Forensic pathology is pathology that focuses on determining the cause of death by examining a corpse. A post mortem is performed by a medical examiner during the investigation of criminal law cases and civil law cases in some jurisdictions. Coroners and medical examiners are frequently asked to confirm the identity of a corpse. See forensic medicine. Forensic pathology is an application of medical jurisprudence. A forensic pathologist is a medical doctor who has completed training in anatomical pathology and has subsequently specialized in forensic pathology; the requirements for becoming a "fully qualified" forensic pathologist vary from country to country. Some of the different requirements are discussed below; the forensic pathologist performs autopsies/postmortem examinations to determine the cause of death. The autopsy report contains an opinion about the following: The pathological process, injury, or disease that directly results in or initiates a series of events that lead to a person's death, such as a bullet wound to the head, exsanguination caused by a stab wound, manual or ligature strangulation, myocardial infarction resulting from coronary artery disease, etc.)
The manner of death, the circumstances surrounding the cause of death, which, in most jurisdictions, include the following:Homicide Accidental Natural Suicide UndeterminedThe autopsy provides an opportunity for other issues raised by the death to be addressed, such as the collection of trace evidence or determining the identity of the deceased. The forensic pathologist examines and documents wounds and injuries, at autopsy, at the scene of a crime and in a clinical setting, such as rape investigation or deaths in custody. Forensic pathologists collect and examine tissue specimens under the microscope to identify the presence or absence of natural disease and other microscopic findings such as asbestos bodies in the lungs or gunpowder particles around a gunshot wound, they collect and interpret toxicological specimens of body tissues and fluids to determine the chemical cause of accidental overdoses or deliberate poisonings. Forensic pathologists work with the medico-legal authority for the area concerned with the investigation of sudden and unexpected deaths: the coroner, procurator fiscal, or coroner or medical examiner.
They serve as expert witnesses in courts of law testifying in criminal law cases. In an autopsy, the forensic pathologist is assisted by an autopsy/mortuary technician. Forensic physicians, sometimes referred to as "forensic medical examiners" or "police surgeons", are medical doctors trained in the examination of, provision of medical treatment to, living victims of assault, including sexual assault, individuals who find themselves in police custody. Many forensic physicians in the UK practice clinical forensic medicine part-time, they practice family medicine or another medical specialty. In the United Kingdom, membership of the Royal College of Pathologists is not a prerequisite of appointment as a coroner's medical expert. Doctors in the UK who are not forensic pathologists or pathologists are allowed to perform medicolegal autopsies, as the wording of the Coroners and Justice Act 2009, which stipulates a "registered medical practitioner": anyone on the General Medical Council register.
Deaths where there is an unknown cause and those considered unnatural are investigated. In most jurisdictions this is done by a "forensic pathologist", medical examiner, or hybrid medical examiner-coroner offices. In some jurisdictions, the title of "Medical Examiner" is used by a non-physician, elected official involved in medicolegal death investigation. In others, the law requires the medical examiner to be a physician, pathologist, or forensic pathologist; the title "coroner" is applied to both physicians and non-physicians. Coroners were not all physicians. However, in some jurisdictions the topic of "Coroner" is used by physicians. In Canada, there was a mix of coroner and medical examiner systems, depending on the province or territory. In Ontario, coroners are licensed physicians but not family physicians. In Quebec, there is a mix of medical and non-medical coroners, whereas in British Columbia, there is predominantly a non-physician coroner system. Alberta and Nova Scotia are examples of ME systems In the United States, a coroner is an elected public official in a particular geographic jurisdiction who investigates and certifies deaths.
The vast majority of coroners lack a Doctor of Medicine degree and the amount of medical training that they have received is variable, depending on their profession. In contrast, a medical examiner is a physician who holds the degree of Doctor of Medicine or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine. Ideally, a medical examiner has completed both a pathology residency and a fellowship in forensic pathology. In some jurisdictions, a medical examiner must be both a doctor and a lawyer, with additional training in forensic pathology. In German-speaking Europe, lectures on forensic pathology were held in Freiburg in the mid 18th century and Vienna in 1804. Scientists like Auguste Ambroise Tardieu, Johann Ludwig Casper and Carl Liman made great effort to develop forensic pathology into a science based on empirics. Forensic pathology was first recognized in the United States by the American Board of Pathology in 1959. In Canada, it was formally recognized in 2003, a formal training program (a fell
William Cranch was a city land commissioner for Washington, D. C.. Born on July 17, 1769, in Weymouth, Province of Massachusetts Bay, British America, Cranch graduated from Harvard University in 1787 and read law with Thomas Dawes, a relative by marriage, he entered private practice in Braintree, Massachusetts in 1790. He continued private practice in Haverhill, Massachusetts from 1790 to 1791, he was Justice of the Peace for Massachusetts. He resumed private practice in the area ceded by Maryland that would become Washington, D. C. from 1791 to 1800. He was a city land commissioner for Washington, D. C. from 1800 to 1801. Cranch was nominated by President John Adams on February 28, 1801, to the United States Circuit Court of the District of Columbia, to a new seat authorized by 2 Stat. 103. He was confirmed by the United States Senate on March 3, 1801, received his commission the same day, his service terminated on February 24, 1806, due to his elevation to serve as Chief Judge of the same court.
Cranch was nominated by President Thomas Jefferson on February 21, 1806, to the Chief Judge seat on the United States Circuit Court of the District of Columbia vacated by Chief Judge William Kilty. He was confirmed by the Senate on February 24, 1806, received his commission the same day, his service terminated on September 1, 1855, due to his death in Washington, D. C, he was interred in Congressional Cemetery in Washington, D. C. Cranch was a member of the Federalist Party, he was the last holder of a United States government office, a Federalist. Cranch is known for several decisions that set a precedent for jury nullification, including: United States v. Fenwick, 25 F. Cas. 1062. C. 675: Right to make legal argument to jury. Stettinius v. United States, 22 F. Cas. 1322. C. 573: Right to make legal argument to jury. Cranch handed down important precedent in a variety of topics, for example in a criminal law case regarding the mens rea of intoxication, Cranch wrote: It happens that the prisoner seeks to palliate his crime by the pleas of intoxication.
Concurrent with his service on the federal bench, Cranch served as the 2nd Reporter of Decisions of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1802 to 1815. He edited his own volume of reports on civil and criminal cases from the District of Columbia. In 1805, Cranch became a member of the first Board of Trustees for Public Schools and served on that board for 7 years. On February 3, 1826, the Columbian College board of trustees elected Cranch and William Thomas Carroll, Esq. as the first law professors. On June 13 of the same year, with President John Quincy Adams in attendance, Professor Cranch delivered the first law lecture in the court room of the City Hall. In 1871, the Cranch Public School Building, named in Cranch's honor, opened at the southwest corner of 12th and G, SE in Washington, D. C, it was demolished in 1949. Cranch was elected an Associated Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1809. Cranch was elected as a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1813. During the 1820s, Cranch was a member of the prestigious society, Columbian Institute for the Promotion of Arts and Sciences, who counted among their members presidents Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams, many prominent men of the day, including military officers and officials of government service, leaders of medical and other professions.
Cranch was the son of Richard Cranch, a cabinetmaker, Mary Smith, the sister of Abigail Adams. Cranch married Nancy Greenleaf, they had four sons. Their daughter Abigail Adams Cranch married William Greenleaf Eliot, they were the grandparents of poet T. S. Eliot. William Cranch at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center. White, Edward G. 1988. The Marshall Court and Cultural Change, 1815–1835. Vols. 3 and 4, History of the Supreme Court of the United States, 1815–1835. New York: Macmillan. Witt, Elder. 1990. Guide to the U. S. Supreme Court. 2d ed. Washington, D. C.: Congressional Quarterly William Cranch, O Say Can You See: Early Washington, D. C. Law & Family This person page networks the involvement of William Cranch in the legal records and proceedings of the Circuit Court for the District of Columbia between 1800 and 1855
The 1984 Epsom Derby was the 205th annual running of the Derby horse race. It took place at Epsom Downs Racecourse on 6 June 1984, it was the first edition of the race to be commercially sponsored and was known as the Ever Ready Derby. The sponsorship meant; the race was won by Luigi Miglietti's Secreto at odds of 14/1, ridden by Christy Roche and trained in Ireland by David O'Brien. The favourite El Gran Senor, trained by David O'Brien's father Vincent finished second by a short head; the colt's win was a first success in the race for owner and jockey. At the age of 27, David O'Brien was one of the youngest men to have trained a Derby winner. Sponsor: Ever Ready Winner's prize money: £227,680 Going: Good Number of runners: 17 Winner's time: 2 minutes, 39.12 seconds Race result Further details of the winner, Secreto: Foaled: 12 February 1981, in Maryland, United States Sire: Northern Dancer. Colour Chart – Derby 1984