The foreign relations of Finland are the responsibility of the president of Finland, who leads foreign policy in cooperation with the government. Implicitly the government is responsible for internal policy and decision making in the European Union. Within the government, preparative discussions are conducted in the government committee of foreign and security policy, which includes the Prime Minister and at least the Minister of Foreign Affairs and the Minister of Defence, at most four other ministers as necessary; the committee meets with the President as necessary. Laws concerning foreign relations are discussed in the parliamentary committee of foreign relations; the Ministry of Foreign Affairs implements the foreign policy. During the Cold War, Finland's foreign policy was based on official neutrality between the Western powers and the Soviet Union, while stressing Nordic cooperation in the framework of the Nordic Council and cautious economic integration with the West as promoted by the Bretton-Woods Agreement and the free trade treaty with the European Economic Community.
Finland shares this history with close neighbour Sweden, which Finland was a part of until the split of the Swedish empire in 1809. Finland did not join the Soviet Union's economic sphere but remained a free-market economy and conducted bilateral trade with the Soviet Union. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, Finland unilaterally abrogated the last restrictions imposed on it by the Paris peace treaties of 1947 and the Finno-Soviet Agreement of Friendship and Mutual Assistance; the government filed an application for membership in the European Union three months after the dissolution of the Soviet Union and became a member in 1995. Finland did not attempt to join NATO though post-Soviet countries on the Baltic Sea and elsewhere joined. Defence policymakers have converted to NATO equipment and contributed troops. President Martti Ahtisaari and the coalition governments led Finland closer to the core EU in the late 1990s. Finland was considered a cooperative model state, Finland did not oppose proposals for a common EU defence policy.
This was reversed in the 2000s, when Tarja Halonen and Erkki Tuomioja made Finland's official policy to resist other EU members' plans for common defense. However, Halonen allowed Finland to join European Union Battlegroups in 2006 and the NATO Response Force in 2008. Relations with Russia are cordial and common issues include bureaucracy, airspace violations, development aid Finland gives to Russia, Finland's energy dependency on Russian gas and electricity. Behind the scenes, the administration has witnessed a resurrection of Soviet-era tactics; the National Security Agency, Finnish Security Intelligence Service, estimates that the known number of Russian agents from Foreign Intelligence Service and GRU now exceeds Cold War levels and there are unknown numbers of others. As of March 2011 Finland maintains diplomatic relations with all UN member states. After independence from Russia in 1917, the Finnish Civil War, including interventions by Imperial Germany and Soviet Russia, failure of the Communist revolution, resulted in the official ban on Communism, strengthening relations with Western countries.
Overt alliance with Germany was not possible due to the result of the First World War, but in general the period of 1918 to 1939 was characterised by economic growth and increasing integration to the Western world economy. Relations with Soviet Russia from 1918 to 1939 were icy. However, attempts to establish military alliances were unsuccessful. Thus, when the Winter War broke out, Finland was left alone to resist the Soviet attack. During the Continuation War, Finland declared "co-belligerency" with Nazi Germany, allowed Northern Finland to be used as a German attack base; the peace settlement in 1944 with the Soviet Union led to the Lapland War in 1945, where Finland fought Germans in northern Finland. From the end of the Continuation War with the Soviet Union in 1944 until 1991, the policy was to avoid superpower conflicts and to build mutual confidence with the Western powers and the Soviet Union. Although the country was culturally and politically Western, Finns realised they had to live in peace with the USSR and take no action that might be interpreted as a security threat.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 opened up dramatic new possibilities for Finland and has resulted in the Finns seeking greater participation in Western political and economic structures. The popular support for the self-defensive doctrine remains. In the 2000 constitution, where diverse constitutional laws were unified into one statute, the leading role of the President was moderated. However, because the constitution still stipulates only that the President leads foreign policy and the government internal policy, the responsibility over European Union affairs is not explicitly resolved. Implicitly this belongs to the powers of the government. In a cohabitation situation as with Matti Vanhanen's recent second government right-wing government and left-wing President Tarja Halonen, there can be friction between government ministers and the president; the arrangement has been criticised by Risto E. J. Penttilä for not providing a simple answer of who's in charge. Finnish foreign policy emphasises its participation in multilateral organisations.
Finland joined the United Nations in 1955 and the European Union in 1995
Lovelady High School is a public high school located in the city of Lovelady, Texas, in Houston County, United States and classified as a 2A school by the UIL. It is a part of the Lovelady Independent School District located in southern Houston County. In 2015, the school was rated "Met Standard" by the Texas Education Agency; the Lovelady Lions compete in these sports - Volleyball, Cross Country, Basketball, Track and Softball. The Lions were one of the worst teams in the state, their fortunes turned when coach Kerry Therwhanger. Prior to Therwhanger's tenure, the Lions made the playoffs once in their history, 1979. During his tenure, they lions made the playoffs 10 times, having 2 regional championships and 2 undefeated regular seasons after leaving in 2016, Mike Lowery became the head coach, making the playoffs in both 2016-18, making him the 2nd head coach in school history to have multiple playoff berths under his belt. Hall of famer Don Tullos coached at lovelady for many years, he guided the Lady Lions to the state semi finals in 1992.
While coach Tullos was there, he organized what was the largest high school basketball tournament in the United States. It continued after Tullos retirement after the 2004 season, but it hasn't been played since 2012; the Lions basketball team made it to the state semi finals in 1952. The baseball team made it to the state semi finals in 2007, they had an undefeated district record in 2017. That year, they lost to the eventual regional champion groveton Indians, their only intra-conference losses that season, their 3 biggest rivals are Grapeland and Trinity, although the Lions haven't played the tigers in football since 1995 The school suffered minor tornado damage on April 13, 2014. Homer Rainey: Former University of Texas president, 1913 graduate of Lovelady High School. Charles Harrelson and father of Woody Harrelson attended Lovelady High school, before transferring to Huntsville where he dropped out. Myrtle Mainer Neff: Former First Lady of Texas. Paul Wakefield-General, political aide
Øvre Anárjohka National Park is a national park that lies in Karasjok and Kautokeino municipalities in Finnmark county, Norway. The park is 1,409 square kilometres in area, it borders on Lemmenjoki National Park in Finland. Øvre Anárjohka is located on the interior of the Finnmarksvidda plateau and it includes extensive birch woods, pine barrens and lakes. The park protects the largest remaining undisturbed pine forest in Norway. There is a rich animal life inside the park; the largest mammals are the moose, but they migrate to more wooded areas outside the park for the winter. The park has 12 winter grazing units for reindeer. From November to April inclusive, the reindeer dominate the park. Brown bear wolverines only visit sporadically; the red fox and stoat are the most common of the smaller predators. Many small rodents are found in the park. Lemmings, field voles, root voles and northern water voles are most widespread, but their numbers vary a great deal from year to year; the northern red-backed vole, a typical Siberian species, is a characteristic inhabitant of the national park.
The area has a stable hare population, a few species of shrews are present. Øvre Anarjohka national park has many kinds of fish. Salmon, three-spined sticklebacks, vendace, perch and minnows are common. One of the rarer fish species is char, found in only one of the lakes; the park is named after the large river Anárjohka. The river name comes from the Northern Sami language where johka means "river"; the meaning of the first element is unknown. The first word øvre is from the Norwegian language and means "upper", thus the name means "the upper part of the Anárjohka river". Map of Øvre Anárjohka National Park