the fractures of the Caledonian fold has guided the erosion by glaciers, while there is no clear relation between the direction of Sognefjord and the fold pattern; this relationship between fractures and direction of fjords is observed in Lyngen. Preglacial, tertiary rivers eroded the surface and created valleys that guided the glacial flow and erosion of the bedrock; this may in particular have been the case in Western Norway where the tertiary uplift of the landmass amplified eroding forces of rivers. Confluence of tributatry fjords led to excavation of the deepest fjord basins. Near the coast the typical West Norwegian glacier spread out and lost their concentration and reduced the glaciers' power to erode leaving bedrock thresholds. Bolstadfjorden is 160 m deep with a treshold of only 1.5 m, while the 1,300 m deep Sognefjorden has a threshold around 100 to 200 m deep.
Hardangerfjord is made up of several basins separated by thresholds: The deepest basin Samlafjorden between Jonaneset og Ålvik with a distinct treshold at Vikingneset in Kvam. Hanging valleys are common along U-shaped valleys. A hanging valley is a tributary valley, higher than the main valley and were created by tributary glacier flows into a glacier of larger volume; the shallower valley appears to be ` hanging' above a fjord. Waterfalls form at or near the outlet of the upper valley. Hanging valleys occur under water in fjord systems; the branches of Sognefjord are for instance much shallower than the main fjord. The mouth of Fjærlandsfjord is about 400 m deep; the mouth of Ikjefjord is only 50 meters deep while the main fjord is around 1,300 m at the same point. During the winter season there is little inflow of freshwater. Surface water and deeper water are mixed during winter because of the steady cooling of the surface and wind. In the deep fjords there is still fresh water from the summer with less density than the saltier water along the coast.
Offshore wind, common in the fjord areas during winter, sets up a current on the surface from the inner to the outer parts. This current on the surface in turn pulls dense salt water from the coast across the fjord threshold and into the deepest parts of the fjord. Bolstadfjorden has a threshold of only 1.5 m and strong inflow of freshwater from Vosso river creates a brackish surface that blocks circulation of the deep fjord. The deeper, salt layers of Bolstadfjorden are deprived of oxygen and the seabed is covered with organic material; the shallow threshold creates a strong tidal current. During the summer season there is a large inflow of river water in the inner areas; this freshwater gets mixed with saltwater creating a layer of brackish water with a higher surface than the ocean which in turn sets up a current from the river mouths towards the ocean. This current is more salty towards the coast and right under the surface current there is a reverse current of saltier water from the coast.
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A car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. Most definitions of car say they run on roads, seat one to eight people, have four tires, transport people rather than goods. Cars came into global use during the 20th century, developed economies depend on them; the year 1886 is regarded as the birth year of the modern car when German inventor Karl Benz patented his Benz Patent-Motorwagen. Cars became available in the early 20th century. One of the first cars accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were adopted in the US, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, but took much longer to be accepted in Western Europe and other parts of the world. Cars have controls for driving, passenger comfort, safety, controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional features and controls have been added to vehicles, making them progressively more complex; these include rear reversing cameras, air conditioning, navigation systems, in-car entertainment.
Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by an internal combustion engine, fueled by the combustion of fossil fuels. Electric cars, which were invented early in the history of the car, began to become commercially available in 2008. There are benefits to car use; the costs include acquiring the vehicle, interest payments and maintenance, depreciation, driving time, parking fees and insurance. The costs to society include maintaining roads, land use, road congestion, air pollution, public health, health care, disposing of the vehicle at the end of its life. Road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide; the benefits include on-demand transportation, mobility and convenience. The societal benefits include economic benefits, such as job and wealth creation from the automotive industry, transportation provision, societal well-being from leisure and travel opportunities, revenue generation from the taxes. People's ability to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the nature of societies.
There are around 1 billion cars in use worldwide. The numbers are increasing especially in China and other newly industrialized countries; the word car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum, or the Middle English word carre. In turn, these originated from the Gaulish word karros, it referred to any wheeled horse-drawn vehicle, such as a cart, carriage, or wagon. "Motor car" is attested from 1895, is the usual formal name for cars in British English. "Autocar" is a variant, attested from 1895, but, now considered archaic. It means "self-propelled car"; the term "horseless carriage" was used by some to refer to the first cars at the time that they were being built, is attested from 1895. The word "automobile" is a classical compound derived from the Ancient Greek word autós, meaning "self", the Latin word mobilis, meaning "movable", it entered the English language from French, was first adopted by the Automobile Club of Great Britain in 1897. Over time, the word "automobile" fell out of favour in Britain, was replaced by "motor car".
"Automobile" remains chiefly North American as a formal or commercial term. An abbreviated form, "auto", was a common way to refer to cars in English, but is now considered old-fashioned; the word is still common as an adjective in American English in compound formations like "auto industry" and "auto mechanic". In Dutch and German, two languages related to English, the abbreviated form "auto" / "Auto", as well as the formal full version "automobiel" / "Automobil" are still used — in either the short form is the most regular word for "car"; the first working steam-powered vehicle was designed — and quite built — by Ferdinand Verbiest, a Flemish member of a Jesuit mission in China around 1672. It was a 65-cm-long scale-model toy for the Chinese Emperor, unable to carry a driver or a passenger, it is not known with certainty if Verbiest's model was built or run. Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot is credited with building the first full-scale, self-propelled mechanical vehicle or car in about 1769, he constructed two steam tractors for the French Army, one of, preserved in the French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts.
His inventions were, handicapped by problems with water supply and maintaining steam pressure. In 1801, Richard Trevithick built and demonstrated his Puffing Devil road locomotive, believed by many to be the first demonstration of a steam-powered road vehicle, it was unable to maintain sufficient steam pressure for long periods and was of little practical use. The development of external combustion engines is detailed as part of the history of the car but treated separately from the development of true cars. A variety of steam-powered road vehicles were used during the first part of the 19th century, including steam cars, steam buses and steam rollers. Sentiment against them led to the Locomotive Acts of 1865. In 1807, Nicéphore Niépce and his brother Claude created what was the world's first internal combustion engine, but they chose to install it in a boat on the river Saone in France. Coincidentally, in 1807 the Swiss inventor François Isaac de Rivaz designed his own'de Rivaz internal combustion engine' and used it to develop the world's first vehicle to be powered by such an engine.
A curb, or kerb, is the edge where a raised sidewalk or road median/central reservation meets a street or other roadway. Although curbs have been used throughout modern history, indeed were present in ancient Pompeii, their widespread construction and use only began in the 18th century, as a part of the various movements towards city beautification that were attempted in the period. A series of Paving Acts in the 18th century the 1766 Paving and Lighting Act, authorized the City of London Corporation to create footways along the streets of London, pave them with Purbeck stone and raise them above street level with curbs forming the separation. Small wooden bollards had been put up to demarcate the area of the street reserved for pedestrian use; the Corporation was made responsible for the regular upkeep of the roads, including their cleaning and repair, for which they charged a tax from 1766. By the late 18th century, this method of separating pedestrians from carriageways had been supplanted by the use of curbs.
With the introduction of macadam roads in the early 19th-century, curbs became ubiquitous in the streets of London. Curbs present an obstacle for accessibility in public spaces. In 1945, Jack Fisher of Kalamazoo, celebrated the installation of one of the nation's first curb cuts to facilitate mobility in the center of the city. In the United States and passage of federal legislation on accessibility requirements such as the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 have facilitated travel for wheelchair users and other people. Curbs may fulfill any or several of a number of functions. By delineating the edge of the pavement, they separate the road from the roadside and discourage drivers from parking or driving on sidewalks and lawns, they provide structural support to the pavement edge. Curbs melted snow and ice into storm drains. There is an aesthetic aspect, in that curbs look formal and "finished". Since curbs add to the cost of a road, they are limited to urban and suburban areas, are found in rural areas except where certain drainage conditions make them necessary.
Curbs are not universally used, however in urban settings. In low-speed environments, curbs are effective at channeling motor vehicle traffic and can provide some redirective capacity for low-speed impacts. On higher speed roads, the main function of curbs is to provide drainage and are used in areas of a bridge approach or other locations with erosion risk. A high-speed vehicle that hits a curb may turn towards the sidewalk, rather than be directed away from it. A vehicle that strikes a curb can be vaulted into the air; the vehicle could be vaulted over a traffic barrier into the object the barrier is intended to shield. This is a reason why they are used on rural or high speed roads. Where curb is used with a traffic barrier, the barrier should either be close to or well behind the curb, to reduce the chances of a vehicle going over the barrier. Depending on the area and the distance between the travel lane and the edge of pavement, an edge line can be used to indicate the outside edge of the road.
Retroreflective road marking material can be applied to the curb itself to make it more conspicuous. Curbs are meant to inform pedestrians to stop or slow down as they prepare to cross roadways. For example, cultural context and behavioral norms of a society may affect safety in that people are more to cross on a red light while standing alone than waiting with others at the curb. There are a number of types of curb, categorized by shape, material and whether the curb is combined with a gutter. Most curb is constructed separately from the pavement, the gutter is formed at the joint between the roadway and the curb. Combined curb and gutter has a concrete gutter cast together in one piece. "Integral curb" is curbing constructed integrally as a part of a concrete pavement. Curbs have a vertical or nearly-vertical face called "barrier", "non-mountable", or "insurmountable curb". Vertical-faced curb is used to discourage motor vehicle drivers from leaving the roadway; the square or close-to-square type is still always used in towns and cities, as it is a straight step down and thus less to be tripped-over by pedestrians.
By contrast, a slope-faced curb allows motor vehicles to cross it at low speed. Slope-faced curb is most used on major suburban thoroughfares. In certain locales, such as California, there is an effort to standardize the design to achieve efficiencies in construction and lower costs. Trends include using a 24-inch gutter that balances the increased initial price with lower maintenance costs. At crosswalks and other pedestrian crossings, narrow dropped curb cuts are used to allow small wheeled vehicles such as wheelchairs, children's tricycles and strollers to cross; this makes it easier to traverse for some pedestrians, for those in wheelchairs. Wider curb cuts are used to allow motor vehicles to cross sidewalks at low speed for driveways. In Great Britain, "high containment kerbs" are used at locations with pedestrians, fuel station pumps, other areas that need greater protection from vehicle traffic; these are 14 inches high - much higher than standard curb, with a sloped lower portion and a concave face.
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Brockenhurst is the largest village by population within the New Forest in Hampshire, England. The nearest city is Southampton some 13 miles to the North East, while Bournemouth is nearby, 15 miles South West. Surrounding towns and villages include Beaulieu, Lymington and Sway; the earliest signs of habitation in Brockenhurst date back 4,000 years to the Bronze Age: the area is dotted with burial mounds – called tumuli. Beyond that, few signs remain of other habitation during the subsequent 3,000 years. Middle agesThe Saxon period was brought to an end by the events of 1066. William the Conqueror created his Nova Foresta traditionally in 1079, a vast hunting area lying south and west of his capital at Winchester. In 1086, the Domesday Book recorded that there were four small Saxon manors in the Brockenhurst area, Hincelveslei and Broceste. Mapleham no longer exists being subsumed within Brookley; the third manor, gives the modern name, granted a regular weekly market and an annual fair, lasting several days, in the 1347.
Brochelie had forest rights to graze sheep on the open forest, but only between Wilverley and what is now Rhinefield Road, this right is associated with religious houses and was attached to the medieval estate which Christchurch Priory held at Brookley. The manor house of Brochelie was situated on the plot now occupied by the Watersplash Hotel; the Watersplash Hotel closed in our about 2017 and now building work is going on to provide high quality apartments due to open in 2019. Its manor itself extended over the lands on the western side of the A337 Lyndhurst-Lymington Road; the fourth Saxon manor of the area was Broceste. It was the most important manor, being a grand-serjeanty held by providing accommodation for the King when hunting in the area. Royden to the south of Brockenhurst was a medieval grange belonging to Netley Abbey and was set up by a grant made by Henry III in 1253. St Nicholas' Church, at that time, was no more than an outlying chapel linked to Twynham – Christchurch Priory.
William Rufus visited Brockenhurst worshiping in St Nicholas' church, as at least two writs were issued by him from here. Early modern eraBy the 18th century, nearby Lymington was a thriving town, due to its port and the manufacture of salt from sea water. By the end of the 18th century, the Lymington road had become a turnpike and a regular route for the mail coaches from Lyndhurst and the north. During this time, Brockenhurst grew with dwellings and inns strung along the main road. In 1745, Henry Thurston, a local man who left to make his fortune in London, leaving a bequest to set up a school in the village. After being held in a number of houses it became fixed in a cottage on the corner of what is now Mill Lane and the A337. In 1770, Edward Morant, using some of the vast wealth that flowed from the family estates in Jamaica, purchased Brockenhurst House – a late Stuart farmhouse – for £6,400, he rebuilt it as a large Georgian mansion, while he and his heirs laid out avenues in the grounds and acquired adjacent land peaking at some 3,000 acres.
In the 19th century the railway station was introduced to Brockenhurst, increasing a large number of holiday visitors and the local population. First World WarIn the First World War, Brockenhurst hosted the Lady Hardinge Hospital for Wounded Indian Soldiers; the name Meerut Road recalls the Indian troops of the Meerut and Lahore Divisions who fought on the Western Front in the war and were patients at Brockenhurst. Specialist sections were established in the Balmer Lawn and Forest Park Hotels; the hospital was transferred to the New Zealand Army and, as No. 1 New Zealand General Hospital, continued in use until 1919. Auckland Avenue and Auckland Place commemorate the stay of the New Zealanders. Second World War In the Second World War, what is now The Balmer Lawn Hotel was used as a Divisional HQ and was the location of many of Generals Montgomery and Eisenhower's meetings, away from their headquarters in Southsea, as they planned the D-Day Landings in Normandy. In early 1944, Brockenhurst became a secret training area for troops preparing to do battle in Normandy.
The area's ancient oak trees were ideal for concealing military vehicles. The 50th Infantry Division, the core of Assault Force "G", tasked with storming Gold Beach on D-Day, had its HQ at the Carey's Manor Hotel. Afterwards, the Eastern Warfare School, near Brockenhurst, taught jungle infantry tactics suited to the Asian and Pacific campaigns, to personnel from the Royal Marines and shore units of the Royal Navy. Since 1945The western part of the village expanded in the 1970s and, in the early 1990s, Berkeley Homes built Ober Park, now known as The Coppice, this despite having been known as Clerks from the 13th to 19th centuries. More construction of the village still continues today by Penny Son. Brockenhurst has a Non-League football club Brockenhurst F. C. which plays at Grigg Lane. The current manager is Patrick Macmanus. During a Hampshire Senior Cup match Brockenhurst set a new record when they scored 29 consecutive penalties in a shoot-out after the tie had finished 0–0. After 29 successful attempts Andover missed and'The Badgers' won the tie.
Brockenhurst railway station offers frequent South Western Railway services to Bournemouth, London Waterloo and Weymouth. CrossCountry express services run to Mancheste
A low-water crossing provides a bridge when water flow is low. Under high-flow conditions, water runs over the precludes vehicular traffic; this approach is cheaper than building a bridge to raise the level of the road above the highest flood stage of a river in developing countries or in semi-arid areas with rare high-volume rain. Low-water crossings can be dangerous; the low-water crossing was developed from the traditional ford. A ford permits vehicular traffic to cross a waterway with wet wheels; the term “low-water crossing” implies that the crossing is dry, while “ford” implies that the crossing is wet. A simple low-water crossing can be constructed with culverts. Culverts are used to carry the water in a stream keeping the crossing surface dry for most of the year. High flows, e.g. spring runoff or flash floods, flow over the top of the crossing, as the culverts are not large enough to carry these flood-type runoff events. A more elaborate low-water bridge will be an engineered concrete structure.
There are thousands of such structures in the western United States. A low-water bridge that accommodates a high daily volume of vehicular traffic will be underwater only a few days per decade. A low-water bridge renders the waterway non-navigable. In all cases this is not a practical concern, since the waterway would be non-navigable except during flood conditions anyway. A low-water bridge is sometimes called a submersible bridge. A true submersible bridge is used on navigable waterways and is lowered into the water; the concept behind low-water crossings is that they are convenient and safe to use in normal conditions. Once the water level rises to the point where it crosses the bridge surface the bridge is unsafe to use, in developed countries this will be indicated by warning signs. An additional hazard is that the bridge surface may become obscured by the water, making it easy to fall off the bridge surface into the deeper and more hazardous water on either side; as a consequence, the line of the submerged bridge is marked with poles or other structures to indicate its course to unwary travelers and emergency users when submerged.
The force of the moving water may be strong enough to physically push the vehicle off the bridge: the higher the percentage of the vehicle in the water, the more the water's force will take the vehicle off the bridge and send it downriver with substantial damage. An additional risk for trying to cross a bridge under water when more than a couple of feet deep, is the possibility of the vehicle's engine stalling; as people will try to get out of the vehicle, they may step into water currents that cause them to fall or be pulled down into the water. As the current during floods is quite strong, it may sweep them downriver and carry them into debris causing injury or death. Despite the obvious dangers and warnings given there are still a significant number of emergencies and deaths attributable to the unwary use of low-water bridges during flood conditions. One attempted solution/deterrent is the Stupid Motorist Law in the American state of Arizona. Drivers who become stranded on flooded low-water bridges are charged with the cost incurred by emergency services to come to their rescue.
Since 1980, the ecological impact of road crossings on natural streams and rivers has been recognised. Baffles may be installed along the culvert to provide some fish-friendly alternative, but baffles can reduce drastically the culvert discharge capacity for a given afflux, thus increasing the total cost of the culvert structure to achieve the same design discharge and afflux, or increasing the risk of road flooding in an existing structure. Floodway Design of Irish bridges and causeways in developing countries Low Flow, Mid-Level Stream and Ditch Crossings With Culverts Guidelines for Roading and Watercourse Crossings List of Fords and Irish Bridges in the UK Upstream fish passage in box culverts: how do fish and turbulence interplay? by Dr Hang Wang and Professor Hubert Chanson, School of Civil Engineering, University of Queensland
A bridge is a structure built to span a physical obstacle, such as a body of water, valley, or road, without closing the way underneath. It is constructed for the purpose of providing passage over the obstacle something that can be detrimental to cross otherwise. There are many different designs that each serve a particular purpose and apply to different situations. Designs of bridges vary depending on the function of the bridge, the nature of the terrain where the bridge is constructed and anchored, the material used to make it, the funds available to build it. Most the earliest bridges were fallen trees and stepping stones, while Neolithic people built boardwalk bridges across marshland; the Arkadiko Bridge dating from the 13th century BC, in the Peloponnese, in southern Greece is one of the oldest arch bridges still in existence and use. The Oxford English Dictionary traces the origin of the word bridge to an Old English word brycg, of the same meaning; the word can be traced directly back to Proto-Indo-European *bʰrēw-.
The word for the card game of the same name has a different origin. Before the rise of humanity, ants have been making bridges by using their own to allow others to cross; the simplest type of a bridge is stepping stones, so this may have been one of the earliest types. Neolithic people built a form of boardwalk across marshes, of which the Sweet Track and the Post Track, are examples from England that are around 6000 years old. Undoubtedly ancient peoples would have used log bridges; some of the first man-made bridges with significant span were intentionally felled trees. Among the oldest timber bridges is the Holzbrücke Rapperswil-Hurden crossing upper Lake Zürich in Switzerland; the first wooden footbridge led across Lake Zürich, followed by several reconstructions at least until the late 2nd century AD, when the Roman Empire built a 6-metre-wide wooden bridge. Between 1358 and 1360, Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria, built a'new' wooden bridge across the lake, used to 1878 – measuring 1,450 metres in length and 4 metres wide.
On April 6, 2001, the reconstructed wooden footbridge was opened, being the longest wooden bridge in Switzerland. The Arkadiko Bridge is one of four Mycenaean corbel arch bridges part of a former network of roads, designed to accommodate chariots, between the fort of Tiryns and town of Epidauros in the Peloponnese, in southern Greece. Dating to the Greek Bronze Age, it is one of the oldest arch bridges still in use. Several intact arched stone bridges from the Hellenistic era can be found in the Peloponnese; the greatest bridge builders of antiquity were the ancient Romans. The Romans built arch bridges and aqueducts that could stand in conditions that would damage or destroy earlier designs; some stand today. An example is the Alcántara Bridge, built over the river Tagus, in Spain; the Romans used cement, which reduced the variation of strength found in natural stone. One type of cement, called pozzolana, consisted of water, lime and volcanic rock. Brick and mortar bridges were built after the Roman era.
In India, the Arthashastra treatise by Kautilya mentions the construction of bridges. A Mauryan bridge near Girnar was surveyed by James Princep; the bridge was swept away during a flood, repaired by Puspagupta, the chief architect of emperor Chandragupta I. The use of stronger bridges using plaited bamboo and iron chain was visible in India by about the 4th century. A number of bridges, both for military and commercial purposes, were constructed by the Mughal administration in India. Although large Chinese bridges of wooden construction existed at the time of the Warring States period, the oldest surviving stone bridge in China is the Zhaozhou Bridge, built from 595 to 605 AD during the Sui dynasty; this bridge is historically significant as it is the world's oldest open-spandrel stone segmental arch bridge. European segmental arch bridges date back to at least the Alconétar Bridge, while the enormous Roman era Trajan's Bridge featured open-spandrel segmental arches in wooden construction. Rope bridges, a simple type of suspension bridge, were used by the Inca civilization in the Andes mountains of South America, just prior to European colonization in the 16th century.
During the 18th century there were many innovations in the design of timber bridges by Hans Ulrich Grubenmann, Johannes Grubenmann, others. The first book on bridge engineering was written by Hubert Gautier in 1716. A major breakthrough in bridge technology came with the erection of the Iron Bridge in Shropshire, England in 1779, it used cast iron for the first time as arches to cross the river Severn. With the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century, truss systems of wrought iron were developed for larger bridges, but iron does not have the tensile strength to support large loads. With the advent of steel, which has a high tensile strength, much larger bridges were built, many using the ideas of Gustave Eiffel. In Canada and the U. S. numerous timber Covered bridges were built in the late 1700s to the late 1800s, reminiscent of earlier designs in Germany and Switzerland. In years, some were made of stone or metal but the trusses were still made of wood. Hundreds of these structures still stand in North America.
They were brought to the attention of the general public in