The Ford GT90 is a high performance concept car, developed and manufactured by American car maker Ford. It was unveiled in 1995 at the Detroit Auto Show; the mid-engined GT90 is a spiritual successor to the Ford GT40, taking from it some styling cues, such as doors that cut into the roofline, but little else. In regard to angles and glass, the Ford GT90 was the first Ford to display the company's "New Edge" design philosophy; the GT90 was built around a honeycomb-section aluminum monocoque and its body panels were molded from carbon fiber. The GT90's 48-valve V12 is constructed on an aluminium block and head, displaces 6.0-litres, produces an estimated 720 hp and 660 lb⋅ft of torque. It has a redline of 6,300 rpm, it is equipped with a forced induction system. The engine architecture was based on the 90-degree Ford Modular engine family utilizing a layout similar to that of a paired set of 4.6-litre V8 engines, of which each had 2 cylinders removed. This yielded a 90-degree V12, with a 90.2 mm bore and a 77.3 mm stroke with the cylinders arranged in two banks in a single casting.
The power produced by the engine is delivered to the rear-wheels through a 5-speed manual transmission developed jointly by FF Developments and Ricardo. The exhaust of the GT90 gets so hot that it would be enough to damage the body panels, thus ceramic tiles, similar to those on the Space Shuttle, are used to keep the car from melting; the suspension is a double wishbone variant. The steering is a power-assisted rack-and-pinion; the brakes are ventilated discs. The GT90, according to Ford, was capable of accelerating from 0–60 mph in 3.1 seconds, 0–100 mph in 6.2 seconds, had a quarter mile time of 10.9 seconds at 140 mph. Top speed was listed as 253 mph; the GT90 was built as a secret project by a small engineering team in just over six months. It shared many components including the transmission and chassis from the Jaguar XJ220, as Jaguar was owned by Ford at the time; the V12 engine, unique to the GT90, was developed by using a Lincoln Town Car as a test mule, in which they put the prototype engine in order to refine it.
The GT90 was going to be the successor to the Ford GT40 and Ford GT70, the predecessor to the Ford GT, but after the plan for production was cancelled, the chronology was changed, making the Ford GT the new successor to the GT40 and GT70. The Ford GT90 appeared in the video games Need for Speed II, Sega GT 2002, Sega GT Online, Ford Racing 2, Ford Racing 3, Gran Turismo 2, Rush 2: Extreme Racing USA, TOCA Race Driver 2, TOCA Race Driver 3, Project Gotham Racing 3 and Ford Street Racing; the car was featured on Top Gear in a 1995 issue tested by Jeremy Clarkson, while the car was still planned to enter production. Ford GT90 Concept
Front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout
In automotive design, an FR, or front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is one where the engine is located at the front of the vehicle and driven wheels are located at the rear. This was the traditional automobile layout for most of the 20th century. Modern designs use the front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout. In automotive design, a front mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is one that places the engine in the front, with the rear wheels of vehicle being driven. In contrast to the front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout, the engine is pushed back far enough that its center of mass is to the rear of the front axle; this aids in weight distribution and reduces the moment of inertia, improving the vehicle's handling. The mechanical layout of an FMR is the same as an FR car; some models of the same vehicle can be classified as either FR or FMR depending on the length of the installed engine and its centre of mass in relation to the front axle. FMR cars are characterized by a long hood and front wheels that are pushed forward to the corners of the vehicle, close to the front bumper.
Grand tourers have FMR layouts, as a rear engine would not leave much space for the rear seats. FMR should not be confused with a "front midships" location of the engine, referring to the engine being located behind the front axle centerline, in which case a car meeting the above FMR center of mass definition could be classified as a FR layout instead; the v35 Nissan Skyline / Infiniti G35 / Nissan 350Z are FM cars. FMR layout came standard in most pre–World War II, front-engine / rear-wheel-drive cars
A concept car is a car made to showcase new styling and/or new technology. They are shown at motor shows to gauge customer reaction to new and radical designs which may or may not be mass-produced. General Motors designer Harley Earl is credited with inventing the concept car, did much to popularize it through its traveling Motorama shows of the 1950s. Concept cars never go into production directly. In modern times all would have to undergo many changes before the design is finalized for the sake of practicality, regulatory compliance, cost. A "production-intent" prototype, as opposed to a concept vehicle, serves this purpose. Concept cars are radical in engine or design; some use non-traditional, exotic, or expensive materials, ranging from paper to carbon fiber to refined alloys. Others have unique layouts, such as gullwing doors, 3 or 5 wheels, or special abilities not found on cars; because of these impractical or unprofitable leanings, many concept cars never get past scale models, or drawings in computer design.
Other more traditional concepts can be developed into drivable vehicles with a working drivetrain and accessories. The state of most concept cars does not represent the final product. A small proportion of concept cars are functional to any useful extent, some cannot move safely at anything above 10 mph. Inoperative "mock-ups" are made of wax, metal, plastic or a combination thereof. If drivable, the drivetrain is borrowed from a production vehicle from the same company, or may have defects and imperfections in design, they can be quite refined, such as General Motors' Cadillac Sixteen concept. After a concept car's useful life is over, the cars are destroyed; some survive, either in a company's museum or hidden away in storage. One unused but operational concept car that languished for years in the North Hollywood, shop of car customizer George Barris, Ford Motor Company's "Lincoln Futura" from 1954, received a new lease on life as the Batmobile in the Batman series that debuted in 1966 on the ABC Television Network.
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A sports car, or sportscar, is a small two-seater automobile designed for spirited performance and nimble handling. The term "sports car" was used in The Times, London in 1919. According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, USA's first known use of the term was in 1928. Sports cars started to become popular during the 1920s. Sports cars may be spartan or luxurious. Sports cars are aerodynamically shaped, have a lower center of gravity than standard models. Steering and suspension are designed for precise control at high speeds. Traditionally sports cars were open roadsters, but closed coupés started to become popular during the 1930s, the distinction between a sports car and a grand tourer is not absolute. Attributing the definition of'sports car' to any particular model can be controversial or the subject of debate among enthusiasts. Authors and experts have contributed their own ideas to capture a definition. A car may be a sporting automobile without being a sports car. Performance modifications of regular, production cars, such as sport compacts, sports sedans, muscle cars, pony cars and hot hatches are not considered sports cars, yet share traits common to sports cars.
Certain models can "appeal to both muscle car and sports car enthusiasts, two camps that acknowledged each other's existences." Some models are called "sports cars" for marketing purposes to take advantage of greater marketplace acceptance and for promotional purposes. High-performance cars of various configurations are grouped as Sports and Grand tourer cars or just as performance cars; the drivetrain and engine layout influences the handling characteristics of an automobile, is crucially important in the design of a sports car. The front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is common to sports cars of any era and has survived longer in sports cars than in mainstream automobiles. Examples include the Caterham 7, Mazda MX-5, the Chevrolet Corvette. More many such sports cars have a front mid-engine, rear-wheel drive layout, with the centre of mass of the engine between the front axle and the firewall. In search of improved handling and weight distribution, other layouts are sometimes used; the rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is found only in sports cars—the motor is centre-mounted in the chassis, powers only the rear wheels.
Some high-performance sports car manufacturers, such as Ferrari and Lamborghini have preferred this layout. Porsche is one of the few remaining manufacturers using the rear-wheel-drive layout; the motor's distributed weight across the wheels, in a Porsche 911, provides excellent traction, but the significant mass behind the rear wheels makes it more prone to oversteer in some situations. Porsche has continuously refined the design and in recent years added electronic stability control to counteract these inherent design shortcomings; the front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout layout, the most common in sport compacts and hot hatches, modern production cars in general, is not used for sports cars. This layout is advantageous for small, lower power sports cars, as it avoids the extra weight, increased transmission power loss, packaging problems of a long driveshaft and longitudinal engine of FR vehicles. However, its conservative handling effect understeer, the fact that many drivers believe rear wheel drive is a more desirable layout for a sports car count against it.
The Fiat Barchetta, Saab Sonett, Berkeley cars are sports cars with this layout. Before the 1980s few sports cars used four-wheel drive, which had traditionally added a lot of weight. With its improvement in traction in adverse weather conditions, four-wheel drive is no longer uncommon in high-powered sports cars, e.g. Porsche and the Bugatti Veyron. Traditional sports cars were two-seat roadsters. Although the first sports cars were derived from fast tourers, early sporting regulations demanded four seats, two seats became common from about the mid-1920s. Modern sports cars may have small back seats that are really only suitable for luggage or small children. Over the years, some manufacturers of sports cars have sought to increase the practicality of their vehicles by increasing the seating room. One method is to place the driver's seat in the center of the car, which allows two full-sized passenger seats on each side and behind the driver; the arrangement was considered for the Lamborghini Miura, but abandoned as impractical because of the difficulty for the driver to enter/exit the vehicle.
McLaren used the design in their F1. Another British manufacturer, TVR, took a different approach in their Cerbera model; the interior was designed in such a way that the dashboard on the passenger side swept toward the front of the car, which allowed the passenger to sit farther forward than the driver. This gave the rear seat passenger extra room and made the arrangement suitable for three adult passengers and one child seated behind the driver; some Matra sports cars had three seats squeezed next to each other. The definition of a sports car is not precise, but from the earliest first automobiles "people have found ways to make them go faster, round corners better, look more beautiful" than the ordinary models inspiring an "emotional relationship" with a car, fun to drive and use for the sake of driving; the basis for the sports car is traced to the early 20th century touring cars a
S-segment is the a European segments for passenger cars for sport coupés. The cars are described as sports cars and the equivalent Euro NCAP class is called "roadster sport". S-segment cars have a sporting appearance and are designed to have superior handling and/or straight-line acceleration compared to other segments; the most common body styles for S-segment cars are convertible. Rear passenger accommodation is not a priority for S-segment cars, therefore many models are either two-seat cars or have a 2+2 layout with cramped rear seating. Most recent S-segment cars use the commonplace front-engine design, however the majority of cars with a Mid-engine design or rear-engine design belong to the S-segment; the five highest selling S-segment cars in Europe are the Audi TT, Mazda MX-5, Porsche 911, Ford Mustang and Porsche Boxster/Cayman. In 2014, the five highest selling coupé models were the BMW 4 Series, Opel Astra GTC,BMW 2 Series, Renault Mégane Coupé and Mercedes-Benz C-Class; the five highest selling convertible models in 2014 were the Fiat 500C, Mini Hatch, BMW 4 Series, Volkswagen Beetle and Volkswagen Golf Mk6
The layout of a car is defined by the location of the engine and drive wheels. Layouts can be divided into three categories: front-wheel drive, rear-wheel drive and four-wheel drive. Many different combinations of engine location and driven wheels are found in practice, the location of each is dependent on the application for which the car will be used; the front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout places both the internal combustion engine and driven wheels at the front of the vehicle. This is the most common layout for cars since the late 20th century; some early front-wheel drive cars from the 1930s had the engine located in the middle of the car. A rear-engine, front-wheel-drive layout is one in which the engine is between or behind the rear wheels, drives the front wheels via a driveshaft, the complete reverse of a conventional front-engine, rear-wheel-drive vehicle layout; this layout has only been used on concept cars. The front-engine, rear-wheel drive layout is one where the engine is located at the front of the vehicle and driven wheels are located at the rear.
This was the traditional automobile layout for most of the 20th century, remains the most common layout for rear-wheel drive cars. The mid-engine, rear-wheel drive layout is one where the rear wheels are driven by an engine placed just in front of them, behind the passenger compartment. In contrast to the rear-engined RR layout, the center of mass of the engine is in front of the rear axle; this layout is chosen for its low moment of inertia and favorable weight distribution. The rear-engine, rear-wheel drive layout places both the engine and drive wheels at the rear of the vehicle. In contrast to the MR layout, the center of mass of the engine is between the rear axle and the rear bumper. Although common in transit buses and coaches due to the elimination of the drive shaft with low-floor bus, this layout has become rare in passenger cars; the Porsche 911 is notable for its continuous use of the RR layout since 1963. Car drivetrains where power can be sent to all four wheels are referred to as either four-wheel drive or all-wheel drive.
The front-engine, four-wheel drive layout places the engine at the front of the vehicle and drives all four roadwheels. This layout is chosen for better control on many surfaces, is an important part of rally racing as well as off-road driving. Most four-wheel-drive layouts are front-engined and are derivatives of earlier front-engine, rear-wheel-drive designs; the mid-engine, four-wheel drive layout places the engine in the middle of the vehicle, between both axles and drives all four road wheels. Although the term "mid-engine" can mean the engine is placed anywhere in the car such that the centre of gravity of the engine lies between the front and rear axles, it is used for sports cars and racing cars where the engine is behind the passenger compartment; the motive output is sent down a shaft to a differential in the centre of the car, which in the case of an M4 layout, distributes power to both front and rear axles. The rear-engine, four-wheel drive layout places the engine at the rear of the vehicle, drives all four wheels.
This layout is chosen to improve the traction or the handling of existing vehicle designs using the rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout. For example, the Porsche 911 added all-wheel drive to the existing line-up of rear-wheel drive models in 1989. Automobile handling Car classification Drivetrain layout
The Ford GT40 is a high-performance endurance racing car with the Mk I, Mk II, Mk III model cars being based upon the British Lola Mk6, were designed and built in England, while the GT40 Mk IV model was designed and built in the United States. The range was powered by a series of American-built engines modified for racing; the GT40 won the 24 Hours of Le Mans four consecutive times, from 1966 to 1969, including a 1-2-3 finish in 1966. In 1966, with Henry Ford II in attendance at Le Mans, the Mk II GT40 provided Ford with the first overall Le Mans victory for an American manufacturer, the first victory for an American manufacturer at a major European race since Jimmy Murphy´s triumph with Duesenberg at the 1921 French Grand Prix; the Mk IV GT40 that won Le Mans in 1967 is the only car designed and built in the United States to achieve the overall win at Le Mans. The GT40 was produced to win long-distance sports car races against Ferrari. Ford/Shelby chassis #P-1075, which won in 1968 and 1969, is the first car in Le Mans history to win the race more than once, using the same chassis.
Using an American Ford V-8 engine of 4.7-liter displacement capacity, it was enlarged to the 4.9-liter engine, with custom designed alloy Gurney–Weslake cylinder heads. The car was named the GT with the 40 representing its overall height of 40 inches as required by the rules. Large-displacement Ford V8 engines were used, compared with the Ferrari V12, which displaced 3.0 liters or 4.0 liters. Early cars were named "Ford GT"; the name "GT40" was the name of Ford's project to prepare the cars for the international endurance racing circuit, the quest to win the 24 Hours of Le Mans. The first 12 "prototype" vehicles carried serial numbers GT-101 through GT-112; the "production" began and the subsequent cars—the MkI, MkII, MkIII, MkV —were numbered GT40P/1000 through GT40P/1145, thus "GT40s". The name of Ford's project, the serial numbers dispel the story that "GT40" was "only a nickname." The contemporary Ford GT is a modern homage to the GT40. Henry Ford II had wanted a Ford at Le Mans since the early 1960s.
In early 1963, Ford received word through a European intermediary that Enzo Ferrari was interested in selling to Ford Motor Company. Ford spent several million dollars in an audit of Ferrari factory assets and in legal negotiations, only to have Ferrari unilaterally cut off talks at a late stage due to disputes about the ability to direct open wheel racing. Ferrari, who wanted to remain the sole operator of his company's motor sports division, was angered when he was told that he would not be allowed to race at the Indianapolis 500 if the deal went through since Ford fielded Indy cars using its own engine, didn't want competition from Ferrari. Enzo cut the deal off out of spite and Henry Ford II, directed his racing division to find a company that could build a Ferrari-beater on the world endurance-racing circuit. To this end Ford began negotiation with Lotus and Cooper. Cooper had no experience in GT or prototype and its performances in Formula One were declining. Lotus was a Ford partner for their Indy 500 project, but Ford executives doubted the ability of Lotus to handle this new project.
Colin Chapman had similar views as he asked a high price for his contribution and insisted that the car should be named a Lotus-Ford. The Lola proposal was chosen, since Lola had used a Ford V8 engine in their mid-engined Lola Mk6, it was one of the most advanced racing cars of the time, made a noted performance in Le Mans 1963 though the car did not finish, due to low gearing and slow revving out on the Mulsanne Straight. However, Eric Broadley, Lola Cars' owner and chief designer, agreed on a short-term personal contribution to the project without involving Lola Cars; the agreement with Broadley included a one-year collaboration between Ford and Broadley, the sale of the two Lola Mk 6 chassis builds to Ford. To form the development team, Ford hired the ex-Aston Martin team manager John Wyer. Ford Motor Co. engineer Roy Lunn was sent to England. Despite the small engine of the Mustang I, Lunn was the only Dearborn engineer to have some experience with a mid-engined car. Overseen by Harley Copp, the team of Broadley and Wyer began working on the new car at the Lola Factory in Bromley.
At the end of 1963 the team moved near Heathrow Airport. Ford established Ford Advanced Vehicles Ltd, a new subsidiary under the direction of Wyer, to manage the project; the first chassis built by Abbey Panels of Coventry was delivered on 16 March 1963, with fibre-glass mouldings produced by Fibre Glass Engineering Ltd of Farnham. The first "Ford GT" the GT/101 was unveiled in England on 1 April and soon after exhibited in New York. Purchase price of the completed car for competition use was £5,200, it was powered by the 4.7 L 289 cu in Fairlane engine with a Colotti transaxle, the same power plant was used by the Lola GT and the single-seater Lotus 29 that came in a controversial second at the Indy 500 in 1963. The Ford GT40 was first raced in May 1964 at the Nürburgring 1000 km race where it retired with suspension failure after holding second place e