Traian Băsescu is a Romanian politician who served as President of Romania from 2004 to 2014. Băsescu Traian was born in Basarabi, near the port city of Constanța, the largest Romanian port on the Black Sea. Băsescu's father, was an army officer, his brother, was charged with influence peddling. He was sentenced to four years in prison. Băsescu and his wife Maria have two daughters: Ioana, a notary, Elena, a Romanian former MEP. Băsescu graduated from the Naval Institute of Constanța in 1976 and became a merchant marine deck officer at Navrom, the Romanian state-owned shipping company. Between 1981 and 1987, he served as captain on Romanian commercial ships. Throughout his career, questions have been raised about Băsescu's links to the Securitate, the security services of the communist leader Nicolae Ceaușescu. However, Băsescu has claimed that his links with the former Securitate were minimal, though some contact was obligatory at the time for somebody working abroad in a senior position. In 1984, he was promoted to Captain of the oil tanker Biruința, the largest ship of the Romanian commercial fleet.
In 1989, Băsescu moved to Belgium to head the Navrom Agency in Antwerp. The most controversial episode of his professional career began on 10 September 1981 in the French port Rouen, when a fire started around the Romanian tanker Argeș under the command of Traian Băsescu, affecting a large portion of the River Seine; the fire destroyed two tugs and six barges, major disaster was avoided when 70 French firemen from Rouen, Gran-Couronne, Grand-Quevily and Moulineaux prevented the fire from reaching the nearby Shell refinery. According to an interview given by Traian Băsescu to the Romanian TV channel Prima TV on 23 June 1998, Băsescu admitted to having made alterations to the ship's installation before the French investigators were allowed to come on board, a thing that — in Băsescu's own words — made it impossible for the investigators to link the cause of the disaster to the Romanian ship. Băsescu was a member of the Communist Party before 1989. After the downfall of Communism, he claimed that he joined the PCR to promote his career in the merchant marines.
In a letter published in Romanian newspapers, former president Emil Constantinescu alleged that Băsescu was in the second tier of the Communist Party leadership during the regime of former communist leader Nicolae Ceaușescu, but had managed to portray himself as anti-communist. During an interview Traian Băsescu admitted that before 1989 he smuggled other goods. A former communist official, a director of a firm, receiving the goods transported by Traian Băsescu by ship, said on Antena 3 TV that without payment of a bribe Traian Băsescu refused to bring the goods in the country. Băsescu entered politics after the 1989 Romanian Revolution, as a member of the large National Salvation Front party. In April 1991, he became Minister of Transport in Petre Roman's Cabinet, continued to hold this position during Theodor Stolojan's "Cabinet of technocrats" between September 1991 – November 1992. In 1992, after the FSN split into two factions—the Social Democratic Party of Romania, led by Ion Iliescu, the Democratic Party, led by Petre Roman, Băsescu joined the PD faction.
In 1992, he was elected to the lower house of the Romanian Parliament, the Chamber of Deputies re-elected for the 1996–2000 term. Concurrently with his second term in Parliament, from November 1996 to June 2000, Băsescu served as Minister of Transport in the center-right governments of Victor Ciorbea, Radu Vasile, Mugur Isărescu. In December 1997, he gave an interview to Claudiu Săftoiu of the newspaper Evenimentul Zilei, in which he accused Prime Minister Victor Ciorbea of not implementing enough reforms, although Ciorbea was accused by the Socialist opposition of being excessively reformist; this became the first episode in an open dispute within the ruling center-right coalition, a dispute that led to Democratic Party ministers, including Băsescu, resigning from the cabinet, which, in turn, led to Ciorbea's resignation. Subsequently, in 1998, Băsescu resumed his previous ministerial position in the new cabinet headed by Radu Vasile. During his tenure as Minister of Transportation, Băsescu oversaw the privatization of Romania's merchant fleet.
While some argued that the aging ships at the time were of minimal value, many Romanians believed the compensation received for the ships was artificially low. The "scandal" of the fleet sale became known in Romania as The Fleet File Affair. Prosecutors brought charges against Băsescu, but it was not proven that he was involved in any malfeasance. In 1996, Băsescu was the first Romanian parliamentarian to renounce his parliamentary immunity, in order to allow judicial procedures related to the Fleet File Affair to continue against him. Although the case against him was closed at the time for lack of evidence, it was reopened in early 2004, in what some considered a political maneuver against him sponsored by the PSD government. In 2004, the case was brought before the High Court of Cassation and Justice, however the judges decided to send it back to the Prosecutor's Office citing procedural errors. In December 2007, the Romanian National Anti-corruption Directorate, a subdivision of the Ge
The Fiat 500L is a five-door, five passenger, front-engine, front-wheel drive, high-roof B-segment MPV manufactured in Kragujevac, Serbia by FCA Srbija and marketed globally since its debut at the 2012 Geneva Motor Show. Based on a variant of the FCA Small US Wide platform, the 500L uses Fiat's Multiair variable valve timing engine technology and monovolume cab forward architecture: a packaging concept that prioritizes passenger and cargo volume; the 500L is noted for its high H-point seating, high roof, tall greenhouse, double A pillar, wide field of visibility — and its reconfigurable interior system marketed as Cargo Magic Space. In 2013, Fiat began marketing the 500L Living, in Europe. For model year 2018, the 500L received an intermediate facelift, with revised front and rear fascias along with In-car entertainment updates and interior revisions. By early 2018, production reached 500,000 units; the 500L derives its name from Fiat's known 500 models, including the original 1957 Fiat 500 and the current Fiat 500, introduced in 2007.
Underscoring its increased length and overall size over other 500 variants, the suffix L denotes "large." In April 2010, when Fiat released its 2010-2014 product development plan, the 500L was identified as a replacement for the Fiat Idea and its rebadged variant, the Lancia Musa — and was given the internal designation L0 or Ellezero. Two variants were projected and seven passenger, the latter targeted at North America but only marketed in Europe; the 500L platform was based on Fiat's "Small" platform, first used with the Fiat Grande Punto and further developed since its launch in 2005. With the 500L, the platform is both longer and wider to accommodate the 500L's cab forward architecture, prioritizing interior volume and reducing of the volume of mechanical systems; the packaging design follows the Lancia Megagamma concept, which Fiat had commissioned from Italdesign in 1979, for a 4-meter, high roof, high h-point, monospace design. Designers of the 500L said its overall architecture was inspired by Villa Savoye, the modernist house designed in the 1930s by Le Corbusier located in Poissy, France.
Fabrizio Vacca, senior interior designer with Fiat's Centro Stile in Turin described a "layered" theme with a base, a middle with expansive visibility and above that an available large, dual-pane panoramic sunroof. At the 500L's introduction, Fiat presented a 96-page, multi-language PDF vade mecum titled 500L A Design Approach, tracing the design of the vehicle. In 2014, Lifan Motors introduced the Lifan 330, a knockoff derivative of the Mini Cooper and Fiat 500L, at the Auto China 2014, the Beijing Auto Show; as a five-door, five passenger, two-box, high-roof B-segment MPV, the 500L is based on a variant of the GM Fiat Small Platform and uses Fiat's Multiair engines, a hydraulically-actuated variable valve timing engine technology enabling "cylinder by cylinder, stroke by stroke" control of intake air directly via a gasoline engine's inlet valves. The 500L's cab forward architecture provides a total passenger and cargo volume of 121.1 cubic feet, features high H-point seating, tall roof and greenhouse, split front glass pillar and polycarbonate rear pillar — making the Fiat 500L the first production vehicle to use polycarbonate window glazing.
The split A-pillar and tall greenhouse contribute to the interior's wide field of visibility. Bodywork features a reconfigurable interior system marketed as Cargo Magic Space — which includes a three-level rear cargo floor panel, fold-flat front passenger seat as well as rear seating that can recline for passenger comfort, slide for/aft to reprioritize cargo and passenger volume, fold and tumble forward to store the second row seating and maximize interior cargo volume; the 500L's structural architecture uses 74% high strength steel and complies with international safety standards. With three front-end load dissipation paths the design has wide rear door openings. Bodywork has a frontal area of 2.54 m2 and an aerodynamic coefficient of drag of.30 — rear spoiler, underbody engine and rear suspension shields, integral rear side window nolder profiles to decrease pressure behind the bodywork and reduce mud and debris build up on the rear window. The 500L uses shock absorbers designed to filter out high-frequency suspension inputs from uneven road surfaces while maintaining ride control — in a mechanical rather than electronic system.
The 500L's sunroof is the largest in its class. An optional Beats Audio system has a total power of 520 watts with two 80 watt mid-woofer speakers low in the front door panels, two 40 watt speakers high in the front door panels, two 60 watt speakers in the rear door panels, an 80+80 watt subwoofer in the rear cargo area and an amplifier with DSP and 8 channels and a built-in advanced equalisation algorithm. In 2012, the 500L debuted formally at the Geneva Auto Show — followed by a media introduction at the Officine Grandi Riparazioni, the former Grand Repair Workshops of the Italian Railway, now a cultural center located at Corso Castelfidardo 22 in Turin — on 4 July, the day of the year when Fiat has introduced its 500 models; the introduction presentation was built around the 500L themes of Large and Loft. FCA Serbia inaugurated its reconstructed and renovated facilities in Kragujevac in April 2011 — with production commencing 26 May 2012; the 500L went on sale in Italy in September 2012, with sales begin
Citroën C3 Picasso
The Citroën C3 Picasso is a mini MPV produced by the French motor company Citroën since 2008. It was first unveiled at the 2008 Paris Motor Show as a concept car named "Drooneel", was designed by Donato Coco and Jean-Pierre Ploué; the Picasso is the mini MPV version of the Citroën C3 and the successor of the Citroën Xsara Picasso, was designed to compete with the Opel Meriva, Nissan Note, Renault Modus and Ford Fusion. The vehicle is a mini Sport Utility Vehicle version of the C3 Picasso for the Latin America market, where it has been sold as the Citroën C3 Aircross since 2010; the first C3 Picasso was assembled in December 2007 at the PSA Trnava Plant in west Slovakia, which Citroën announced from France in July 2008 would be the sole manufacturer of the model. Citroën presented the finished product to the Slovak press and public on 25 September before it was unveiled to the world in October at the 2008 Paris Motor Show; the Trnava Plant by was expected to be building 28 cars per hour as the C3 Picasso went on sale in France in February 2009 for €14,950.
The company began to sell the car in other European markets in March 2009. When launched in Spain in 2009, only three trims were available: SX, or Exclusive; the LX was the most basic and least expensive model, with a 95 bhp VTi engine, priced at €12,590, while the Exclusive model was most expensive with a 110 bhp HDi Airdream engine at €18,650. The C3 Picasso was launched in the United Kingdom on 9 April 2009, where it went on sale for £11,495 for the 1.4-litre VTi, the most basic model with 44 mpg‑imp, while the most expensive was the'Exclusive' with a 1.6-litre HDi engine and 62 mpg‑imp at £15,595. A redesigned version of the car was shown at the 2012 Paris Motor Show on 27 September 2012 and was on sale in Europe by November. Exclusive is the most expensive trim for each market, with the biggest choice of engines and features, it is the only model to feature a folding front passenger seat, making the storage space into the whole interior of the car except the driver's seat. Extras for the trim include: tinted windows, rear parking sensors, automatic windscreen wipers, a leather and chrome interior, pollen filter, dual-zone automatic climate control, which allows for two varying temperature settings in the vehicle.
Blackcherry is a limited edition trim, available in the UK since November 2010 and based on the VTR+. It was sold with the 1.6-litre High-pressure Direct Injection diesel engine. It was discontinued and replaced with the Code Red and Code White in January 2012, which have the same engine. 90th Anniversary. It was created to commemorate 90 years of Citroën and has similar features to the Exclusive trim, sold at the same price and features the MyWay SatNav system, leather upholstery, a commemorative badge on the dashboard emblazoned with the wording "90 Years"; as bonus, it came equipped with £1,000 of extras and was released in an advertising campaign of Anniversary trims for other Citroën models at the same time as the launch of the Limited Edition Millennium trim in France. The model was limited to 150 cars in the UK, of which only one has been registered for use. Millennium; the model has 16-inch alloy wheels, the MyWay SatNav system and radio with built-in Bluetooth and dual-zone automatic climate control.
The car was available in a pearlescent finish. Code Red/Code White was released in January 2012; the limited edition C3 Picasso Code Red and Code White replaced the Blackcherry in the UK. The Code has the same engine as the Blackcherry and has been finely tuned for a marginally increased fuel economy and lower carbon dioxide emissions, it features obsidian black bumpers and 17-inch Polar White or Cherry Red "clover" alloy wheels, can be equipped with extra features, which include roof bars, curtain airbags, cruise control and a speed limiter. Body colours exclusive to the trim are Shark Grey and Cherry Red. Passion Bleus was released in France to celebrate the 2012 European Football Championship; the name is a tribute to the French national football team, which Citroën supports as a partner of the French Football Federation. The advertising campaign for the Passion Bleus involved French footballers, rallying champion Sébastien Loeb, an online Facebook game "Le Pilote et le Bleu". Other Citroën vehicles to receive a Passion Bleus trim were the: C1, C3, C4, C4 Picasso, the Berlingo Multispace.
Music Touch was launched in January 2013 in France. Created through a partnership with Samsung and Universal Music Group, the C3 Picasso Music Touch comes with a free white Samsung Galaxy Tab 16 GB; the obvious styling differences are the additional chrome trims and mirror covers, white pearlescent paint. The Music Touch special series was added to the C4 Picasso, C4 Aircross and Berlingo Multispace vehicles. All C3 Picasso models have an anti-lock braking system, Electronic brakeforce distribution, child locks, remote central locking and two front airbags. Electronic Stability Control, once an option, is now included across the range; the vehicle is only available as a 5-seater, but with all models the three rear seats can be folded flat to increase the boot capacity from 385 litres or 500 litres including the hidden compartment to store the parcel shelf, up to a maximum of 1,506 litres. The Exclusive model features a folding front passenger seat to increase the storage space further. All models in th
The Ford Fiesta is a supermini marketed by Ford since 1976 over seven generations, including in Europe, Brazil, Mexico, India and South Africa. It has been manufactured in many countries. In 2008, the seventh generation Fiesta was introduced worldwide, making it the first Fiesta model to be sold in North America since the Fiesta Mark I was discontinued at the end of 1980. Ford has sold over 16 million Fiestas since 1976, making it one of the best selling Ford marques behind the Escort and the F-Series; the Fiesta was developed under the project name "Bobcat" and approved for development by Henry Ford II in September 1972, just after the launch of two comparable cars – the Fiat 127 and Renault 5. More than a decade earlier, Ford had decided against producing a new small car to rival BMC's Mini as the production cost was deemed too high, but the 1973 oil crisis saw a rise in the growing demand for smaller cars; the Fiesta was an all new car in the supermini segment, was the smallest car yet made by Ford.
Development targets indicated a production cost US$100 less than the current Escort. The car was to have a wheelbase longer than that of the Fiat 127, but with overall length shorter than that of Ford's Escort; the final proposal was developed by Tom Tjaarda at Ghia. The project was approved for production in late 1973, with Ford's engineering centres in Cologne and Dunton collaborating. Ford estimated that 500,000 Fiestas a year would be produced, built an all-new factory near Valencia, Spain. Final assembly took place in Valencia; the name Fiesta belonged to General Motors, used as a trim level on Oldsmobile station wagons, when the car was designed and was given for Ford to use on their new B-class car. After years of speculation by the motoring press about Ford's new car, it was subject to a succession of crafted press leaks from the end of 1975. A Fiesta was on display at the Le Mans 24 Hour Race in June 1976, the car went on sale in France and Germany in September 1976, its initial competitors in Europe, apart from the Fiat 127 and Renault 5, included the Volkswagen Polo and Vauxhall Chevette.
Chrysler UK were about to launch the Sunbeam by this stage, British Leyland was working on a new supermini, launched as the Austin Metro in 1980. The Fiesta was available in Europe with the Valencia 957 cc I4, 1,117 cc engines and in Base, Popular Plus, L, GL, Ghia and S trim, as well as a van; the US Mark I Fiesta was built in Cologne, West Germany, but to different specifications. These trim levels changed little in the Fiesta's three-year run in the US, from 1978 to 1980. All US models featured the more powerful 1,596 cc engine, fitted with a catalytic converter and air pump to satisfy strict Californian emission regulations), energy-absorbing bumpers, side-marker lamps, round sealed-beam headlamps, improved crash dynamics and fuel system integrity as well as optional air conditioning. In the US market, the Ford Escort replaced both the Fiesta and the compact Pinto in 1981, competing with the Chevrolet Chevette and Chevrolet Cavalier. A sporting derivative was offered in Europe for the 1980 model year, using the 1.3 L Kent Crossflow engine to test the market for the similar XR2 introduced a year which featured a 1.6 L version of the same engine.
Black plastic trim was added to the interior. The small square headlights were replaced with larger circular ones, with the front indicators being moved into the bumper to accommodate the change. For the 1979 auto show season, Ford in conjunction with its Ghia Operations in Turin, produced the Ford Fiesta Tuareg off-road car, it was touted in press materials as "a concept vehicle designed and equipped for practical, off-road recreational use."Minor revisions appeared across the range in late 1981, with larger bumpers to meet crash worthiness regulations and other small improvements in a bid to maintain showroom appeal ahead of the forthcoming second generation. The Fiesta Mark II appeared in August 1983 with a revised front end and interior, a bootlid mirroring the swage lines from the sides of the car; the 1.3 L OHV engine was dropped, being replaced in 1984 by a CVH powerplant of similar capacity, itself superseded by the lean burn 1.4 L two years later. The 957 and 1,117 cc Kent/Valencia engines continued with only slight alterations and for the first time a Fiesta diesel was produced with a 1,600 cc engine adapted from the Escort.
The new CTX continuously variable transmission fitted in the Fiat Uno appeared early in 1987 on 1.1 L models only. The Mk2 Fiesta core range was made up of the following model variants; the second generation Fiesta featured a different dashboard on the lower-series trim levels compared to the more expensive variants. The XR2 model was updated with a larger bodykit, it featured a 96 bhp 1.6 L CVH engine as seen in the Ford Escort XR3, five-speed gearbox, rather than t
Mini MPV— an abbreviation for Mini Multi-Purpose Vehicle— is a vehicle size class for the smallest size of minivans. The Mini MPV size class sits below the compact MPV size class and the vehicles are built on the platforms of B-segment hatchback models. Mini MPVs are based on the platform of a B-segment hatchback, with a raised roof and five-door body; the raised roof allows for higher H-point seating and easy passenger access compared with traditional hatchbacks. The rear seats can recline, tumble, fold flat or be removed, allowing users to reconfigure the rear passenger and cargo volumes for each journey; the segment was created as a result of the diversification of minivans in the late 1990s. An early usage of the term mini-MPV was in 2000, although the vehicles referred to at the time would now be classified as compact MPVs. In 2018, sales of mini-MPVs in Europe represented 1% of the total market; the top five selling mini-MPVs in Europe in 2018 were the Fiat 500L, Honda Fit/Jazz, Hyundai ix20, Kia Venga and Ford B-Max.
The sales trend for previous years is: 2012: 411,833 sales 2013: 450,897 sales 2014: Sales plateaued at just over 400,000 annual sales, as sales of small crossovers increased. 2015: Sales fell 15% to 350,000 as small crossover segment increased. This was the lowest figure for the segment since 2003 when the first generation Opel Meriva appeared. 2016: By the first quarter, sales fell 20% after the 15% drop in 2015. The Fiat 500L was the segment sales leader. In the United States, sales of mini-MPV's are small, with the Fiat 500L recording 30,000 sales in total from 2013–2017. In Canada, as of 2013, the market for mini-MPV's wasn't "large, the overarching minivan segment is shrinking as the industry expands."
Barcelona is a city in Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within city limits, its urban area extends to numerous neighbouring municipalities within the Province of Barcelona and is home to around 4.8 million people, making it the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union after Paris, Madrid, the Ruhr area and Milan. It is one of the largest metropolises on the Mediterranean Sea, located on the coast between the mouths of the rivers Llobregat and Besòs, bounded to the west by the Serra de Collserola mountain range, the tallest peak of, 512 metres high. Founded as a Roman city, in the Middle Ages Barcelona became the capital of the County of Barcelona. After merging with the Kingdom of Aragon, Barcelona continued to be an important city in the Crown of Aragon as an economic and administrative centre of this Crown and the capital of the Principality of Catalonia.
Barcelona has a rich cultural heritage and is today an important cultural centre and a major tourist destination. Renowned are the architectural works of Antoni Gaudí and Lluís Domènech i Montaner, which have been designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites; the headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean are located in Barcelona. The city is known for hosting the 1992 Summer Olympics as well as world-class conferences and expositions and many international sport tournaments. Barcelona is one of the world's leading tourist, trade fair and cultural centres, its influence in commerce, entertainment, fashion and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities, it is a major cultural and economic centre in southwestern Europe, 24th in the world and a financial centre. In 2008 it was the fourth most economically powerful city by GDP in the European Union and 35th in the world with GDP amounting to €177 billion. In 2012 Barcelona had a GDP of $170 billion. In 2009 the city was ranked one of the world's most successful as a city brand.
In the same year the city was ranked Europe's fourth best city for business and fastest improving European city, with growth improved by 17% per year, the city has been experiencing strong and renewed growth for the past three years. Since 2011 Barcelona has been a leading smart city in Europe. Barcelona is a transport hub, with the Port of Barcelona being one of Europe's principal seaports and busiest European passenger port, an international airport, Barcelona–El Prat Airport, which handles over 50 million passengers per year, an extensive motorway network, a high-speed rail line with a link to France and the rest of Europe; the name Barcelona comes from the ancient Iberian Barkeno, attested in an ancient coin inscription found on the right side of the coin in Iberian script as, in ancient Greek sources as Βαρκινών, Barkinṓn. Some older sources suggest that the city may have been named after the Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca, supposed to have founded the city in the 3rd century BC, but there is no evidence that Barcelona was a Carthaginian settlement, or that its name in antiquity, had any connection with the Barcid family of Hamilcar.
During the Middle Ages, the city was variously known as Barchinona, Barçalona and Barchenona. Internationally, Barcelona's name is wrongly abbreviated to'Barça'. However, this name refers only to the football club; the common abbreviated form used by locals is Barna. Another common abbreviation is'BCN', the IATA airport code of the Barcelona-El Prat Airport; the city is referred to as the Ciutat Comtal in Catalan, Ciudad Condal in Spanish, owing to its past as the seat of the Count of Barcelona. The origin of the earliest settlement at the site of present-day Barcelona is unclear; the ruins of an early settlement have been found, including different tombs and dwellings dating to earlier than 5000 BC. The founding of Barcelona is the subject of two different legends; the first attributes the founding of the city to the mythological Hercules. The second legend attributes the foundation of the city directly to the historical Carthaginian general, Hamilcar Barca, father of Hannibal, who named the city Barcino after his family in the 3rd century BC, but there is no historical or linguistic evidence that this is true.
In about 15 BC, the Romans redrew the town as a castrum centred on the "Mons Taber", a little hill near the contemporary city hall. Under the Romans, it was a colony with the surname of Faventia, or, in full, Colonia Faventia Julia Augusta Pia Barcino or Colonia Julia Augusta Faventia Paterna Barcino. Pomponius Mela mentions it among the small towns of the district as it was eclipsed by its neighbour Tarraco, but it may be gathered from writers that it grew in wealth and consequence, favoured as it was with a beautiful situation and an excellent harbour, it enjoyed immunity from imperial burdens. The city minted its own coins. Important Roman vestiges are displayed in Plaça del Rei underground, as a part of the Barcelona City History Museum; some remaining fragments of the Roman walls have been incorporated into the cathedral. The cathedral known as the Basilica La Seu, is said to have been founded in 343; the city
Ford Kinetic Design
Kinetic Design is the name given to a style of automobile design used by Ford Motor Company for many of its passenger vehicles in the late 2000s and early 2010s. Developed by the design studios of Ford of Europe in Germany and Britain, it replaced New Edge, was first shown in 2005 with the SAV concept. Kinetic Design or Kinetic Design elements have featured on the Ford Ka from the 2008 model onwards, the Ford Fiesta from the 2008 model onwards, the Ford Focus from the 2008 model onwards, the Ford C-MAX from the 2007 model onwards, the Ford Kuga, the Ford Mondeo from the 2007 model onwards, the Ford S-MAX and the Ford Galaxy from the 2006 model onwards. A common feature of Kinetic Design is the large, lower trapezoidal grille; the Ford Kinetic Design was first seen when Ford unveiled the Ford iosis concept