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Foreign relations of Cyprus

Cyprus is a member of the United Nations along with most of its agencies as well as the Commonwealth of Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund and Council of Europe. In addition, the country has signed the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency Agreement. Cyprus has been a member of the European Union since 2004 and in the second half of the 2012 it held the Presidency of the Council of the European Union. Cyprus has followed a non-aligned foreign policy, although it identifies with the West in its cultural affinities and trade patterns, maintains close relations with European Union and Israel; the prime originator of Cypriot non-alignment was Makarios III, the first President of the independent republic of Cyprus. Prior to independence, Makarios - by virtue of his post as Archbishop of Cyprus and head of the Cypriot Orthodox Church - was the Greek Cypriot Ethnarch, or de facto leader of the community. A influential figure well before independence, he participated in the 1955 Bandung Conference.

After independence, Makarios took part in the 1961 founding meeting of the Non-Aligned Movement in Belgrade. Reasons for this neutrality may lie in the extreme pressures exerted on the infant Republic by its larger neighbours and Greece. Intercommunal rivalries and movements for union with Greece or partial union with Turkey may have persuaded Makarios to steer clear of close affiliation with either side. In any case Cyprus became a high-profile member of the Non-Aligned Movement and retained its membership until its entry into the European Union in 2004. At the non-governmental level, Cyprus has been a member of the popular extension of the Non-Aligned Movement, the Afro-Asian Peoples' Solidarity Organisation hosting several high-level meetings. After the 1974 Greek-sponsored coup d'état and the Turkish invasion, Makarios secured international recognition of his administration as the legitimate government of the whole island; this was disputed only by Turkey, which recognizes only the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, established in 1983.

Since the 1974 crisis, the chief aim of the foreign policy of the Republic of Cyprus has been to secure the withdrawal of Turkish forces and the reunification of the island under the most favorable constitutional and territorial settlement possible. This campaign has been pursued through international forums such as the United Nations and the Non-Aligned Movement, in recent years through the European Union. Cyprus' 1990 application for full EU membership caused a storm in the Turkish Cypriot community, which argued that the move required their consent. Following the December 1997 EU Summit decisions on EU enlargement, accession negotiations began 31 March 1998. Cyprus joined the European Union on 1 May 2004. To fulfil its commitment as a member of the European Union, Cyprus withdrew from the Non-Aligned Movement on accession, retaining observer status; the Republic of Cyprus maintains diplomatic relations with 179 states and is United Nations, Union for the Mediterranean and European Union full member.

It does not maintain diplomatic relations with: Azerbaijan, Benin, Republic of Congo, Central African Republic, Equatorial Guinea, South Sudan Bhutan Kiribati, Tuvalu Haiti, Saint Kitts and Nevis Cook Islands, Niue Abkhazia, South Ossetia, Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Republic of China, TransnistriaThe Republic of Cyprus is not recognised by Turkey. The 1974 invasion of the Turkish army divided the island nation into two; the internationally recognised Republic of Cyprus has effective control in the south of the island while its area not under its effective control makes up 37% of the island. Turkey utilising the territory occupied during the invasion recognizes a declared separatist UDI of Turkish Cypriots in 1983, contrary to multiple United Nations Security Council Resolutions; the two territories of the Republic are separated by a United Nations Buffer Zone. Cyprus is a minor transit point for heroin and hashish via air routes and container traffic to Europe from Lebanon; the island has been criticised for lax arms control legislation.

Although Cyprus became an independent republic in 1960, Cyprus has been a member state of the Commonwealth of Nations since 1961. List of diplomatic missions in Cyprus List of diplomatic missions of Cyprus List of Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Cyprus Foreign relations of Northern Cyprus

Universal synchronous and asynchronous receiver-transmitter

A universal synchronous and asynchronous receiver-transmitter is a type of a serial interface device that can be programmed to communicate asynchronously or synchronously. See universal asynchronous receiver-transmitter for a discussion of the asynchronous capabilities of these devices; the USART's synchronous capabilities were intended to support synchronous protocols like IBM's synchronous transmit-receive, binary synchronous communications, synchronous data link control, the ISO-standard high-level data link control synchronous link-layer protocols, which were used with synchronous voice-frequency modems. These protocols were designed to make the best use of bandwidth. In those times, the fastest asynchronous voice-band modem could achieve at most speeds of 300 bit/s using frequency-shift keying modulation, while synchronous modems could run at speeds up to 9600 bit/s using phase-shift keying. Synchronous transmission used only over 80% of the bandwidth of the now more-familiar asynchronous transmission, since start and stop bits were unnecessary.

Those modems are obsolete, having been replaced by modems which convert asynchronous data to synchronous forms, but similar synchronous telecommunications protocols survive in numerous block-oriented technologies such as the used IEEE 802.2 link-level protocol. USARTs are still sometimes integrated with MCUs. USARTs are still used in routers that connect to external CSU/DSU devices, they use either Cisco's proprietary HDLC implementation or the IETF standard point-to-point protocol in HDLC-like framing as defined in RFC 1662; the operation of a USART is intimately related to the various protocols. This section only provides a few general notes. USARTs in synchronous mode transmits data in frames. In synchronous operation, characters must be provided on time. USARTs operating as synchronous devices used either bit-oriented mode. In character modes, the device relied on particular characters to define frame boundaries. A synchronous line is never silent; when the physical layer indicates that the modem is active, a USART will send a steady stream of padding, either characters or bits as appropriate to the device and protocol

George Headley

George Alphonso Headley OD, MBE was a West Indian cricketer who played 22 Test matches before the Second World War. Considered one of the best batsmen to play for the West Indies and one of the greatest cricketers of all time, Headley represented Jamaica and played professional club cricket in England. West Indies had a weak cricket team through most of Headley's playing career, he batted at number three, scoring 2,190 runs in Tests at an average of 60.83, 9,921 runs in all first-class matches at an average of 69.86. He was chosen as one of the Wisden Cricketers of the Year in 1934. Headley was born in Panama but raised in Jamaica where he established a cricketing reputation as a batsman, he soon gained his place in the Jamaican cricket team, narrowly missed selection for the West Indies tour of England in 1928. He made his Test debut in 1930, against England in Barbados, was successful. Further successes followed in series against Australia and in three more against England, as Headley dominated the West Indian batting of the period.

Following his tour of England in 1933, Headley signed as a professional at Haslingden in the Lancashire League, where he played until the outbreak of war in 1939. The war interrupted Headley's career. So, he was chosen as West Indies captain in 1948 against England, the first black player to be appointed to the position, although a combination of injuries and politics meant he only led his team for one Test match, he did not play Tests between 1949 and 1953, but resumed his career in English league cricket, first in Lancashire and in the Birmingham League. His playing career ended in 1954 on his return to Jamaica, after a public subscription paid his fare from England. After retiring as a player, Headley was employed as a cricket coach by the Jamaican government until 1962, he lived until 1983. Headley was born in the son of DeCourcy Headley and Irene Roberts. Neither of Headley's parents was from Panama. By the time Headley was five years old the Canal was complete, the family moved to Cuba in search of further employment.

In 1919, concerned by the amount of Spanish being spoken by her son, Headley's mother took him to Jamaica so he could be educated in an English-speaking school. Headley moved in with his mother's sister-in-law Mrs Clarence Smith, in Rae Town and remained with her until her death in 1933, his mother returned to Cuba, but exchanged letters with her son. He attended Calabar Elementary School, where he played for the school cricket team as a wicket-keeper, although a meagre sporting budget meant he had to do so without gloves, he continued his education at Kingston High School. Taking part in all-day cricket matches at the local Crabhole Park, Headley began to attract local attention, aged 16, he joined Raetown Cricket Club. In 1925 he scored his first century, batting at number three in the batting order in a match for Raetown against Clovelly. On leaving school, Headley was appointed as a temporary clerk in a magistrate's court; some impressive performances for the club earned him an invitation to practice with the Jamaica Colts team.

However, his job made it impossible to attend, he was not considered for the Jamaican side against Lord Tennyson's English touring side in 1927. That year, Headley began working for Keeling–Lindo Estates, in St Catherine; the firm were enthusiastic cricket patrons, allowing employees time off to play in matches, so that Headley was able to attend practice with the Jamaica team on a regular basis. He moved to the St Catherine Cricket Club, captained by his immediate superior in Keeling–Lindo. To generate more income, Headley took a second job, working for the Jamaica Fruit and Shipping Company, but he wanted a secure profession. To this end, he planned to move to America to pursue a career in dentistry. However, he was now on the verge of the Jamaica team and a delay in the arrival of the application forms for his American work permit allowed him to make his first-class debut for Jamaica against another touring team led by Lord Tennyson. Headley made his Jamaica debut against Lord Tennyson's XI at Sabina Park on 9 February 1928, in a match won by the home team.

Batting at number three, his first innings yielded 16 runs, but in the second innings, he scored 71, reaching fifty runs in as many minutes. In the second game against Lord Tennyson's XI which began in Kingston on 18 February, Headley scored his maiden first-class century. Having scored 22 not out after the first day's play, he reached 50 runs by playing carefully but subsequently played more adventurous shots, he hit the bowling of Alan Hilder for four consecutive fours and twice hit Lord Tennyson for three fours in a row. At one point, thirteen of his scoring shots in a row went for four, he was out for 211, the highest score at the time by a West Indian batsman against an English team. After the innings, Tennyson compared Headley to Victor Trumper and Charlie Macartney, batsmen considered among the best who played. Headley concluded the series against Tennyson's team with innings of 40 and 71, to give him an aggregate of 409 runs at an average of 81.80. He took his maiden first class

List of USAC Championship Car seasons

From 1956 to 1978, USAC Championship Car seasons featured the top teams and drivers in U. S. open-wheel racing. Until 1971, the Championship contained road courses, dirt courses, and, on occasion, a hill climb. Thereafter, the schedule consisted of paved ovals. In 1979, the majority of car owners left USAC to race in the Indy Car World Series, sanctioned by the Sports Car Club of America and CART; this led to a decline in the number of events in the schedule, by the 1984-85 season, the Championship comprised only one race, the Indianapolis 500. The era of USAC Championship Cars concluded with the formation of the Indy Racing League in 1995, sanctioned by USAC until June 1997 when the IRL assumed officiating duties after the controversial finish of the 81st Indianapolis 500 and the scoring mistake that marred the following event; the most successful driver in USAC Championship Car history was A. J. Foyt with seven National Championships and four Indianapolis 500 victories. Foyt competed in every season from 1957 to 1992-93.

* The 1981-82 season included both the 65th and 66th Indianapolis 500 races. Figures in parentheses denote the number of non-championship races in that season. List of American Championship Car winners List of American Championship Car Rookie of the Year Winners Indianapolis 500 Rookie of the Year List of Indianapolis 500 winners

Aspiration pneumonia

Aspiration pneumonia is a type of lung infection, due to a large amount of material from the stomach or mouth entering the lungs. Signs and symptoms include fever and cough of rapid onset. Complications may include lung abscess; some include chemical induced inflammation of the lungs as a subtype, which occurs from acidic but non-infectious stomach contents entering the lungs. Infection can be due to a variety of bacteria. Risk factors include decreased level of consciousness, problems with swallowing, tube feeding, poor oral health. Diagnosis is based on the presenting history, chest X-ray, sputum culture. Differentiating from other types of pneumonia may be difficult. Treatment is with antibiotics such as clindamycin, ampicillin/sulbactam, or moxifloxacin. For those with only chemical pneumonitis, antibiotics are not required. Among people hospitalized with pneumonia, about 10% are due to aspiration, it occurs more in older people those in nursing homes. Both sexes are affected; the person may have an insidious course with increased respiratory rate, foul-smelling sputum and fever.

Complications may occur, such as exudative pleural effusion and lung abscesses. If left untreated, aspiration pneumonia can progress to form a lung abscess. Another possible complication is an empyema. If continual aspiration occurs, the chronic inflammation can cause compensatory thickening of the insides of the lungs, resulting in bronchiectasis. Aspiration pneumonia is caused by a defective swallowing mechanism, such as a neurological disease or as the result of an injury that directly impairs swallowing or interferes with consciousness. Impaired consciousness can be intentional, such as the use of general anesthesia for surgery. For many types of surgical operations, people preparing for surgery are therefore instructed to take nothing by mouth for at least four hours before surgery; these conditions enable the entry of bacteria into the lungs, thus allowing the development of an infection. Impaired swallowing: Conditions that cause dysphagia worsen the ability of people to swallow, causing an increased risk of entry of particles from the stomach or mouth into the airways.

While swallowing dysfunction is associated with aspiration pneumonia, dysphagia may not be sufficient unless other risk factors are present. Neurologic conditions that can directly impact the nerves involved in the swallow mechanism include stroke, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis. Anatomical changes in the chest can disrupt the swallow mechanism. For example, patients with advanced COPD tend to develop enlarged lungs, resulting in compression of the esophagus and thus regurgitation. Altered mental status: Changes in levels of consciousness affect the swallow mechanism by both disabling the body's natural protective measures against aspiration as well as causing nausea and vomiting. Altered mental status can be caused by medical conditions such as seizures. However, many other agents can be responsible as well, including general alcohol. Bacterial colonization: Poor oral hygiene can result in colonization of the mouth with excessive amounts of bacteria, linked to increased incidence of aspiration pneumonia.

Ethnicity: Asians diagnosed with aspiration pneumonia have a lower risk of death compared to other ethnic groups while African Americans and whites share a similar risk of death. Hispanics have a lower risk of death than non-Hispanics. Others: Age, male gender, diabetes mellitus, use of antipsychotic drugs, proton pump inhibitors, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Residence in an institutional setting, prolonged hospitalization or surgical procedures, gastric tube feeding, mechanical airway interventions, immunocompromised, history of smoking, antibiotic therapy, advanced age, reduced pulmonary clearance, diminished cough reflex, disrupted normal mucosal barrier, impaired mucociliary clearance, alter cellular and humoral immunity, obstruction of the airways, damaged lung tissue. Bacteria involved in aspiration pneumonia may be either anaerobic. Common aerobic bacteria involved include: Streptococcus pneumoniae Staphylococcus aureus Haemophilus influenzae Pseudomonas aeruginosa Klebsiella: seen in aspiration lobar pneumonia in alcoholicsAnaerobic bacteria play a key role in the pathogenesis of aspiration pneumonia.

They make up the majority of normal oral flora and the presence of putrid fluid in the lungs is suggestive of aspiration pneumonia secondary to an anaerobic organism. While it is difficult to confirm the presence of anaerobes through cultures, the treatment of aspiration pneumonia includes anaerobic coverage regardless. Potential anaerobic bacteria are as follows: Bacteroides Prevotella Fusobacterium Peptostreptococcus Aspiration is defined as inhalation of oropharyngeal or gastric contents into the pulmonary tree. Depending on the composition of the aspirate, three complications have been described: Chemical pneumonitis may develop whose severity depends on the pH value and quantity of aspirate; the two lung changes after acid aspiration are: a) direct toxic damage to the respiratory epithelium resulting in interstitial pulmonary edema and b) a few hours inflammatory response with production of cytokines, neutrophil infiltration, macrophage activation. Oxygen-free radicals are generated. Patients may remain asymptomatic after acid aspiration.

Others may develop dyspnea, pleuritic chest pain, fever, bloody or frothy sputum, respiratory failure. Aspiration pneumonia may develop; the third complicati

2016 BYU Cougars football team

The 2016 BYU Cougars football team represented Brigham Young University in the 2016 NCAA Division I FBS football season. The Cougars, led by first-year head coach Kalani Sitake, played their home games at LaVell Edwards Stadium; this was the sixth year. They finished the season 9–4, they were invited to the Poinsettia Bowl. BYU hired a new coaching staff in 2016. Gone from the program were Bronco Mendenhall, who accepted the Head coach position with the Virginia Cavaliers on December 4, assistant coaches Robert Anae, Garett Tujague, Mark Atuaia, Jason Beck, Nick Howell, Kelly Poppinga, who accepted positions on Virginia's new coaching staff. On December 19, 2015, Kalani Sitake was announced as the new head coach. Sitake is the first Tongan to become a FBS collegiate football head coach. On December 24, 2015, Ilaisa Tuiaki was appointed the defensive coordinator and Ty Detmer the offensive coordinator. On December 26, 2015, Ed Lamb was appointed the assistant head coach. In December 2015, Nu'u Tafisi was reported as being named as the conditioning coach.

On January 14, 2015 Tafisi was confirmed as a new member of the staff. Steve Kaufusi was announced as a returning member of the staff, former BYU offensive line coach Mike Empey, who served as offensive line coach under the legendary LaVell Edwards, was announced as a new staff member. On January 20, 2016 Ben Cahoon was hired as the wide receivers coach. On January 25, 2016 Steve Clark was hired as the tight end coach, Russell Tialavea was hired as the director of football operations, AJ Middleton was hired as the asst. Strength and conditioning coach. On January 28, 2016, the final members of the coaching staff were hired. Reno Mahe was hired as the running backs coach, Jernaro Gilford was hired as the cornerbacks coach, Tevita Ofahengaue was hired as the director of recruiting operations. Football Media Day took place on June 30, 2016, it aired live on BYUtv, with a simulcast on ESPN3. On it Coach Sitake talked about future scheduling, Tom Holmoe discussed BYU's interest in the Big XII Conference, Coach Detmer talked about the switch to the Pro-style offense and how it will rely more on tight ends, Coach Tuikai talked about the defensive scheme switching from 3–4 to 4–3.

Throughout the day multiple players were interviewed by Spencer Linton, Jarom Jordan, Lauren Francom, Jason Shepherd, Greg Wrubell, various media members that covered BYU. Topics discussed during the interview included off-season workouts, marital status changes, the coaching changes, the QB controversy, many other topics; the day ended with a look back at the 1996 team that won the Cotton Bowl. During Media Day it was revealed that Nike is working on a new shoe for Taysom Hill that gives additional support through the arch, it will include the orthotics as an insole on top of that. KSL 102.7 FM and 1160 AM- Flagship Station BYU Radio- Nationwide KIDO- Boise, ID KTHK- Blackfoot/ Idaho Falls/ Pocatello/ Rexburg, ID KMGR- Manti, UTKSUB- Cedar City, UT KDXU- St. George, UT KSHP- Las Vegas, NV The 2016 schedule was believed to be BYU's hardest schedule to date, it featured Power 5 teams from the Pac-12, Big Ten, Big 12, SEC along with teams that have been ranked from the Group of 5 schools. However, at the end of the 2016 season it appeared noticeably weaker than predicted, with Sagarin ranking the schedule 75th.

Uniform combination: white helmet, white jersey, white pants. The Cougar offense and defense dominated for three quarters of the game, but it took a 33-yard field goal from freshman kicker Jake Oldroyd for BYU to prevail 18–16 and give Kalani Sitake his first win as Cougar head coach. Oldroyd wasn't scheduled to be on the road roster. A late Thursday move moved Oldroyd past James Baird onto the roster. After sophomore kicker Rhett Almond missed the extra point, BYU decided to make the move to Oldroyd showing the kicking battle still hasn't been settled for the Cougars this season. In his return to the Cougars Jamaal Williams had a fine game, rushing for 162 yards on 29 carries, an average of 5.2 yards per carry, winning BYUtv's Y-Factor award. Williams would catch one pass for 10 yards, it was Taysom Hill though. Hill threw for 202 yards, a touchdown, no interceptions. After BYU fell behind 16–15, Hill took possession of the ball at the 20, he went 3-for-3 passing on the series. Overall Hill would carry the ball for four first downs.

A late illegal procedure penalty with:08 seconds left nearly cost the Cougars, but BYU chose to use their final timeout and avoid the 10-second runoff. The ball had been moved from BYU's 20 to Arizona's 16, but the loss of the timeout forced Oldroyd to kick from the left hash instead of dead center. After a failed freeze by Rich Rodriguez, Oldroyd nailed the kick right down the center to give BYU the lead back and the win. Game Stats: Passing: BYU: Taysom Hill 21–29–0—202. Rushing: BYU: Jamaal Williams 29–162, Hill 11–37, Algernon Brown 3–7, Squally Canada 2–6, Brayden Al-Bakri 1–1. J. Taylor 1-, Solomon 7-. Receiving: BYU: Jonah Trinnaman 6–49, Moroni Laulu-Pututau 4–49, Colby Pearson 4–37, Hunter Marshall 2–29, Brown 1–14, Williams 1–10, Nick Kurtz 1–9, Tanner Balderdee 2–5. Inter