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Uesugi Mochinori

Count Uesugi Mochinori was a Japanese samurai of the late Edo period who served as the last daimyō of Yonezawa han in Dewa Province. In the Meiji era he became a government official and served as governor of Okinawa Prefecture; the direct descendant of the famed Uesugi Kenshin, Mochinori was born in 1844. Mochinori's father Narinori took part in the movements of the northern domains which culminated in the creation of the Ōuetsu Reppan Dōmei during the Boshin War. After the end of the war, Narinori was made to retire, Mochinori became lord of Yonezawa in his place. In his last act as lord, Mochinori distributed around 100,000 ryō of gold coins from the domain's treasury to the retainers. Following the war, in 1871, he moved to Tokyo, went abroad to England to study. In May 1881, he became the second governor of Okinawa Prefecture. Upon becoming governor, he traveled the prefecture and oversaw a survey of conditions and lifestyle in the islands; the resulting document remains today a valuable resource for understanding the Okinawa of that time.

He petitioned the Meiji government for permission and aid to effect a number of reforms, but was denied. However, under Mochinori's administration, a great many elementary schools were founded, along with a system by which the prefectural government funded students to study in Tokyo, variety of other educational programs, he was replaced as governor of Okinawa in 1883, becoming a member of the Genrōin, in 1884 he became a count. Toward the end of his life, he received a promotion to senior 2nd court rank, his tenure as governor of Okinawa was short, a result, it is said, of Tokyo's disapproval of the extent of his reform programs in the prefecture at a time when there remained sovereignty disputes with China over the islands. After leaving this office, however, he continued to make contributions towards the welfare and education of Okinawan students in Japan. Mochinori moved to Yonezawa in 1896, died there in 1919. Kuninori Uesugi, the modern-day astronomer, is Mochinori's great-grandson. ----.

Okinawa rekishi jinmei jiten. Naha: Okinawa Bunka-sha. Kerr, George H.. Okinawa: the History of an Island People. Boston: Tuttle Publishing. Asano Gengo 浅野源吾. Yonezawa-han shi 米沢藩史. Tokyo: Tōyō Shoin 東洋書院, Shōwa 50 Yonezawa-han Boshin monjo 米澤藩戊辰文書. Edited by Nihon Shiseki Kyōkai 日本史籍協會編. Tokyo: Tokyo Daigaku Shuppankai 東京大學出版會, Shōwa 42 Biographical Information

Matteo Galvan

Matteo Galvan is an Italian sprinter who specializes in the 200 and 400 metres. His career highlight so far is the 2009 European Indoor Championships, where he placed sixth in the 400 metres and won a gold medal in the relay, he won seven national championships at individual senior level from 2008 to 2016 in three different specialities of the sprinting. Galvan was born in Vicenza, he won the bronze medal in the 200 metres at the 2005 World Youth Championships, in a personal best time of 21.14 seconds. At the 2006 World Junior Championships he was named as one of the prime members of the Italian squad, he was disqualified. He competed in the 4 x 100 metres relay, but without reaching the final round. In 2006 he achieved personal best times in the 100 and 200 metres, with 10.54 and 20.87 seconds both times set in July in Rieti.2007 and 2008 were low-key seasons for Galvan. He ran the 200 metres in 20.96 in June 2007, the 400 metres in 47.10 in September 2007. He repeated this exact time in February 2008 during the indoor season.

In February 2009 he ran the 400 metres in 46.26, at the Italian indoor championships in Turin. At that time it was the third fastest time in Europe and the sixth fastest in the world during the 2008–09 indoor season; the 2009 European Indoor Championships was staged in the same city the next month, competing in the 400 metres, Galvan managed to place sixth in the final with the time 48.23. On the next day he won a gold medal in the 4 x 400 metres relay, together with teammates Jacopo Marin, Domenico Rao and Claudio Licciardello. Galvan ran the second leg. 400 metres: 45.12. Current record established at the 2016 European Championships. Italian Athletics Championships 100 metres: 2011 200 metres: 2008 400 metres: 2009, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2019 Italian records in athletics Italian all-time lists - 400 metres Italy national relay team Matteo Galvan at FIDAL Matteo Galvan at World Athletics Matteo Galvan at the International Olympic Committee Matteo Galvan at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com

Kusunose Kita

Kusunose Kita was one of the first Japanese advocates for women's political rights. Her actions helped realize women's suffrage in parts of her home town of Kochi city, where she is still known as "minken baasan". Kusunose Kita was born in Hirooka as the daughter of Kesamaru Gihei, a rice merchant, in 1836. At the age of 21, she married Kusunose Minoru, a samurai living in the castle town of Kōchi and a kendō instructor, but was widowed in 1874. Not having any children, she was the sole heir to her husband's property and became the head of the family. In spite of her status, though she was paying enough taxes, she could not vote in the 1878 elections, to be held for the established local assembly in Kōchi, as only males were allowed to do so. In the same year, she submitted a petition to the prefectural authorities, stating that she would refuse to pay taxes as long as her right to vote continued to be denied. Regulations for prefectural assemblies at that time provided that suffrage be given to all men over 20 who had permanent residence in that district and were paying more than five yen land tax per year.

Still, the Municipality Formation Law of July 1878 did not provide any national criteria for women's suffrage as far as town and village assemblies were concerned. Protesting the fact that she was not allowed to vote because she was a woman, Kusunose refused to pay taxes, but her plea with the authorities was rejected, she decided to take her petition national, addressing it to the Ministry of Internal Affairs. When the Osaka Daily reported on the matter on January 26, 1879, her case was brought to national attention. Although she was excluded from participating in these elections, the Town and Village Assembly Law, put into effect in September 1880 allowed local assemblies to establish their own regulations concerning elections. Without hesitation, the local authorities of the Kami-machi district adopted regulations that allowed women to participate, shortly after, the neighboring village of Kodakasa followed suit; this is how, for the first time in modern Japan, active participation in elections for women was realized.

Because the national government revised the above-mentioned law in 1884, the towns and villages were deprived of their right to enact their own election rulebook, the right to vote was again restricted to men only. If short-lived, Kusunose's petitions and their outcome are considered a remarkable contribution to the Freedom and People's Rights Movement. Kusunose continued to fight for women's rights, earning herself the endearing title of "minken baasan" which lives on in Kōchi up to this day, she died at the age of 84, during the heyday of Taishō democracy. Her grave can be found in a graveyard on Mount Hitsuzan in Kochi city. Text of PetitionOsaka Daily The newspaper article published in the Osaka Nippō on January 26, 1879, that turned her into a national celebrity ran the whole text of Kusunose's petition, followed by the prefectural authorities' rebuttal; this is the introductory part of the article: People's worth lies in their intelligence, not their beards. The Risshisha, a political society founded in Tosa in 1874, was holding speech meetings every Saturday.

Speakers spoke about the popular rights and freedom. Most of the audience were men, but among them there was an intelligent, energetic woman called Kusunose Kita. No matter how cold or hot it was, she never failed to attend the gatherings and took the lead, encouraging participants, as if she were a goddess amidst gods. Kusunose happens to be the head of a family in Tōjin-chō, having advocated equal rights regardless of sex for a long time. However, when she was about to vote at a ward assembly election last year, the head of the ward told her that women have no right to vote and cannot stand in as a guarantor for legal documents if they are the head of family. Kusunose protested against the instructions, saying that "without equal rights, there should be no obligation to pay taxes for women", she filed a petition to the Prefecture, calling on new instructions to make equal rights clear. On October 18, 2019, Google celebrated her 183rd birthday with a Google Doodle. Women's suffrage in Andrew.

A Modern History of Japan. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195339222. Ōki, Motoko. Jiyū Minken Undō to Josei. Domesu Shuppan

CBR1

Carbonyl reductase 1 known as CBR1, is an enzyme which in humans is encoded by the CBR1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases family, which function as NADPH-dependent oxidoreductases having wide specificity for carbonyl compounds, such as quinones and various xenobiotics. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. Carbonyl reductase is one of several monomeric, NADPH-dependent oxidoreductases having wide specificity for carbonyl compounds; this enzyme is distributed in human tissues. Another carbonyl reductase gene, CBR3, lies close to this gene on chromosome 21q. CBR1 metabolizes many toxic environmental quinones and pharmacological relevant substrates such as the anticancer doxorubicin. Several studies have shown that CBR1 plays a protective role in oxidative stress, neurodegeneration, apoptosis. In addition, CBR1 inactivates lipid aldehydes during oxidative stress in cells. Therefore, CBR1 may play a beneficial role in protecting against cellular damage resulting from oxidative stress.

Up-to-date two non-synonymous polymorphisms on CBR1 have been identified. The CBR1 V88I polymorphism encodes for a valine-to-isoleucin substitution at position 88 of the aminoacid chain. In vitro studies with recombinant proteins indicate that the CBR1 V88 isoform has a higher Vmax towards the substrates menadione and daunorubicin. Recent studies in human liver cytosols show that an untranslated polymorphism on the 3'UTR region of the CBR1 gene is associated with higher levels of the cardiotoxic metabolite doxorubicinol. Human CBR1 gene maps to chromosome 21 at q22.13, includes 8 exons. The enzyme consists of 277 amino acid residues and is distributed in human tissues such as liver, stomach, small intestine, neuronal cells, smooth muscle fibers; the best substrates of CBR1 are quinones, including tocopherolquinone. Ubiquinones are constitutive parts of the respiratory chain, tocopherolquinone protects lipids of biological membranes against lipid peroxidation, indicating that CBR1 may play an important role as an oxidation–reduction catalyst in biological processes.

CBR1 has been reported to relate to tumor progression. Suppression of CBR1 expression was associated with poor prognosis in uterine endometrial cancer and uterine cervical squamous cell carcinoma. Previous studies showed that decreased CBR1 expression is associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in ovarian cancer, induction of CBR1 expression in ovarian tumors leads to a spontaneous decrease in tumor size. Recent study demonstrates that CBR1 attenuates apoptosis and promotes cell survival in pancreatic β cell lines under glucotoxic and glucolipotoxic conditions via reducing ROS generation, their data demonstrates that CBR1 expression level and enzyme activity are decreased in pancreatic islets isolated from db/db mice, an animal model of type 2 diabetes. These results suggest that CBR1 may play a role in protecting pancreatic β-cells against oxidative stress under glucotoxic or glucolipotoxic conditions, its reduced expression or activity may contribute to β-cell dysfunction in db/db mice or human type 2 diabetes.

In addition, CBR1 may play a critical role in PGF2α synthesis in human amnion fibroblasts, cortisol promotes the conversion of PGE2 into PGF2α via glucocorticoid receptor -mediated induction of CBR1 in human amnion fibroblasts. This stimulatory effect of cortisol on CBR1 expression may explain the concurrent increases of cortisol and PGF2α in human amnion tissue with labor, these findings may account for the increased production of PGF2α in the fetal membranes prior to the onset of labor. CBR1 has been shown to interact with Cortisol, C2 domain, Flavonoid. Human CBR1 genome location and CBR1 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: P16152 at the PDBe-KB

Stuart Fraser (diplomat)

Sir Stuart Mitford Fraser, was a distinguished officer of the Foreign and Political Department of the Government of India. Five years after joining the Indian Civil Service, he was appointed tutor to the Maharajas of Kolhapur and Bhavnagar, was tutor and guardian to the Maharaja of Mysore; the Fraser Town locality in Bangalore was named after Sir Stuart Fraser. Stuart Mitford Fraser was educated at Blundell's Balliol College, he passed the examination for the Indian Civil Service in 1882 and was allocated to the Bombay Presidency. Within 5 years Fraser was selected as guardian and tutor to the Raja of Kolhapur to become Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj after being educated at Rajkumar College, Rajkot, he had responsibility for the leadership preparations of the Maharajah of Bhavanagar, Shri Bhavsinhji II after schooling at Rajkumar College, Rajkot like his father and son, Krishna Kumarasingh Bhavasingh the last Maharaja of Bhavnagar. In 1896 Fraser was appointed as governor and tutor to the young Krishna Raja Wadiyar IV, Maharaja of Mysore, to become known as a beneficent ruler who enhanced the reputation of Mysore as a model state.

In 1903 Fraser went to the Foreign Department at Calcutta and Simla as deputy secretary and in 1904 was sent by Lord Curzon as H. M Commissioner to negotiate with the Chinese about the Anglo-Tibetan Convention. Fraser returned to India in 1905 as Chief Commissioner of Coorg. In 1911 Fraser was appointed Resident in Kashmir and for several months in 1914 was acting Resident in Hyderabad. At the commencement of the First World War, with Turkey taking the side of Germany, it was Fraser’s resolute and confident approach that persuaded Osman Ali Khan, Asaf Jah VII, the Nizam of Hyderabad, to resist defeatist view and ensure continued support for the British Raj. Fraser Town is a suburb of Bangalore Cantonment, in Bangalore North-East, spread over 4 km2, it is named after Stuart Mitford Fraser. Fraser Town was established to de-congest the growing Bangalore Military Station; the foundation of Fraser Town was laid in August 2010 by Mrs. F J Richards, with a commemorative plaque on the corner of Coles Road and Mosque Road.

Fraser Town is a residential and commercial suburb, the prominent roads being Promenade Road, Netaji Road, Madhavraya Mudaliar Road, Haines Road, Spencer Road, Wheeler Road, Mosque Road, etc. The suburb is known for its communal harmony with Hindus and Christians living side by side in peace. Obituary - Sir Stuart Fraser, The Times, 4 December 1963 Obituary - Sir Stuart Fraser, Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society, LI, p. 197 Royal India: a descriptive and historical study of India's fifteen principal states and their rulers, Maud Diver, Ayer Publishing, 1971 ISBN 0-8369-2152-6 ISBN 978-0-8369-2152-6