The Welch Regiment was an infantry regiment of the line of the British Army in existence from 1881 until 1969. The regiment was created in 1881 under the Childers Reforms by the amalgamation of the 41st Regiment of Foot and 69th Regiment of Foot to form the Welsh Regiment, by which it was known until 1920 when it was renamed the Welch Regiment. In 1969 the regiment was amalgamated with the South Wales Borderers to form the Royal Regiment of Wales; the regiment was created in 1881 under the Childers Reforms by the amalgamation of the 41st Regiment of Foot and 69th Regiment of Foot to form the Welsh Regiment. The 1st Battalion moved to Egypt in 1886; the battalion took part in the Battle of Suakin in December 1888 during the Mahdist War under the leadership of the force commander, Colonel Herbert Kitchener, who wrote in his dispatches: The half-Battalion of The Welsh Regiment are seasoned soldiers and whatever I asked of them to do they did well. Their marksmen at Gemaizah Fort and the remainder of the half-Battalion on the left fired section volleys driving the Dervishes from their right position and inflicting severe punishment upon them when in the open.
The Battalion did not lose a man. The 1st Battalion moved to Malta in 1889 while the 2nd Battalion went to India in 1892; the 1st Battalion was dispatched to South Africa in November 1899 for the Second Boer War: it was engaged in Battle of Paardeberg in February 1900, where they suffered heavy losses, again at the Battle of Driefontein in March 1900. A 3rd, militia battalion, was embodied in December 1899, embarked for South Africa in February 1900 to serve in the same war. In 1908, the Volunteers and Militia were reorganised nationally, with the former becoming the Territorial Force and the latter the Special Reserve; the 1st Battalion, after returning from India, landed at Le Havre as part of the 84th Brigade in 28th Division in January 1915 for service on the Western Front but moved to Egypt and on to Salonika in November 1915. The 2nd Battalion landed at Le Havre as part of the 3rd Brigade in the 1st Division in August 1914 for service on the Western Front. Lance Corporal William Charles Fuller, of the 2nd Battalion, won the Welsh Regiment's first Victoria Cross of the war when, under withering and sustained rifle and machine gun fire, he advanced one hundred yards to rescue Captain Mark Haggard, mortally wounded on Chézy sur Aisne on 14 September 1914.
The 1/4th Battalion and 1/5th Battalion landed at Suvla Bay as part of the 159th Brigade in the 53rd Division in August 1915. The 1/6th Battalion landed at Le Havre as part of the South Wales Brigade, unallocated to a division, in October 1914 for service on the Western Front; the 8th Battalion landed at ANZAC Cove as part of the 40th Brigade in the 13th Division in August 1915. Captain Edgar Myles, of the 8th Battalion, was awarded the Victoria Cross for his actions at the Siege of Kut in April 1916 during the Mesopotamian campaign; the 9th Battalion landed at Boulogne-sur-Mer as part of the 58th Brigade in the 19th Division in July 1915 for service on the Western Front. The 10th Battalion landed at Le Havre as part of the 114th Brigade in 38th Division in December 1915 for service on the Western Front; the 11th Battalion landed at Boulogne-sur-Mer as part of the 67th Brigade in the 22nd Division in September 1915 for service on the Western Front and moved to Salonika in late 1915. Private Hubert William Lewis, of the 11th Battalion, was awarded the Victoria Cross for his actions at Evzonoi in Macedonia in October 1916 during the Macedonian campaign.
The 13th Battalion, the 14th Battalion and the 15th Battalion landed at Le Havre as part of the 114th Brigade in the 38th Division in December 1915 for service on the Western Front. The 16th Battalion landed at Le Havre as part of the 115th Brigade in the 38th Division in December 1915 for service on the Western Front; the 17th Battalion and 18th Battalion landed in France as part of the 119th Brigade in the 40th Division in June 1916 for service on the Western Front. The 19th Battalion landed at Le Havre as pioneer battalion to the 38th Division in December 1915 for service on the Western Front; the 23rd Battalion landed in Salonika as pioneer battalion to the 28th Division in July 1916. After the First World War, the regiment commissioned the architect Sir Edwin Lutyens to design a war memorial as a tribute to their fallen; the memorials was planned to be built on the Western Front in Belgium but was instead erected outside the regiment's headquarters at Maindy Barracks in Cardiff. The memorial takes the form of squat cenotaph, following Lutyens' design of the famous Cenotaph on Whitehall in London.
The 2nd Battalion was deployed to Ireland in 1920 while the 1st Battalion returned to British India and served there until 1924 when it moved to Waziristan. The 2nd Battalion moved to Shanghai in 1927 for service with the Shanghai Defence Force and on to India in 1935; the 1st Battalion moved to Pale
Olivet College is a private Christian liberal arts college in Olivet, Michigan. Olivet College is affiliated with the United Church of Christ and the National Association of Congregational Christian Churches and stands in the Reformed tradition of Protestantism; the college is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission. In 1844, after founding Oberlin College, Rev. John J. Shipherd and 39 missionaries, including Oberlin faculty and alumni, came to Michigan to create a college, which Shipherd deemed "New Oberlin." The original land for the college was to be in present-day Ingham County twenty-five miles from where the college stands. Olivetian lore says that while Shipherd was on a trip to the site in Ingham County, his horse continued to get lost, would always wander back to a hill above a swamp, where Olivet's Campus Square exists today. Shipherd decided that powers from above must be drawing the horse back to this site, Shipherd deemed that this would become the site for "New Oberlin." He chose to name it Olivet, after the biblical Mount of Olives.
Shortly after the founding of the college, John Shipherd succumbed to malaria, as many other early Olivetians would. It is said that the founders of Olivet College believed in three essential components: first was a coeducational experience. Abolitionist beliefs, along with a coeducational experience, led the state legislature to deny a charter for the college until thirteen years after the first courses were offered; some Olivetians believe that the charter was denied because of possible competition with Michigan College. The first courses began in December 1844; because President Reuben Hatch's petition for a charter was denied, Olivet became the Olivet Institute, remained a two-year school until chartered in 1859. The 20th century saw Olivet College become a liberal arts school, with a short-lived attempt at an Oxford-style curriculum from 1934 to 1944. After assuming leadership in 2010, President Steven Corey announced the "Olivet College 2020 and Beyond Strategic Plan", which includes renovating existing buildings and facilities, creating a new student center, increasing endowment, expand the student population to 1,500.
Olivet offers 32 programs that lead to a bachelor's degree and a master's degree of Business Administration in Insurance. Student-to-faculty ratio is 16:1. Olivet College has 1,040 students, 40% female and 60% male. 74% of classes have less than 24 students, there is a 16:1 student/faculty ratio. The college has a 59% retention rate for first to second year students. For the 2018-2019 school year, tuition is $26,748, room and board is $9,590, yearly fees are $912, miscellaneous costs are $3,966. 99% of students receive some sort of financial aid. Along with Albion College and Michigan State University, Olivet founded the Michigan Intercollegiate Athletic Association in 1888; the MIAA is the nation's oldest collegiate conference. Olivet College athletic teams, nicknamed the Comets, participate in the following intercollegiate sports as a member of the MIAA include: Men baseball, cross country, golf, soccer, swimming & diving, track & field, club volleyball, wrestling. Volleyball will become a full varsity sport in 2015–16, competing in the Midwest Collegiate Volleyball League.
Women basketball, cross country, lacrosse, softball, swimming & diving, track & field and cheerleading. Olivet College has an FCC-Licensed Non-Commercial Educational student-run radio station, broadcasting in the Olivet area at 89.1 MHz FM with the callsign WOCR. The broadcast is available for people outside the studio range online at. Students can volunteer for a radio shift from 7:30am to midnight Monday through Friday to broadcast music, campus events and talk shows. Comet Football and Basketball is often broadcast live from the game site. John Henry Barrows, 5th President of Oberlin College Augusta Jane Chapin, 2010 inductee into Michigan Women's Hall of Fame Adeola Fayehun, Nigerian journalist Daron Cruickshank, current mixed martial artist competing in the UFC's Lightweight Division Dave Cutler, software engineer and developer of operating systems including Windows NT at Microsoft and RSX-11M, VMS and VAXELN at Digital Equipment Corporation James C. Harrison, artist James McCloughan, Recipient of the Medal of Honor in 2017 Wolfgang Mieder, educator George Pyne III football player John Ray, football player and coach Sugar Chile Robinson, child musical prodigy Vern Ruhle, MLB pitcher and coach Claressa Shields, Olympic boxing gold medalist Scott Sigler, author of science-fiction and horror, podcaster John Swainson, 42nd Governor of Michigan Ralph Thacker, college football coach Robie Macauley, editor and critic whose literary career spanned more than 50 years Sherwood Anderson, creative writing Hubert Lyman Clark, zoology Ford Madox Ford, creative writing Alfred Korzybski, semantics Golo Mann, history Gertrude Stein, guest lecturer, creative writing Soronian Official website Official athletics website
Catherine Madox Brown
Catherine Madox Brown Hueffer known as Cathy, the first child of Ford Madox Brown and Emma Hill, was an artist and model associated with the Pre-Raphaelites and married to the writer Francis Hueffer. Born out of wedlock 11 November 1850 in London, Catherine was named after Emma's mother. Emma and Catherine posed as the child in Pretty Baa-Lambs. Catherine's parents married in 1853, she married Francis Hueffer on the 3 September 1872. They had Ford Madox Ford born 1873 and Oliver Madox Hueffer, both writers, their daughter, married Russian revolutionary journalist David Soskice, whose son Frank Soskice became Home Secretary. Emma left Catherine all of her property after her death in September 1890. Francis Hueffer died in January 1899, she began painting along with her half sister Lucy Madox Brown and worked as an assistant under their father. Other female Pre-Raphaelite artists such as Georgiana Burne-Jones, the sister of Thomas Seddon and Marie Spartali Stillman took lessons in the same studio.
Portrait of her father Ford Madox Brown at the Easel, watercolour, 1870. At the Opera and pencil, 1869. Wandering Thoughts, watercolour heightened with bodycolour, 1875. Portrait of Laura, wife of Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, watercolour, 1872, 50.8 x 33 cm, Exh. The Fine Art and Antiques fair Olympia, London, 2000 by Campbell Wilson. Birmingham Museums & Art Gallery, Catherine Madox Brown Thirlwell, Into The Frame: The Four Loves of Ford Madox Brown ---. William and Lucy: The Other Rossettis. ISBN 0-300-10200-3 Marsh and Nunn, Pamela Gerrish, Women Artists and the Pre-Raphaelite Movement Marsh, Pre-Raphaelite Sisterhood, Dinah The Rossettis in Wonderland. A Victorian Family History, ISBN 978-1-907822-01-8 Gaze, Dictionary of Women Artists, Volume 1 Peattie, Roger W. Selected Letters of William Michael Rossetti Treuherz, Ford Madox Brown: Pre-Raphaelite Pioneer ISBN 978-0-85667-700-7 Catherine Madox Brown at Find a Grave
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Avignon is a commune in south-eastern France in the department of Vaucluse on the left bank of the Rhône river. Of the 90,194 inhabitants of the city, about 12,000 live in the ancient town centre enclosed by its medieval ramparts. Between 1309 and 1377, during the Avignon Papacy, seven successive popes resided in Avignon and in 1348 Pope Clement VI bought the town from Joanna I of Naples. Papal control persisted until 1791; the town is now the capital of the Vaucluse department and one of the few French cities to have preserved its ramparts. The historic centre, which includes the Palais des Papes, the cathedral, the Pont d'Avignon, became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1995; the medieval monuments and the annual Festival d'Avignon have helped to make the town a major centre for tourism. The earliest forms of the name were reported by the Greeks: Аὐενιὼν = Auenion Άουεννίων = Aouennion; the Roman name Avennĭo Cavarum, i.e. "Avignon of Cavares" shows that Avignon was one of the three cities of the Celtic-Ligurian tribe of Cavares, along with Cavaillon and Orange.
The current name dates to a pre-Indo-European or pre-Latin theme ab-ên with the suffix -i-ōn This theme would be a hydronym – i.e. a name linked to the river, but also an oronym of terrain. The Auenion of the 1st century BC was Latinized to Avennĭo, -ōnis in the 1st century and was written Avinhon in classic Occitan spelling or Avignoun in Mistralian spelling The inhabitants of the commune are called avinhonencs or avignounen in both Occitan and Provençal dialect. Avignon is on the left bank of the Rhône river, a few kilometres above its confluence with the Durance, about 580 km south-east of Paris, 229 km south of Lyon and 85 km north-north-west of Marseille. On the west it shares a border with the department of Gard and the communes of Villeneuve-lès-Avignon and Les Angles and to the south it borders the department of Bouches-du-Rhône and the communes of Barbentane, Rognonas, Châteaurenard, Noves; the city is in the vicinity of Orange, Nîmes, Arles, Salon-de-Provence, Marseille. Directly contiguous to the east and north are the communes of Caumont-sur-Durance, Morières-lès-Avignon, Le Pontet, Sorgues.
The region around Avignon is rich in limestone, used for building material. For example, the current ramparts, measuring 4,330 metres long, were built with the soft limestone abundant in the region called mollasse burdigalienne. Enclosed by the ramparts, the Rocher des Doms is a limestone elevation of urgonian type, 35 metres high and is the original core of the city. Several limestone massifs are present around the commune and they are the result of the oceanisation of the Ligurian-Provençal basin following the migration of the Sardo-Corsican block; the other significant elevation in the commune is the Montfavet Hill – a wooded hill in the east of the commune. The Rhone Valley is an old alluvial zone: loose deposits cover much of the ground, it consists of sandy alluvium more or less coloured with pebbles consisting of siliceous rocks. The islands in the Rhone, such as the Île de la Barthelasse, were created by the accumulation of alluvial deposits and by the work of man; the relief is quite low despite the creation of mounds allowing local protection from flooding.
In the land around the city there are clay, silt and limestone present. The Rhone passes the western edge of the city but is divided into two branches: the Petit Rhône, or "dead arm", for the part that passes next to Avignon and the Grand Rhône, or "live arm", for the western channel which passes Villeneuve-lès-Avignon in the Gard department; the two branches are separated by the Île de la Barthelasse. The southernmost tip of the Île de la Barthelasse once formed of a separated island, the L'Île de Piot; the banks of the Rhone and the Île de la Barthelasse are subject to flooding during autumn and March. The publication Floods in France since the 6th century until today – research and documentation by Maurice Champion tells about a number of them, they have never stopped as shown by the floods in 1943–1944 and again on 23 January 1955 and remain important today – such as the floods of 2 December 2003. As a result, a new risk mapping has been developed; the Durance flows along the southern boundary of the commune into the Rhone and marks the departmental boundary with Bouches-du-Rhône.
It is a river, considered "capricious" and once feared for its floods (it was once called the "3rd scourge of Provence" as well as for its low water: the Durance has both Alpine and Mediterranean morphology, unusual. There are many natural and artificial water lakes in the commune such as the Lake of Saint-Chamand east of the city. There have been many diversions throughout the course of history, such as feeding the moat surrounding Avignon or irrigating crops. In the 10th century part of the waters from the Sorgue d'Entraigues were diverted and today pass under the ramparts to enter the city.. This watercourse is called the Vaucluse Canal but Avignon people still call it the Sorgue or Sorguette, it is visible in the city in the famous Rue des teinturiers. It fed the moat around the first ramparts fed the moat on the newer east
Gloucester is a city and district in Gloucestershire, in the South West of England, of which it is the county town. Gloucester lies close to the Welsh border, on the River Severn, between the Cotswolds to the east and the Forest of Dean to the southwest. Gloucester was founded in AD 97 by the Romans under Emperor Nerva as Colonia Glevum Nervensis, was granted its first charter in 1155 by King Henry II. Economically, the city is dominated by the service industries, has a strong financial and business sector, it was prominent in the aerospace industry. The origins of the name Gloucester are related to its name in modern Welsh; the name'caerloyw' is composed of two parts: caer and'loyw', a linguistic mutation of'gloyw', meaning bright or shining. The name Gloucester thus means "bright fort". There are various appellations of the city's name in history, such as Caer Glow, Gleucestre as an early British settlement is not confirmed by direct evidence. However, Gloucester was the Roman municipality of Colonia Nervia Glevensium, or Glevum, built in the reign of Nerva.
Parts of the walls can be traced, a number of remains and coins have been found, though inscriptions are scarce. In Historia Brittonum, a fabled account of the early rulers of Britain, Vortigern's grandfather, Gloiu, is given as the founder of Gloucester. Part of the foundations of Roman Gloucester can be seen today in Eastgate Street, while Roman tombstones and a range of other Roman artefacts can be seen in Gloucester City Museum. After the withdrawal on the Roman Empire in the late 4th Century the town returned to the control of Celtic Dubonni tribe. By the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Gloucester is shown as part of Wessex from the Battle of Deorham in 577. At some point after this battle, along with the rest of Gloucestershire excluding the Forest of Dean, Gloucester was part of the minor kingdom of the Hwicce. In 628, as a result of the Battle of Cirencester, the kingdom of the Hwicce became a client or sub-kingdom of Mercia. From about 780, the Hwicce region was no longer a kingdom in its own right and was under full Mercian control until, along with the rest of Mercia, it submitted to Alfred the Great in about 877-883.
The name Gloucester derives from the Anglo-Saxon for fort preceded by Celtic name, which derived from the Roman stem Glev-. Claudia Castra is mentioned in the 18th Century as possible Latin name related to the city. Gloucester was captured by the Saxons in 577, its situation on a navigable river, the foundation in 681 of the abbey of St Peter by Æthelred, favoured the growth of the town. In the early 10th century the remains of Saint Oswald were brought to a small church in Gloucester, bringing many pilgrims to the town; the core street layout is thought to date back to the reign of Ethelfleda in late Saxon times. In 1051 Edward the Confessor held court at Gloucester and was threatened there by an army led by Godwin, Earl of Wessex, but the incident resulted in a standoff rather than a battle. A unique coin, dated to 1077–80, was discovered, just north of the city, in November 2011, it features its place of minting. The Portable Antiquities Scheme said that, until the coin was discovered, there had been no known examples of William I coins minted in Gloucester in this period.
After the Norman Conquest, William Rufus made Robert Fitzhamon the first baron or overlord of Gloucester. Fitzhamon had a military base at Cardiff Castle, for the succeeding years the history of Gloucester was linked to that of Cardiff. During the Anarchy, Gloucester was a centre of support for the Empress Matilda, supported in her claim to the throne by her half-brother, Fitzhamon's grandson, Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester. After this period of strife ended with the ascent of her son Henry to the throne Henry II of England, Henry granted Robert possession of Cardiff Castle, it passed to Mathilda's son Robert Curthose and his son, William Fitz Robert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester; the story of the Anarchy is vividly told in a series of nineteenth-century paintings by William Burges at the Castle. King Henry II granted Gloucester its first charter in 1155, which gave the burgesses the same liberties as the citizens of London and Winchester. A second charter of Henry II gave them freedom of passage on the River Severn.
The first charter was confirmed in 1194 by King Richard I. The privileges of the borough were extended by the charter of King John, which gave freedom from toll throughout the kingdom and from pleading outside the borough. In 1216 King Henry III, aged only ten years, was crowned with a gilded iron ring in the Chapter House of Gloucester Cathedral. Gloucester's significance in the Middle Ages is underlined by the fact that it had a number of monastic establishments, including St Peter's Abbey founded in 679, the nearby St Oswald's Priory, Gloucester founded in the 880s or 890s, Llanthony Secunda Priory, founded 1136 as a retreat for a community of Welsh monks, the Franciscan Greyfriars community founded in 1231, the Dominican Blackfriars community founded in 1239, it has some early churches including St Mary de Lode Church, Gloucester near the Cathedral and the Norman St Mary de Crypt Church, Gloucester in Southgate Street. Additionally, there is e
The Good Soldier
The Good Soldier: A Tale of Passion is a 1915 novel by English novelist Ford Madox Ford. It is set just before World War I and chronicles the tragedy of Edward Ashburnham, the soldier to whom the title refers, his own perfect marriage and that of two American friends; the novel is told using a series of flashbacks in non-chronological order, a literary technique that formed part of Ford's pioneering view of literary impressionism. Ford employs the device of the unreliable narrator to great effect as the main character reveals a version of events, quite different from what the introduction leads the reader to believe; the novel was loosely based on Ford's messy personal life. The novel's original title was The Saddest Story, but after the onset of World War I, the publishers asked Ford for a new title. Ford suggested The Good Soldier, the name stuck. In 1998, the Modern Library ranked The Good Soldier 30th on its list of the 100 best English-language novels of the 20th century. In 2015, the BBC ranked The Good Soldier 13th on its list of the 100 greatest British novels.
The Good Soldier is narrated by the character John Dowell, half of one of the couples whose dissolving relationships form the subject of the novel. Dowell tells the story of those dissolutions and the deaths of three characters and the madness of a fourth, in a rambling, non-chronological fashion; as an unreliable narrator, the reader can consider whether he believes Dowell and his description of how the events unfolded, including his own role in the "saddest story told". The novel opens with the famous line, "This is the saddest story I have heard." Dowell explains that, for nine years, he, his wife Florence, their friends Captain Edward Ashburnham and his wife Leonora had an ostensibly normal friendship while Edward and Florence sought treatment for their heart ailments at a spa in Nauheim, Germany. As it turns out, nothing in the relationships or in the characters is. Florence's heart ailment is a fiction she perpetrated on John to ensure that he did not seek intimacy from her as it would be too stressful for her heart, to keep him out of her bedroom at night so that she could continue her affair with a French artist named Jimmy.
Edward and Leonora have an imbalanced marriage broken by his constant infidelities and Leonora's attempts to control Edward's affairs. Dowell is an innocent and is coming to realise how much he has been fooled, as Florence and Edward had an affair under his nose for nine years without John knowing until Florence was dead. Dowell tells the story of Edward and Leonora's relationship, which appears normal to others but, a power struggle that Leonora wins. Dowell narrates several of Edward's affairs and peccadilloes, including his innocent attempt to comfort a crying servant on a train. Edward's philandering ends up costing them a fortune in bribes and gifts for his lovers, leading Leonora to take control of Edward's financial affairs, she gets him out of debt. Florence's affair with Edward leads her to commit suicide when she realises both that Edward is falling in love with his and Leonora's young ward, Nancy Rufford, that Dowell has found out about her affair with Jimmy. Florence sees Edward and Nancy in an intimate conversation and rushes back to the resort, where she sees John talking to a man she used to know.
Assuming that her relationship with Edward and her marriage to John are over, Florence takes prussic acid—which she has carried for years in a vial that John thought held her heart medicine—and dies. Edward's last affair is his most scandalous. Nancy came to live with them after leaving a convent. Edward, tearing himself apart because he does not want to spoil Nancy's innocence, arranges to have her sent to India to live with her father though this frightens her terribly. Once Leonora knows that Edward intends to keep his passion for Nancy chaste, but only wants Nancy to continue to love him from afar, she torments him by making this wish impossible, she pretends to offer to divorce him so he can marry Nancy, but informs Nancy of his sordid sexual history, destroying Nancy's innocent love for him. After Nancy's departure, Edward receives a telegram from her. Having a rattling good time. Nancy." He asks Dowell to take the telegram to his wife, pulls out his pen knife, says that it's time he had some rest and slits his own throat.
When Nancy reaches Aden and sees the obituary in the paper, she becomes catatonic. The novel's last section has Dowell writing from Edward's old estate in England, where he takes care of Nancy, whom he cannot marry because of her mental illness. Nancy is only capable of repeating two things—a Latin phrase meaning "I believe in an omnipotent God" and the word "shuttlecocks." Dowell states. Leonora wanted Edward but ended in marrying the normal Rodney Bayham. Edward wanted Nancy but gave her up lost her. Dowell ended up a nurse to two women. Dowell ends up unsure about where to lay the blame but expressing sympathy for Edward, because he believes himself similar to Edward in nature; the fact is