In an internal combustion engine, the cylinder head sits above the cylinders on top of the cylinder block. It closes in the top of the cylinder; this joint is sealed by a head gasket. In most engines, the head provides space for the passages that feed air and fuel to the cylinder, that allow the exhaust to escape; the head can be a place to mount the valves, spark plugs, fuel injectors. In a flathead or sidevalve engine, the mechanical parts of the valve train are all contained within the block, a'poultice head' may be used, a simple metal plate bolted to the top of the block. Keeping all moving parts within the block has an advantage for physically large engines in that the camshaft drive gear is small and so suffers less from the effects of thermal expansion in the cylinder block. With a chain drive to an overhead camshaft, the extra length of chain needed for an overhead cam design could give trouble from wear and slop in the chain without frequent maintenance. Early sidevalve engines were in use at a time of simple fuel chemistry, low octane ratings and so required low compression ratios.
This made their combustion chamber design less critical and there was less need to design their ports and airflow carefully. One difficulty experienced at this time was that the low compression ratio implied a low expansion ratio during the power stroke. Exhaust gases were thus still hot, hotter than a contemporary engine, this led to frequent trouble with burnt exhaust valves. A major improvement to the sidevalve engine was the advent of Ricardo's turbulent head design; this reduced the space within the combustion chamber and the ports, but by careful thought about the airflow paths within them it allowed a more efficient flow in and out of the chamber. Most it used turbulence within the chamber to mix the fuel and air mixture. This, of itself, allowed the use of higher compression ratios and more efficient engine operation; the limit on sidevalve performance is not the gas flow through the valves, but rather the shape of the combustion chamber. With high speed engines and high compression, the limiting difficulty becomes that of achieving complete and efficient combustion, whilst avoiding the problems of unwanted pre-detonation.
The shape of a sidevalve combustion chamber, being wider than the cylinder to reach the valve ports, conflicts with achieving both an ideal shape for combustion and the small volume needed for high compression. Modern, efficient engines thus tend towards the pent roof or hemi designs, where the valves are brought close in to the centre of the space. Where fuel quality is low and octane rating is poor, compression ratios will be restricted. In these cases, the sidevalve engine still has much to offer. In the case of the developed IOE engine for a market with poor fuels, engines such as Rolls-Royce B series or the Land-Rover use a complicated arrangement of inclined valves, a cylinder head line at an angle to the bore and corresponding angled pistons to provide a compact combustion chamber approaching the near-hemispherical ideal; such engines remained in production into the 1990s, only being replaced when the fuels available'in the field' became more to be diesel than petrol. Internally, the cylinder head has passages called ports or tracts for the fuel/air mixture to travel to the inlet valves from the intake manifold, for exhaust gases to travel from the exhaust valves to the exhaust manifold.
In a water-cooled engine, the cylinder head contains integral ducts and passages for the engines' coolant—usually a mixture of water and antifreeze—to facilitate the transfer of excess heat away from the head, therefore the engine in general. In the overhead valve design, the cylinder head contains the poppet valves and the spark plugs, along with tracts or'ports' for the inlet and exhaust gases; the operation of the valves is initiated by the engine's camshaft, sited within the cylinder block, its moment of operation is transmitted to the valves' pushrods, rocker arms mounted on a rocker shaft—the rocker arms and shaft being located within the cylinder head. In the overhead camshaft design, the cylinder head contains the valves, spark plugs and inlet/exhaust tracts just like the OHV engine, but the camshaft is now contained within the cylinder head; the camshaft may be seated centrally between each offset row of inlet and exhaust valves, still utilizing rocker arms, or the camshaft may be seated directly above the valves eliminating the rocker arms and utilizing'bucket' tappets.
The number of cylinder heads in an engine is a function of the engine configuration. All inline engines today use a single cylinder head that serves all the cylinders. A V engine has two cylinder heads, one for each cylinder bank of the'V'. For a few compact'narrow angle' V engines, such as the Volkswagen VR6, the angle between the cylinder banks is so narrow that it uses a single head spanning the two banks. A flat engine has two heads. Most radial engines have one head for each cylinder, although this is of the monobloc form wherein the head is made as an integral part of the cylinder; this is common for motorcycles, such head/cylinder components are referred-to as barrels. Some engines medium- and large-capacity diesel engines built for industrial, power generation, heavy traction purposes have individual cylinder heads for each cylinder; this reduces repair costs as a single failed head on a
The Saab Sonett is an automobile manufactured between 1955 and 1957 and again between 1966 and 1974 by Saab of Sweden. Sonetts shared other components with Saab 96s and 95s of the same era, it was intended for the lucrative American export market and was only offered intermittently in the Swedish domestic market. The first prototype, now known as the Sonett I, was a two-seat, open-top, lightweight roadster racer which, ten years evolved into the commercially distributed Sonett models II, V4, III. In the 1950s, Rolf Mellde—a Saab engine developer and race enthusiast—along with Lars Olov Olsson, Olle Lindkvist, Gotta Svensson, designed a two-seat roadster prototype in a barn in Åsaka, near Trollhättan; the limited research-and-development project, with a total budget of only 75,000 Swedish kronor, became known as the Sonett, a name derived from the Swedish phrase Så nätt den är. The Saab Sonett called the Super Sport or Saab 94, was introduced on 16 March 1956 at Stockholm's Bilsalong. Featuring a three-cylinder 748 cc two-stroke engine generating 57.5 horsepower and a 70 kilograms aluminium box-style chassis from Swedish designer Sixten Sason, the Sonett I was an advanced low-weight 600 kg racer based on aircraft design concepts.
With a projected top speed of 120 mph, the Sonett I had the prospect of success on the European race circuit, a production run of 2,000 units was planned for 1957. However, race competition rules changed, permitting modified production cars into race classes that Saab had envisioned for its purpose-built Sonett, the economic and marketing viability of the project faded. Only six Sonett I vehicles were made between 1955 and early 1957, all RHD; the original prototype, known as "#1" and built with a manually crafted glass-reinforced plastic body, served as the reference model for the other five cars. An rare vehicle, only two Sonetts I exist in the United States. In September 1996, rally driver Erik Carlsson broke the Swedish record for the under–750-cc engine class with a speed of 159.4 km/h in the restored Sonett I original prototype "#1". In the early 1960s, Björn Karlström, an aircraft and automotive illustrator, Walter Kern, an engineer at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, independently suggested a two-seat roadster with Saab components and a two-stroke engine called the "Shrike".
Two prototypes were developed: the Saab MFI13 by Malmö Flygindustri, the Saab Catherina by Sixten Sason. After some modifications, the MFI13 was put into limited production in 1966 as the Sonett II, manufactured at the Aktiebolaget Svenska Järnvägsverkstäderna in Arlöv. Inside Saab, it was designated model 97. A further 230 units were assembled in 1967, but as the two-stroke engine became uncompetitive in the US market, a switch to the Ford Taunus V4 engine was made in the middle of the 1967 production year, the model was renamed the Sonett V4. Apart from the engine and related drivetrain, the Sonett II and Sonett V4 share much of their componentry; the additional weight did require some strengthening of the chassis and suspension pieces, the wheels were half an inch wider than the four-inch units used on the Sonett II. 50 percent of the Sonett II production has survived, preserved or maintained by museums and race enthusiasts. Like the Sonett I prototype, the Sonett II fiberglass body was bolted to a box-type chassis with an added roll-bar to support the hard top.
The entire front hood section hinged forward to allow easy access to the engine and front suspension. Equipped with a three-cylinder, two-stroke engine generating 60 PS, the Sonett II achieved 0 to 100 km/h time of 12.5 seconds, with a top speed of 150 km/h. All Sonett II were left hand drive. Designed as a race car, the Sonett II competed against other small European roadsters, including the Austin-Healey Sprite and Triumph Spitfire, in Sports Car Club of America races of the period. Due to low production volume, Sonett IIs were disqualified from certain competitions. By 1967, the two-stroke engine failed to meet US emission control standards. In 2011 a two-stroke Sonett II achieved 109 miles per hour at the Bonneville Salt Flats. Of the 28 Sonett IIs manufactured in 1966 all were equipped with 841cc three cylinder two-stroke engines. SAAB produced serial numbers 29 through 258 with the two-stroke engine, serial number 259 was the first Sonett to have the V4 engine. All Sonett II transmissions had a freewheel that could be engaged and disengaged while in motion via a pull handle down near the throttle pedal.
The freewheel was required in the normal SAAB two stroke engines but not in the racing engines that had an oil injection system fed from a supply tank, nor in the Sonett V4 since it had a four-stroke engine with the common recirculating pressure lubrication. The Škoda-engined ÚVMV 1100 GT was based on the Sonett II; when Saab started using the Ford V4 engine in their 95, 96, Monte Carlo models, an upgrade for the low-volume Sonett II became economically feasible. The Sonett V4 was introduced with a 1,500 cc Ford Taunus V4 engine in the middle of the 1967 model year starting with serial number 259. A new "bulge" hood, designed by Gunnar A. Sjögren, was required to clear the larger V4 engine, with a slight right offset to avoid obstructing the driver's view; this asymmetrical hood shape, criticized by both the automotive press and within Saab itself, contributed to the motivation for the 1970 Sonett III redesign. The
Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%. Its usefulness derives from its low melting temperature; the alloy constituents affect its colour when fractured: white cast iron has carbide impurities which allow cracks to pass straight through, grey cast iron has graphite flakes which deflect a passing crack and initiate countless new cracks as the material breaks, ductile cast iron has spherical graphite "nodules" which stop the crack from further progressing. Carbon ranging from 1.8 to 4 wt%, silicon 1–3 wt% are the main alloying elements of cast iron. Iron alloys with lower carbon content are known as steel. While this technically makes the Fe–C–Si system ternary, the principle of cast iron solidification can be understood from the simpler binary iron–carbon phase diagram. Since the compositions of most cast irons are around the eutectic point of the iron–carbon system, the melting temperatures range from 1,150 to 1,200 °C, about 300 °C lower than the melting point of pure iron of 1,535 °C.
Cast iron tends to be brittle, except for malleable cast irons. With its low melting point, good fluidity, excellent machinability, resistance to deformation and wear resistance, cast irons have become an engineering material with a wide range of applications and are used in pipes and automotive industry parts, such as cylinder heads, cylinder blocks and gearbox cases, it is resistant to weakening by oxidation. The earliest cast-iron artifacts date to the 5th century BC, were discovered by archaeologists in what is now Jiangsu in China. Cast iron was used in ancient China for warfare and architecture. During the 15th century, cast iron became utilized for cannon in Burgundy, in England during the Reformation; the amounts of cast iron used for cannon required large scale production. The first cast-iron bridge was built during the 1770s by Abraham Darby III, is known as The Iron Bridge. Cast iron was used in the construction of buildings. Cast iron is made from pig iron, the product of smelting iron ore in a blast furnace.
Cast iron can be made directly from the molten pig iron or by re-melting pig iron along with substantial quantities of iron, limestone and taking various steps to remove undesirable contaminants. Phosphorus and sulfur may be burnt out of the molten iron, but this burns out the carbon, which must be replaced. Depending on the application and silicon content are adjusted to the desired levels, which may be anywhere from 2–3.5% and 1–3%, respectively. If desired, other elements are added to the melt before the final form is produced by casting. Cast iron is sometimes melted in a special type of blast furnace known as a cupola, but in modern applications, it is more melted in electric induction furnaces or electric arc furnaces. After melting is complete, the molten cast iron is poured into ladle. Cast iron's properties alloyants. Next to carbon, silicon is the most important alloyant. A low percentage of silicon allows carbon to remain in solution forming iron carbide and the production of white cast iron.
A high percentage of silicon forces carbon out of solution forming graphite and the production of grey cast iron. Other alloying agents, chromium, molybdenum and vanadium counteracts silicon, promotes the retention of carbon, the formation of those carbides. Nickel and copper increase strength, machinability, but do not change the amount of graphite formed; the carbon in the form of graphite results in a softer iron, reduces shrinkage, lowers strength, decreases density. Sulfur a contaminant when present, forms iron sulfide, which prevents the formation of graphite and increases hardness; the problem with sulfur is. To counter the effects of sulfur, manganese is added because the two form into manganese sulfide instead of iron sulfide; the manganese sulfide is lighter than the melt, so it tends to float out of the melt and into the slag. The amount of manganese required to neutralize sulfur is 1.7 × sulfur content + 0.3%. If more than this amount of manganese is added manganese carbide forms, which increases hardness and chilling, except in grey iron, where up to 1% of manganese increases strength and density.
Nickel is one of the most common alloying elements because it refines the pearlite and graphite structure, improves toughness, evens out hardness differences between section thicknesses. Chromium is added in small amounts to reduce free graphite, produce chill, because it is a powerful carbide stabilizer. A small amount of tin can be added as a substitute for 0.5% chromium. Copper is added in the ladle or in the furnace, on the order of 0.5–2.5%, to decrease chill, refine graphite, increase fluidity. Molybdenum is added on the order of 0.3–1% to increase chill and refine the graphite and pearlite structure. Titanium is added as a degasser and deoxidizer, but it increases fluidity. 0.15–0.5% vanadium is added to cast iron to stabilize cementite, increase hardness, increase resistance to wear and heat. 0.1–0.3% zirconium helps to form graphite and increase fluidity. In malleable iron melts, bismuth is added, on the scale of 0.002–0.01%, to increase how much silicon can be added. In white iron, boron is added to aid in the production of malleable iron.
The Ford Explorer is a range of SUVs manufactured by Ford Motor Company. Introduced in 1990 for the 1991 model year, the Explorer was the first four-door SUV produced by Ford, replacing the two-door Bronco II. Five generations of the Explorer have been produced; as with the Ranger, the Explorer derives its name from a trim package used on the F-Series, used from 1968 to 1986. Slotted below the full-size Bronco in the Ford truck line, the current Explorer is slotted between the Escape/Kuga and standard-wheelbase Expedition. For its first two generations, the Explorer was produced in both two-door and four-door configurations. Upon the introduction of the third generation, the Explorer was produced as a four-door SUV; the Sport name was resurrected in 2013, but as a performance version of the standard four-door Explorer. The Explorer has been offered with a number of powertrain layouts during its production; the first four generations offered rear-wheel drive as standard, with part-time four-wheel drive and all-wheel drive options.
During its production, numerous variants of the Explorer have been marketed, with Lincoln-Mercury selling the four-door Explorer as the Mercury Mountaineer and the Lincoln Aviator. The Explorer Sport Trac is a mid-size pickup truck derived from the four-door Explorer. For police use, Ford developed the Ford Police Interceptor Utility from the fifth-generation Explorer; the Ford Explorer was introduced in March 1990 for the 1991 model year. To better compete against the Chevrolet S-10 Blazer and Jeep Cherokee mid-size sport-utility vehicles, Ford sought to replace the Ford Bronco II with a vehicle sized closer to its competitors. In an effort to attract family buyers, a four-door version was developed alongside the two-door; as with the Ford Bronco II, the first-generation Ford Explorer shares its chassis and underpinnings with the first-generation Ford Ranger. In comparison to the Bronco II, the Explorer is far larger, with the two-door Explorer Sport gaining 12.6 inches in length and 2.1 inches of width.
As with its predecessor, the Ford Explorer has a large degree of commonality with the Ford Ranger, sharing its front bumper, headlights and wheels. In a major change from the Bronco II, the Explorer was given its own front door stampings. In addition for creating a four-door layout, the lack of commonality with the Ranger allowed for two major aerodynamic improvements. Sharing its engine with the Ranger and four-wheel drive Ford Aerostar, the Explorer was fitted with a German-produced 155 hp 4.0 L Cologne V6 as the sole engine offering, replacing the previous 2.9 L V6. A Mazda M5OD 5-speed manual was the standard transmission offering, with the option of the Ford 4-speed A4LD overdrive automatic transmission. For 1993, the engine output was increased to 160 hp. Along with the standard rear-wheel drive powertrain, at its launch, the Explorer was offered with various configurations of part-time four-wheel drive, powered by a Borg Warner 13–54 transfer case. In addition to a manually shifted transfer case, Ford offered "Touch Drive" electronic push-button shifting.
All Explorers were equipped with the Ford 8.8 axle in either a limited slip differential, or open version with a variety of available gear ratios. Four-wheel-drive front axles were the TTB Dana 35 with some Dana 44-spec components. At its launch, the Ford Explorer followed the Aerostar, Econoline, F-Series, Ranger in model trim; the XL was sold as the base trim, with XLT as the upper range, with the outdoors-themed Eddie Bauer trim as the top trim. The XL was distinguished by a black grille with steel wheels, while the XLT offered a chrome grille and alloy wheels; the Ford Explorer Sport was offered on the two-door body style. Offering black lower bodywork and grille and alloy wheels, the Sport was intended as a replacement for the Bronco II. From 1990 to 1994, Mazda marketed the two-door Ford Explorer as the Mazda Navajo; the Ford Explorer Limited was introduced for 1993 as a luxury-trim model slotted above the Eddie Bauer. Introduced as a competitor to the Oldsmobile Bravada, the Explorer Limited was offered only as a four-door with an automatic transmission.
Distinguished by its color-matched grille, headlight trim, model-specific bodywork and wheels, the Limited was offered with several model-specific features, including automatic headlights, an auto-dimming rearview mirror, and
A two-stroke engine is a type of internal combustion engine which completes a power cycle with two strokes of the piston during only one crankshaft revolution. This is in contrast to a "four-stroke engine", which requires four strokes of the piston to complete a power cycle during two crankshaft revolutions. In a two-stroke engine, the end of the combustion stroke and the beginning of the compression stroke happen with the intake and exhaust functions occurring at the same time. Two-stroke engines have a high power-to-weight ratio, power being available in a narrow range of rotational speeds called the "power band". Compared to four-stroke engines, two-stroke engines have a reduced number of moving parts, so can be more compact and lighter; the first commercial two-stroke engine involving in-cylinder compression is attributed to Scottish engineer Dugald Clerk, who patented his design in 1881. However, unlike most two-stroke engines, his had a separate charging cylinder; the crankcase-scavenged engine, employing the area below the piston as a charging pump, is credited to Englishman Joseph Day.
On 31 December 1878, German inventor Karl Benz produced a two-stroke gas engine, for which he received a patent in 1879 in Germany. The first practical two-stroke engine is attributed to Yorkshireman Alfred Angas Scott, who started producing twin-cylinder water-cooled motorcycles in 1908. Gasoline versions are useful in lightweight or portable applications such as chainsaws and motorcycles. However, when weight and size are not an issue, the cycle's potential for high thermodynamic efficiency makes it ideal for diesel compression ignition engines operating in large, weight-insensitive applications, such as marine propulsion, railway locomotives and electricity generation. In a two-stroke engine, the heat transfer from the engine to the cooling system is less than in a four-stroke, which means that two-stroke engines can be more efficient. Crankcase-compression two-stroke engines, such as common small gasoline-powered engines, create more exhaust emissions than four-stroke engines of comparable power output because their two-stroke oil lubrication mixture is burned in the engine, due to the engine's total-loss oiling system, because the combined opening time of the intake and exhaust ports in some 2-stroke designs can allow some amount of unburned fuel vapors to exit in the exhaust stream.
Two-stroke petrol engines are preferred when mechanical simplicity, light weight, high power-to-weight ratio are design priorities. With the traditional lubrication technique of mixing oil into the fuel, they have the advantage of working in any orientation, as there is no oil reservoir dependent on gravity. A number of mainstream automobile manufacturers have used two-stroke engines in the past, including the Swedish Saab and German manufacturers DKW, Auto-Union, VEB Sachsenring Automobilwerke Zwickau, VEB Automobilwerk Eisenach; the Japanese manufacturer Suzuki did the same in the 1970s. Production of two-stroke cars ended in the 1980s in the West, due to stringent regulation of air pollution. Eastern Bloc countries continued with the Trabant and Wartburg in East Germany. Two-stroke engines are still found in a variety of small propulsion applications, such as outboard motors, high-performance, small-capacity motorcycles and dirt bikes, scooters, tuk-tuks, karts, ultralight airplanes, model airplanes and other model vehicles.
They are common in power tools used outdoors, such as lawn mowers and weed-wackers. With direct fuel injection and a sump-based lubrication system, a two-stroke engine produces air pollution no worse than a four-stroke, it can achieve higher thermodynamic efficiency. Therefore, the cycle has also been used in large diesel engines large industrial and marine engines, as well as some trucks and heavy machinery. There are several experimental designs intended for automobile use: for instance, Lotus of Norfolk, UK, had in 2008 a prototype direct-injection two-stroke engine intended for alcohol fuels called the Omnivore which it is demonstrating in a version of the Exige. Although the principles remain the same, the mechanical details of various two-stroke engines differ depending on the type; the design types vary according to the method of introducing the charge to the cylinder, the method of scavenging the cylinder and the method of exhausting the cylinder. Piston port is the most common in small two-stroke engines.
All functions are controlled by the piston covering and uncovering the ports as it moves up and down in the cylinder. In the 1970s, Yamaha worked out some basic principles for this system, they found that, in general, widening an exhaust port increases the power by the same amount as raising the port, but the power band does not narrow as it does when the port is raised. However, there is a mechanical limit to the width of a single exhaust port, at about 62% of the bore diameter for reasonable ring life. Beyond this, the rings will wear quickly. A maximum 70 % of bore width is possible in racing engines. Intake duration is between 160 degrees. Transfer port time is set at a minimum of 26 degrees; the strong low pressure pulse of a racing two-stroke expansion chamber can drop the pressure to -7 PSI when the piston is at bottom dead center, the transfer ports nearly wide open. One of the reasons for high fuel consumption in two-strokes is that so
Ford Falcon (North America)
The Ford Falcon was a front-engine, rear-drive six passenger compact produced by Ford from 1960 to 1970, across three generations. A sales success for Ford outselling contemporary rivals from Chrysler and General Motors, the Falcon was offered in two-door and four-door sedan, two-door and four-door station wagon, two-door hardtop, sedan delivery and Ranchero pickup body configurations. For several years, the Falcon name was used on passenger versions of the Ford Econoline van; the Falcon's television marketing featured the first animated appearances of the characters from Charles Schulz's acclaimed comic strip, with announcer contribution from Paul Frees. Variations of the Ford Falcon were manufactured in Argentina, Canada and Mexico. Early Mexican built versions of the Ford Maverick used the Falcon Maverick name. Edsel Ford first used the term "Falcon" for a more luxurious Ford he designed in 1935, he decided the new car did not fit with Ford's other offerings, so this design became the Mercury.
The "Big Three" auto manufacturers, focused purely on the larger and more profitable vehicles in the US and Canadian markets. Towards the end of the 1950s, all three manufacturers realized that this strategy would no longer work. Large automobiles were becoming expensive, making smaller cars such as Fiats, Renaults and Volkswagens attractive. Furthermore, many American families were now in the market for a second car, market research showed women thought the full-size car had grown too large and cumbersome. At the same time, research showed many buyers would prefer to buy US or Canadian if the domestic manufacturers offered a smaller car with lower cost of ownership. Thus, all three introduced compacts: the Valiant from Chrysler, GM's Chevrolet Corvair, the Ford Falcon. Studebaker introduced the Lark, Rambler downsized its near-compact American in 1960. Ford United Kingdom had begun production of the Ford Anglia in 1939, the earlier Ford Model Y in 1932, followed by the Ford Zephyr, but they weren't sold in North America.
Ford of Germany built the Ford Eifel, followed by the Ford Köln, mechanically similar to the British Model Y, followed by the Ford Taunus in 1939, but were not sold in North America. The European Fords, Anglia and Taunus, were in production at the same time the Falcon was introduced; the project which became the Falcon was started and sponsored by Ford General Manager Robert S. McNamara, who commissioned a team to create what by American standards of the time would be a small car but elsewhere in the world considered a mid-size. McNamara, promoted to Group Vice President of Cars and Trucks by the time the Falcon was launched, was intimately involved in development, insisting on keeping the costs and weight of the car as low as possible. Engineer Harley Copp employed a unibody atop a standard suspension and sourced parts from Ford's existing bin to keep the price low while providing room for six passengers in reasonable comfort; the sales success of the conventional Falcon along with slow sales of GM's rear-engined Corvair led General Motors to introduce their own compact car based on the Falcon's principles, the Chevy II.
The 1960 Falcon was powered by a small, lightweight 95 hp, 144 CID Mileage Maker straight-6 with a single-barrel carburetor. Unibody construction accommodated coil springs front suspension, leaf spring rear suspension and drum brakes front and rear. A three-speed manual column shift was standard, the two-speed Ford-O-Matic automatic was optional. There was room for six passengers. Body styles included two- and four-door sedans, two- or four-door station wagons, the Ranchero car-based pickup, transferred onto the Falcon platform for 1960 from the Fairlane. A Mercury rebadged variant, the Mercury Comet intended for the defunct Edsel marque, was launched in the US midway through the 1960 model year; the market shift which spurred the development of the Falcon and its competitors precipitated the demise of several well-established marques in the late-1950s and early-1960s. Besides the infamous tale of the Edsel, the Nash, Hudson, DeSoto, Packard nameplates all disappeared from the marketplace. In 1960, Ford's Canadian subsidiary introduced the Falcon-based Frontenac.
It was designed to give Mercury-Meteor dealers a smaller model to sell, since the Comet was intended as an Edsel, sold by Ford-Monarch dealers. Produced for the 1960 model year only, the Frontenac was a rebadged 1960 Falcon with its own unique grille, tail lights, external trim, including red maple-leaf insignia. Despite strong sales, the Frontenac was discontinued and replaced by the Mercury Comet for 1961. Robert McNamara, a Ford executive who became Ford's president before being offered the job of U. S. Defense Secretary, is regarded by many as "the father of the Falcon". McNamara left Ford shortly after the Falcon's introduction, but his faith in the concept was vindicated with record sales; the 1961 model year introduced an optional 101 hp, 170 CID six, two new models were introduced. The Ford Falcon brochure featured Charlie Brown and Lucy from the Peanuts comic strip who remained until 1965. Ford boasted of the good fuel economy achieved by the six-cylinder Ford Falcon models in advertising.
The fuel economy was good, a claimed 30 mpg‑US, c
A carburetor or carburettor is a device that mixes air and fuel for internal combustion engines in the proper air–fuel ratio for combustion. It is sometimes colloquially shortened to carby in Australia. To carburate or carburet means to mix the air and fuel or to equip with a carburetor for that purpose. Carburetors have been supplanted in the automotive and, to a lesser extent, aviation industries by fuel injection, they are still common on small engines for lawn mowers and other equipment. The word carburetor comes from the French carbure meaning "carbide". Carburer means to combine with carbon. In fuel chemistry, the term has the more specific meaning of increasing the carbon content of a fluid by mixing it with a volatile hydrocarbon; the first carburetor was invented by Samuel Morey in 1826. The first person to patent a carburetor for use in a petroleum engine was Siegfried Marcus with his 6 July 1872 patent for a device which mixes fuel with air. A carburetor was among the early patents by Karl Benz as he developed internal combustion engines and their components.
Early carburetors were of the surface type, in which air is combined with fuel by passing over the surface of gasoline. In 1885, Wilhelm Maybach and Gottlieb Daimler developed a float carburetor based on the atomizer nozzle; the Daimler-Maybach carburetor was copied extensively. British courts rejected the Daimler company's claim of priority in favor of Edward Butler's 1884 spray carburetor used on his Petrol Cycle. Hungarian engineers János Csonka and Donát Bánki patented a carburetor for a stationary engine in 1893. Frederick William Lanchester of Birmingham, experimented with the wick carburetor in cars. In 1896, Frederick and his brother built a gasoline-driven car in England, a single cylinder 5 hp internal combustion engine with chain drive. Unhappy with the car's performance and power, they re-designed the engine the following year using two horizontally-opposed cylinders and a newly designed wick carburetor. Carburetors were the common method of fuel delivery for most US-made gasoline engines until the late 1980s, when fuel injection became the preferred method.
This change was dictated by the requirements of catalytic converters and not due to an inherent inefficiency of carburation. A catalytic converter requires that there be more precise control over the fuel / air mixture in order to control the amount of oxygen remaining in the exhaust gases. In the U. S. market, the last cars using carburetors were: 1990: Oldsmobile Custom Cruiser, Buick Estate Wagon, Cadillac Brougham, Honda Prelude, Subaru Justy 1991: Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor with the 5.8 L V8 engine. 1991: Jeep Grand Wagoneer with the AMC 360 cu in V8 engine. 1993: Mazda B2200 1994: IsuzuIn Australia, some cars continued to use carburetors well into the 1990s. Low-cost commercial vans and 4WDs in Australia continued with carburetors into the 2000s, the last being the Mitsubishi Express van in 2003. Elsewhere, certain Lada cars used carburetors until 2006. Many motorcycles still use carburetors for simplicity's sake, since a carburetor does not require an electrical system to function.
Carburetors are still found in small engines and in older or specialized automobiles, such as those designed for stock car racing, though NASCAR's 2011 Sprint Cup season was the last one with carbureted engines. In Europe, carburetor-engined cars were being phased out by the end of the 1980s in favor of fuel injection, the established type of engine on more expensive vehicles including luxury and sports models. EEC legislation required all vehicles sold and produced in member countries to have a catalytic converter after December 1992; this legislation had been in the pipeline for some time, with many cars becoming available with catalytic converters or fuel injection from around 1990. However, some versions of the Peugeot 106 were sold with carburettor engines from its launch in 1991, as were versions of the Renault Clio and Nissan Primera and all versions of Ford Fiesta range except the XR2i when it was launched in 1989. Luxury car manufacturer Mercedes-Benz had been producing mechanically fuel-injected cars since the early 1950s, while the first mainstream family car to feature fuel injection was the Volkswagen Golf GTI in 1976.
Ford's first fuel-injected car was the Ford Capri RS 2600 in 1970. General Motors launched its first fuel-injected car in 1957 as an option available for the first generation Corvette. Saab switched to fuel injection across its whole range from 1982; the carburetor works on Bernoulli's principle: the faster air moves, the lower its static pressure, higher the dynamic pressure is. The throttle linkage does not directly control the flow of liquid fuel. Instead, it actuates carburetor mechanisms which meter the flow of air being carried into the engine; the speed of this flow, therefore its pressure, determines the amount of fuel drawn into the airstream. When carburetors are used in aircraft with piston engines, special designs and features are needed to prevent fuel starvation during inverted flight. Engines used an early form of fuel injection known as a pressure carburetor. Most production carbureted engines, as opposed to fuel-injected, h