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Foreign relations of South Korea

South Korea maintains diplomatic relations with 191 countries. The country has been a member of the United Nations since 1991, when it became a member state at the same time as North Korea. South Korea has hosted major international events such as the 1988 Summer Olympics and 2002 World Cup Soccer Tournament and the 2011 IAAF World Championships Daegu South Korea. Furthermore, South Korea had hosted the 2018 Winter Olympics which took place in Pyeongchang, South Korea from 9 to 25 February. South Korea is a member of the United Nations, WTO, OECD/DAC, ASEAN Plus Three, East Asia Summit, G-20, it is a founding member of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation and the East Asia Summit. On January 1, 2007, South Korean Foreign Minister Ban Ki-moon assumed the post of UN Secretary-General, serving in that post until December 31, 2016. Inter-Korean relations may be divided into five periods; the first stage was between 1972 and 1973. The fourth stage, activated by Nordpolitik under Roh, was represented by expanding public and private contacts between the two Koreas.

The fifth stage was improved following the 1997 election of Kim Dae-jung. His "Sunshine Policy" of engagement with North Korea set the stage for the historic June 2000 Inter-Korean summit; the possibility of Korean reunification has remained a prominent topic. However, no peace treaty has yet been signed with the North. In June 2000, a historic first North Korea-South Korea summit took place, part of the South Korea's continuing Sunshine Policy of engagement. Since regular contacts have led to a cautious thaw. President Kim was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2000 for the policy. With that policy, continued by the following administration of president Roh Moo-hyun, economic ties between the two countries have increased, humanitarian aid has been sent to North Korea and some divided families have been reunited. Military ties remain fraught with tension, in 2002 a brief naval skirmish left four South Korean sailors dead, leaving the future of the Sunshine policy uncertain; the North Korea cut off talks but the South remained committed to the policy of reconciliation and relations began to thaw again.

The resurgence of the nuclear issue two years would again cast relations in doubt, but South Korea has sought to play the role of intermediary rather than antagonist, economic ties at the time seemed to be growing again. Despite the Sunshine Policy and efforts at reconciliation, the progress was complicated by North Korean missile tests in 1993, 1998, 2006 and 2009; as of early 2009, relationships between North Korea and South Korea were tense. As of 2009 North Korea and South Korea are still opposed and share a fortified border. On May 27, 2009 North Korea media declared that the armistice is no longer valid due to the South Korean government's pledge to "definitely join" the Proliferation Security Initiative. To further complicate and intensify strains between the two nations, the sinking of the South Korean warship Cheonan in March 2010, killing 46 seamen, is as of May 20, 2010 claimed by a team of researchers around the world to have been caused by a North Korean torpedo, which the North denies.

South Korea agreed with the findings from the research group and president Lee Myung-bak declared in May 2010 that Seoul would cut all trade with North Korea as part of measures aimed at striking back at North Korea diplomatically and financially. As a result of this, North Korea severed all ties and abrogated the previous pact of non aggression. In November 2010, Unification Ministry declared the Sunshine Policy a failure, thus bringing the policy to an end. On November 23, 2010, North Korean artillery shelled Yeonpyeong with dozens of rounds at Yeonpyeong-ri and the surrounding area. South Korea has the following trade agreements: South Korea-ASEAN FTA South Korea-Australia FTA South Korea-Canada CKFTA FTA South Korea-Chile FTA South Korea-China FTA South Korea-Colombia FTA South Korea-EFTA FTA South Korea-EU FTA South Korea-India CEPA FTA South Korea-New Zealand FTA South Korea-Peru FTA South Korea-Singapore FTA South Korea-Turkey FTA South Korea-United States of America South Korea-Vietnam FTAAs of late 2016 states of Central America, GCC, Israel, Malaysia, MERCOSUR, Mongolia, RCEP, Russia, SACU and Korea-China-Japan are in negotiations about the FTA with South Korea.

Active South Korean-Chinese people-to-people contacts have been encouraged. Academics and families divided between South Korea and the People's Republic of China were able to exchange visits in the late 1980s. Nearly 2 m

The Lost Things

The Lost Things is the fifth compilation album released by Australian rock band Boom Crash Opera. The album is a collection of Boom Crash Opera rarities and was released in Australian on 18 October 2013; the album was launched on 25 October 2013 at the Flyer Saucer Club in Melbourne. Richard Pleasance said "I know the music I make now is different to what I was up to in the eighties but heck – it rocks. Like an un-fit footy player with groin soreness. In an interview with Beauty and Lace in February 2014 Peter Maslen said; the tracks range from unpolished and ready to completed work. Some of the tracks had been deemed ‘not good enough’ at the time and therefore should not go on an album.". Some are seminal and show just how the band developed its sound. It’s like looking at an old family movie and watching the kids growing up." The group toured the album from February to May 2014. "Change" - 4:05 "Cheated Out of Heaven" - 4:00 "Rattle It Out" - 4:41 "Hell to Pay" - 4:09 "I Found My Head" - 3:58 "Isn't It Love?"

- 4:07 "Right In My Face" - 3:23 "When She Gets There" - 4:09 "Axe to Grind" - 6:14 "Sea Change" - 4:21 "Down to the River" - 4:51 "Rottenhood" - 4:16 "Skies Were Blue" - 4:55 "Fizz" - 3:34 "Rosebud Carnival Massacre" - 0:47

Clark Glymour

Clark N. Glymour is the Alumni University Professor Emeritus in the Department of Philosophy at Carnegie Mellon University, he is a senior research scientist at the Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition. Glymour is the founder of the Philosophy Department at Carnegie Mellon University, a Guggenheim Fellow, a Fellow of the Center for Advanced Study in Behavioral Sciences, a Phi Beta Kappa lecturer, is a Fellow of the statistics section of the AAAS. Glymour and his collaborators created the causal interpretation of Bayes nets, his areas of interest include epistemology, machine learning, automated reasoning, psychology of judgment, mathematical psychology. One of Glymour's main contributions to the philosophy of science is in the area of Bayesian probability in his analysis of the Bayesian "problem of old evidence". Glymour, in collaboration with Peter Spirtes and Richard Scheines developed an automated causal inference algorithm implemented as software named TETRAD. Using multivariate statistical data as input, TETRAD searches from among all possible causal relationship models and returns the most plausible causal models based on conditional dependence relationships between those variables.

The algorithm is based on principles from statistics, graph theory, philosophy of science, artificial intelligence. Glymour earned undergraduate degrees in philosophy, he did graduate work in chemical physics and obtained a Ph. D in History and Philosophy of Science from Indiana University in 1969. Theory and Evidence Examining Holistic Medicine, Prometheus, 1985 Foundations of Space-Time Theories, University of Minnesota Press, 1986 Discovering Causal Structure Academic Press, 1987 Causation and Search, Springer, 1993, 2nd Edition MIT Press, 2001 Thinking Things Through, MIT Press, 1994 Android Epistemology MIT/AAAI Press, 1996 The Mind's Arrows: Bayes Nets and Graphical Causal Models in Psychology, MIT Press, 2001 Galileo in Pittsburgh Harvard University Press, 2010. "The Evaluation of Discovery: Models and Search through “Big Data”", Open Philosophy, 2019. Available on-line: "When is a Brain Like the Planet?", Philosophy of Science, 2008. "Reasons as Causes in Bayesian Epistemology", Journal of Philosophy, 2008.

"Markov Properties and Quantum Experiments", in W. Demopoulos and I. Pitowsky, eds. Physical Theory and Its Interpretation: Essays in Honor of Jeffrey Bub, Springer 2006. "Data Driven Methods for Granger Causality and Contemporaneous Causality with Non-Linear Corrections: Climate Teleconnection Mechanisms", 2004. "Review of Phil Dowe and Paul Nordhoff: Cause and Chance: Causation in an Indeterministic World", Mind, 2005.. "N-1 Experiments Suffice to Determine the Causal Relations Among N Variables", 2004. "Log2 Experiments are Sufficient, in the Worst Case Necessary, for Identifying Causal Structure", UAI Proceedings, 2005, "Evidence of systematic expressed sequence tag IMAGE clone cross-hybridization on cDNA microarrays", Vol. 83, Issue 6, 1169-1175.. "Concerns About Unreliable Data from Spotted cDNA Microarrays Due to Cross-Hybridization and Sequence Errors", Statistical Applications in Genetics and Molecular Biology, Vol. 3, Issue 1, Article 25. "Comment on D. Lerner", "The Illusion of Conscious Will", Behavioral and Brain Sciences, in press.

"Review of Joseph E. Early, Sr.: Chemical Explanation: Characteristics, Autonomy", Philosophy of Science, Vol. 71, No. 3, 415-418.. "Causal Inference", Encyclopedia of Social Science, in press "We believe in freedom of the will so that we can learn", Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Vol. 27, No. 5, 661-662. "The Automation of Discovery", Vol. Winter, 69-77.. "Analysis of microarray data for treated fat cells".. "The Computational and Experimental Complexity of Gene Perturbations for Regulatory Network Search".. "Learning Measurement Models for Unobserved Variables", UAI'03, Proceedings of the 19th Conference in Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence, August 7–10, 2003, Mexico, 543-550.. "The Computational and Experimental Complexity of Gene Perturbations for Regulatory Network Search", Proceedings of IJCAI-2003 Workshop on Learning Graphical Models for Computational Genomics, 22-31.. "Experiments on the Accuracy of Algorithms for Inferring the Structure of Genetic Regulatory Networks from Microarray Expression Levels", International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence Workshop, 2003 "A Semantics and Methodology for Ceteris Paribus Hypotheses", Vol. 57, 395-405.

"Review of James Woodward, Making Things Happen: A Theory of Causal Explanation", British Journal for Philosophy of Science, Vol. 55, 779-790.. "Expert statistical testimony and epidemiological evidence: the toxic effects of lead exposure on children"

St James' Church, Midhopestones

St James’ Church, Midhopestones is situated in the small rural hamlet of Midhopestones, just within the northern boundary of the City of Sheffield in South Yorkshire. Since April 1969 it has been a Grade II* listed building. St James is small church, referred to as a chapel, in fact it is situated on Chapel Lane; the church is dedicated to James the Less and not James the Greater although there has always been some confusion. Some modern historians and clergy maintain that the church should be dedicated to James the Greater as the scallop shells carved above the church door are the traditional emblem of James the Greater, it is possible that it was re-dedicated to James the Less in the Victorian era because of the smallness of the church. The church is in the Parish of Penistone within the Diocese of Wakefield. St James' church was founded by the Barnby family of Cawthorne. Thomas de Barnby, vicar of Kirkheaton, became Lord of the Manor of Midhope in 1337 and was succeeded by his nephew Robert in 1354.

Robert de Barnby was the probable founder of the church around the year 1360 although other scholars attribute Thomas de Barnby as the founder at a earlier date. The church was built as a Chapel of ease for the main church of the parish of Ecclesfield, St. Marys’, which lay 14 km to the east; the Barnbys’ used St James’ as their private chapel until 1622 when they were forced to sell the entire manor because of financial hardship brought on by fines levied after the English Reformation for hearing Mass and not attending the state church. The church was owned by Puritans between 1622 and 1690 and they installed a Jacobean pulpit, high enough for the preacher to see out of the window; the pulpit is the present day church’s most valuable antique. In the second half of the 17th century the chapel fell into disrepair; the church was restored in 1705 by Godfrey Bosville who became Lord of the Manor in 1690. Bosville undertook a partial rebuilding of the east and west ends and added the porch, Minstrels' gallery, box pews and a bell cupola.

Bosville had his coat of arms along with his and his wife Bridget’s initial carved above the porch door as a sign that he regarded the church as his personal family chapel, a move which upset many local residents. Until 1847 services at St James’ were performed by clergy from the nearby St Mary's Church, Bolsterstone where all records of births and deaths were kept. After 1847 services were carried out by clergy from Penistone; the bell in the cupola was replaced in 1858 and again 1929, the graveyard was laid out in the 18th century and further extended in 1915. In 1967 a trap door was discovered between the pulpit and the altar by a joiner doing repairs, this led to speculation of an ancient tunnel connecting the church to the old manor house; however no evidence of a tunnel was found and it is now believed that it was a place where the church silver was kept safely in the past. In 1978 renovations took place which included lowering the pulpit to its present height, replacing brass candlesticks and cross with wrought iron ones and the removal of the front box pews and using the oak wood to make inner doors and a desk and chair for the priest.

A large ancient stone altar was discovered in the south wall during the 1978 renovations.

Elliott C. Cutler Jr.

Elliot Carr Cutler Jr. was a United States Army officer with the rank of brigadier general. His last military service was as a head of the Electrical Engineering Department at United States Military Academy from 1961 until 1977. Cutler was born on June 15, 1920, in Cleveland, the son of doctor Elliott Cutler, who would serve as brigadier general in the Army Medical Corps during World War II. Cutler Jr. attended the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York and graduated from that institution in 1942. Subsequently, he was commissioned a second lieutenant in the 76th Infantry Division and participated in the combats of European Theatre. For his service during the war, Cutler received a Bronze Star Medal, Purple Heart for wound and Combat Infantryman Badge. After the war, 76th Infantry Division was disbanded at the end of the August 1945 and Cutler was transferred to the 19th Infantry Regiment of the 24th Infantry Division, he served with the regiment during Occupation of Japan as a company commander until 1950.

When the Korean War broke out, Cutler was deployed with the 24th Infantry Division during this conflict. For his participation in this war, Cutler was awarded with Legion of Merit, Oak Leaf Cluster to his Bronze Star Medal and star to his Combat Infantryman Badge. After the war, Cutler earned his PhD in electrical engineering at Georgia Tech and subsequently served as a professor at the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, where he taught electrical engineering. In 1961, Cutler was appointed a head of the Electrical Engineering Department. In this capacity, Cutler championed the use of computers in the Academy's curriculum, resulting in the establishment of the Academic Computer Committee, which would bring the school into the technological age. Cutler served in this capacity until 1977. At the retirement ceremony, he was awarded with Army Distinguished Service Medal for his military achievement and promoted to the rank of brigadier general. Cutler died at the age of 86 at Country Center for Health & Rehabilitation in Newburyport, Massachusetts.

He was married to Genevieve Cutler, with whom he had son Elliott C. Cutler, III and daughter Genevieve Names. Here is Cutler´s ribbon bar

Stoclet Palace

The Stoclet Palace is a mansion in Brussels, Belgium. It was built by architect Josef Hoffmann for banker and art lover Adolphe Stoclet between 1905 and 1911 in the Viennese Secession style and is located in the Woluwe-Saint-Pierre municipality of Brussels. Considered Hoffman's masterpiece, the Stoclet's house is one of the most refined and luxurious private houses of the twentieth century; the sumptuous dining and music rooms of the Stoclet Palace exemplified the theatrical spaces of the Gesamtkunstwerk, celebrating sight and taste in a symphony of sensual harmonies that paralleled the operas of Richard Wagner, from whom the concept originated. In his designs for the Stoclet Palace, Hoffmann was attuned to fashion and to the Viennese identity of the new style of interior designing a dress for Madame Stoclet so that she would not clash with her living room decor as she had while wearing a French Paul Poiret gown; the mansion is not open to visitors. The building has received protected status by the Monuments and Sites Directorate of the Brussels-Capital Region and it was designated as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in June 2009.

The Stoclet Palace was commissioned by a wealthy industrialist and art collector. He chose 35-year-old Austrian architect Josef Hoffmann, a founder member of the Vienna Secession, a radical group of designers and artists established in 1897. Hoffman abandoned fashions and styles of the past and produced a building, an asymmetrical compilation of rectangular blocks, underlined by exaggerated lines and corners; the starkness of the exterior is softened by artistic windows, which break through the line of the eaves, the rooftop conservatory, bronze sculptures of four nude males by Franz Metzner, which are mounted on the tower that rises above the stairwell. Regimented upright balustrades line the balconies, touched with Art Nouveau ornamentation; the Stoclet Palace was the first residential project for the Wiener Werkstätte, co-founded by Hoffman in 1903. Josef Hoffman and his colleagues designed every aspect of the mansion, down to the door handles and light fittings; the interior is as spartan as the exterior, with minimal clutter.

This was an avant-garde approach. The interior of the building is decorated with marble paneling and artworks, including mosaic friezes by Gustav Klimt and murals by Ludwig Heinrich Jungnickel; the integration of architects and artisans makes Stoclet Palace an example of a Gesamtkunstwerk, one of the defining characteristics of Art Nouveau. Klimt's sketches for the dining room are in the permanent collection of the Museum für angewandte Kunst in Vienna; the Stoclet Palace is on Avenue de Tervueren/Tervurenlaan in the municipality of Woluwe-Saint-Pierre in Brussels. The building was designed to appear from the road as a stately city mansion. Seen from the garden at the back the Stoclet Palace "becomes a villa suburbana with its rear facade sculpturally modelled by bay windows and terraces" in the words of architectural historian Annette Freytag, which gave the Stoclet family a building with "all the advantages of a comfortable urban mansion and a country house at the same time." Adolphe Stoclet died in 1949, the mansion was inherited by his daughter-in-law Annie Stoclet.

Following Annie's death in 2002, the house was inherited by her four daughters. The Stoclet Palace is not open to the public. Press reports have described the mansion as being looked after by two caretakers while there is dissension between Stoclet's four granddaughters as to the future of the Stoclet Palace. Art Nouveau in Brussels "Catalog of images of the Stoclet Palace". Picture Library. Royal Institute for the Study and Conservation of Belgium's Artistic Heritage. Archived from the original on 2019-03-31. Retrieved 2009-01-10. Exhibition of Klimt's work for Stoclet House at Article and large selection of pictures of the Stoclet Palace