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Fordney–McCumber Tariff

The Fordney–McCumber Tariff of 1922 was a law that raised American tariffs on many imported goods to protect factories and farms. The US Congress displayed a pro-business attitude in passing the tariff and in promoting foreign trade by providing huge loans to Europe. That, in turn, bought more US goods. However, five years after the passage of the tariff, American trading partners had raised their own tariffs by a significant degree. France raised its tariffs on automobiles from 45% to 100%, Spain raised its tariffs on American goods by 40%, Germany and Italy raised their tariffs on wheat. According to the American Farm Bureau, farmers lost more than $300 million annually as a result of the tariff; the first sector of the economy, hit by a fall in postwar demand was agriculture. During World War I, the American agricultural industry had enjoyed prosperity through the raising of prices, which led to increased output that Americans used to supply Europe. Farmers borrowed to expand their acreage and had difficulty paying back the loans when prices fell.

Some of the postwar problems for American agriculture come from the great surplus of farm goods, which could not be absorbed in the national market as European countries had recovered sufficiently from the war, with their markets no longer requiring large quantities of American agricultural products. Gross farm income in 1919 amounted to $17.7 billion. By 1921, exports to Europe had plummeted, farm income fell to $10.5 billion. Other sectors of the economy wanted to avoid a similar fate; the 1920 election put the conservative pro-business and pro-farm Republicans in control of both Congress and the White House. Hearings were led to the creation of several new tools of protection. One was the scientific tariff to equalize production costs among countries; the difference of production costs was calculated by the Tariff Commission. Another was the American selling price; the bill gave the President the power to raise or lower rates on products if, recommended by the Tariff Commission. In September 1922, the Fordney–McCumber Tariff bill was signed by President Warren Harding.

In the end, the tariff law raised the American ad valorem tariff rate to an average of about 38.5% for dutiable imports and an average of 14% overall. The tariff was defensive, rather than offensive, as it was determined by the cost of production and the market value. For agriculture, the tariff raised the purchasing power of the farmers by 2–3%, but other industries raised the price of some farm equipment. In September 1926, economic statistics released by farming groups revealed the rising cost of farm machinery. For example, the average cost of a harness rose from $46 in 1918 to $75 in 1926, the 14-inch plow rose from $14 to $28, mowing machines rose from $45 to $95, farm wagons rose from $85 to $150; that triggered a tariff war against other European countries. As US tariffs raised, those in other countries followed. According to the American Farm Bureau, farmers lost more than $300 million annually as a result of the tariff; the tariff was supported by the Republican Party and conservatives and was opposed by the Democratic Party and progressives.

One purpose of the tariff was to help those returning from World War I have greater job opportunities. Trading partners complained immediately. European nations affected by the war sought access for their exports to the American market to make payments to the war loans from America. Democratic Representative Cordell Hull warned, "Our foreign markets depend both on the efficiency of our production and the tariffs of countries in which we would sell. Our own tariffs are an important factor in each, they injure the former and invite the latter." Five years after the passage of the tariff, American trading partners had raised their own tariffs by a significant degree. France raised its tariffs on automobiles from 45% to 100%, Spain raised its tariffs on American goods by 40%, Germany and Italy raised their tariffs on wheat. In 1928, Henry Ford attacked the tariff and argued that the American automobile industry did not need protection since it dominated the domestic market, its main interest was now to expand foreign sales.

Some farmers blamed it for the agricultural depression. The American Farm Bureau Federation claimed that because of the tariff, the raised price of raw wool cost to farmers $27 million. Democratic Senator David I. Walsh challenged the tariff by arguing that the farmers were net exporters and so did not need protection, they depended on foreign markets to sell their surplus. Walsh pointed out that during the first year of the tariff, the cost of living climbed higher than any other year except during the war, he presented a survey of the Department of Labor in which all of the 32 cities that were assessed had seen an increase in the cost of living. For example, the food costs increased 16.5 % in 9.4 % in New York. Clothing prices rose by 5.5 % in 10.2 % in Chicago. Republican Frank W. Murphy, the head of the Minnesota Farm Bureau claimed that the problem was not in the world price of farm products but in the things that farmers had to buy. Underwood Tariff of 1913 Emergency Tariff of 1921 Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act of 1930 Reciprocal Tariff Act of 1934 International trade Protectionism Berglund, Abraham.

"The Tariff Act of 1922". American Economic Review. 13: 14–33. JSTOR 1804045. Dollar, Charles


Accous is a Béarnais French commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France. Accous is located some 30 km south of Oloron-Sainte-Marie in the Aspe Valley, one of the three valleys of the High-Béarn, the other valleys being the Ossau Valley in the east and Barétous valley in the west. From the Spanish border on its southern edge, it stretches along Le Labadie river to the point where it joins the Gave d'Aspe. From this river junction, the Gave d'Aspe forms the western border of the rest of the commune which extends a further 10 kilometres to the east with the Lac du Montagnon at the northeastern edge; the commune is accessed from the north by the E7 motorway. This highway follows the western border of the commune along the Gave d'Aspe crosses the narrow neck of the commune before continuing to the Spanish border near Candanchu. To access Accous village it is necessary to follow one of a number of country roads - the Daban Athas road being the most direct.

Apart from country roads within the commune there is no other road access. The commune is traversed by some tributaries of the Gave d'Oloron, the Besse stream and the Gave d'Aspe, as well as tributaries of the latter such as the Gave Lescun and the Berthe; the Cotcharas stream and its tributary, the Congaets stream flow in the territory of Accous, as tributaries of the Gave d'Aydius, the Gave de Bouren and the Sahun stream. Accous is dominated by the Poey, a conical hill covered with ferns; the Poey is made of ophites. These green and harsh volcanic rocks from the Triassic belong to dolerites, they have resisted the erosion of torrential rivers. This is the reason; the name Accous appears in the following forms: Aspa Luca Achoss and Achost Acos Aquos d'Aspe Aquos Abadie de Cos Sanctus Martinus de Acous Acous. The name of the commune in Gascon is Acós. Brigitte Jobbé-Duval hypothesises that Accous originated from Acca or Acco, a woman's name mentioned in the inscriptions of Spain; the name Appatie came from the Lay Abbey of Jouers through corruption of the word Abbadie.

Note that in the Aspe Valley the voiceless consonants of Latin are preserved. This fief was a vassal of the Viscounts of Béarn. Le Bois d'Arapoup is attested in 1863 in the Topographical Dictionary. Aület is mentioned in the form Aulet in 1863 by the Topographical Dictionary. Lhers is cited in the dictionary; the name La Berthe, a tributary of the Gave d'Aspe, is cited in the dictionary of 1863. Despourrins is mentioned in 1863 in the Topographical Dictionary as a name taken from the poet Cyprien Despourrins, buried there. Izaure was a farm mentioned by Paul Raymond with the spellings: Usaure, Ixaure and Isaure. Jouers /juèrs/ was Joertz a metathesis of a Basque word Oïhartz a derivative of Oihan meaning'forest', it is found in the spelling Joers Jouers, again Joers. The Col de Lourtica is the name of a hill between the communes of Aydius. Saint-Christau was a chapel, mentioned by the dictionary of 1863. Tillabé was a place in Accous reported by the dictionary in 1863 and mentioned in the 18th century 2 in the form Le Tillaber.

Paul Raymond said that Tillabé "was the place of meeting of the aldermen of the Aspe valley". Paul Raymond noted that the commune had a vassal of the Viscounts of Béarn. In 1385, there were 74 "fires". Accous was the capital of the Aspe valley. List of Successive Mayors of Accous The town is part of five inter-communal organisations: the community of communes of the Aspe Valley the Energy union in the Pyrenees-Atlantiques the Television union of Oloron - Aspe Valley the inter-communal union to aid education in the Aspe Valley the joint union of Upper-Béarn. Accous has twinning associations with: Valle de Hecho since 1978; the economy of the town is oriented toward agriculture and animal husbandry. The cheese-making farms are one of the resources of the commune, part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée zone designation of Ossau-iraty; the Toyal plant, located at the edge of the commune, provides income to Accous through business tax, making of it the richest communes in the valley. This activity has created hundreds of jobs in the valley.

The 2006 INSEE classification, indicated that the median household incomes for each municipality with more than 50 households ranked Accous at 24495, for an average income per household of €14,199. Accous has a number of old farms registered as historical monuments; these are: House at Rue de Baix House 1 at Rue de Haut House 2 at Rue de Haut House at Rue Madrih The Accous railway station on the Pau to Canfranc line has been closed to traffic since 1970. The eco-museum of the Aspe valley is located in an old cheese factory; the manufacturing techniques of making mountain cheese and local culinary traditions are highlighted in the displays. Several churches in the commune have been lis

HMCS Louisburg (K143)

HMCS Louisburg was a Flower-class corvette that served with the Royal Canadian Navy during the Second World War. She fought as an ocean escort during the Battle of the Atlantic, she was sunk in 1943. She was named for Nova Scotia. Flower-class corvettes like Louisburg serving with the Royal Canadian Navy during the Second World War were different from earlier and more traditional sail-driven corvettes; the "corvette" designation was created by the French as a class of small warships. During the hurried preparations for war in the late 1930s, Winston Churchill reactivated the corvette class, needing a name for smaller ships used in an escort capacity, in this case based on a whaling ship design; the generic name "flower" was used to designate the class of these ships, which – in the Royal Navy – were named after flowering plants. Corvettes commissioned by the Royal Canadian Navy during the Second World War were named after communities for the most part, to better represent the people who took part in building them.

This idea was put forth by Admiral Percy W. Nelles. Sponsors were associated with the community for which the ship was named. Royal Navy corvettes were designed as open sea escorts, while Canadian corvettes were developed for coastal auxiliary roles, exemplified by their minesweeping gear; the Canadian corvettes would be modified to allow them to perform better on the open seas. Louisburg was ordered 23 January 1940 as part of the 1939–1940 Flower-class building program, she was laid down by Morton Engineering and Dry Dock Co. at Quebec City and launched 27 May 1941. She was commissioned 2 October 1941 at Quebec City. During her brief career, Louisburg underwent two significant refits; the first took place at Halifax from the end of March 1942 until June of that year. The second took place on the Humber in the United Kingdom where she had extra AA fittings added in preparation for her escort duties related to Operation Torch. After arriving at Halifax for deployment on 15 October 1941, Louisburg was assigned to Sydney Force.

She remained with them until mid-January 1942. At that time, she was transferred to the Newfoundland Escort Force. In February 1942 she took part in the battle for SC 67. During that battle, her sister ship, HMCS Spikenard was lost. After her refit, she returned to service, now as a mid-ocean escort on convoys between St. John's and Derry. In September 1942 Louisburg was sent to the United Kingdom as part of the Canadian contribution to Operation Torch. On 9 December 1942 she was rammed by HMS Bideford, she spent five weeks in repair yards at Belfast recovering from the damage. Upon her return to service, she was assigned to escort Torch-related convoys. While escorting a convoy, KMF 8, from Gibraltar to Bone, the Louisburg was among those hit by bombs and torpedoes from two formations of enemy aircraft; the first formation was made up of seven Ju 88 bombers and the second seven He 111 armed with torpedoes operating out of Italy. 38 crew were lost when she sank near Oran

James Ross (surgeon)

James Alexander Ross MBE, FRCSEd was a Scottish surgeon awarded the MBE for his service in the Second World War. He was a leading member of the surgical team which, in 1960, carried out the first successful kidney transplant in the United Kingdom, he served as President of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh. James Alexander Ross was born in Edinburgh in 1911 and spent his early childhood in Brazil where his father was a banker, he returned to Scotland aged nine and was educated at Merchiston Castle School, Edinburgh of which he became a governor. He entered the medical faculty of the University of Edinburgh in 1928 where he showed an early enthusiasm for anatomy, to persist throughout his life, he graduated MB ChB in 1934 but before he had decided to become a surgeon and after holding junior posts in Edinburgh and London, passed the examinations to become a Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh in 1938. That year he was appointed Clinical Tutor in the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh.

At the outbreak of war in September 1939 he volunteered for service with the Royal Army Medical Corps as a surgical specialist. In 1940 he treated casualties from the Dunkirk evacuation and was posted to Egypt with No 58 General Hospital RAMC. Here he treated casualties from most of the major battles fought by the 8th Army in the North African campaign and in the invasions of Sicily and Italy. Early in 1944 he was posted to the Anzio beachhead with No 15 Casualty Clearing Station and for his services there he was awarded Membership of the Order of the British Empire. After demobilisation in 1945 with the rank of Lieutenant Colonel he returned to Edinburgh and worked in the University Anatomy Department where he produced the thesis for which, in 1947, he was granted the degree of Doctor of Medicine. In that year, he was appointed assistant surgeon to Leith Hospital and to the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh; when the National Health Service was founded in 1948 he acquired the new designation of Consultant Surgeon and took charge of the Surgical Out-Patient Department.

When Professor Michael Woodruff was appointed to the Edinburgh Chair of Surgical Science in 1957, James Ross joined his surgical team in the Royal Infirmary as its senior member. In this capacity, he played an important part in the first successful British kidney transplant, carried out by a team led by Professor Woodruff in 1960. Ross removed the donor kidney, transplanted into the recipient, the donor's twin brother, by Woodruff. In 1961 he was invited to set up a new general surgical unit at the Eastern General Hospital and the success of this unit was due to his energy and leadership; as Honorary Consultant Surgeon to the Army in Scotland from 1970-1976 and the surgical unit at the Eastern General was selected by the RAMC for the training of its surgical specialists. A succession of army surgeons were seconded for periods of one year under his tutelage. Ross always had a special interest in the surgical subspecialty of urology, he collaborated with Sir John Bruce and Professor Robert Walmsley in writing the textbook Manual of Surgical Anatomy.

After his election as a Fellow, Ross became involved in the activities of the RCSEd. He became Secretary in 1960 and in his eight years in office he acquired a valuable knowledge of College history and laws, he was elected Vice President in 1971 and President in 1973. Ross was responsible for the establishment of the College's triennial overseas meetings and was a prime mover in the reform of higher surgical examinations together with the orthopaedic surgeon Professor JIP James and the neurosurgeon John Gillingham; the early proposals were refined under his successors and resulted in the institution of higher intercollegiate examinations in the surgical specialties. When his Presidential term ended in 1976 he took on the Chairmanship of the RCSEd Appeal which raised funds for the conversion of the postgraduate residence in Hill Square, subsequently concerted into Ten Hill Square hotel, his book The Edinburgh School of Surgery after Lister, published in 1978, is a valuable contribution to Scottish medical history.

His historical knowledge enabled him to play an important part in the planning of the Sir Jules Thorn Historical Exhibition in Surgeons' Hall Museum

Jasim Uddin Ahmed

Jasim Uddin Ahmed is a Bangladeshi language activist, nuclear scientist and writer. He was conferred with Ekushey Padak in 2016 for his contribution to the Language Movement. Ahmed was born on 1 January 1933 at Galiar Char in Daudkandi of Comilla, he took part in the Language Movement. He took part in protest rallies on 21 February 1952, he and Abul Barkat were in the same rally. Police started to fire to the protesters control the situation. Many bullets went through near his body. Abul Barkat was shot in front of him. Ahmed started his academic career at Dhaka College in 1956, he went to the United States for higher education. He returned to his own country after receiving PhD, he joined Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka in 1963. He joined the International Atomic Energy Agency in 1970, he became the head of Nuclear Radiation Security Department of the institution. He retired from the post in 1994. Ahmed involved in writing books, he wrote about 36 books. He made a special appearance on a television drama titled Noishobdo Joddha, telecast on 19 February 2016 on ATN Bangla.

Ahmed received Ekushey Padak in 2016 for his contribution to the Language Movement

Compton, Illinois

Compton is a village in Brooklyn Township, Lee County, Lee County, United States. The population was 303 at the 2010 census, down from 347 in 2000. A post office at the site of Compton opened on May 18, 1841; the village's name was changed to Compton on July 1873, after Joel Compton. Compton is located on the plains of north central Illinois; the town is about ten miles north of Mendota. According to the 2010 census, Compton has a total area of all land; as of the census of 2000, there were 347 people, 127 households, 96 families residing in the village. The population density was 2,092.1 person per square mile. There were 136 housing units at an average density of 820.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 98.85% White, 0.29% Asian, 0.58% from other races, 0.29% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.31% of the population. There were 127 households out of which 43.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.8% were married couples living together, 11.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.4% were non-families.

21.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.17. In the village, the population was spread out with 30.8% under the age of 18, 6.9% from 18 to 24, 32.0% from 25 to 44, 19.0% from 45 to 64, 11.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.7 males. The median income for a household in the village was $34,167, the median income for a family was $39,375. Males had a median income of $31,250 versus $22,188 for females; the per capita income for the village was $13,205. About 3.7% of families and 4.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.7% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over. Joe Zdeb, outfielder for the Kansas City Royals