Peter Josef Dietzgen was a German socialist philosopher and journalist. Joseph was born in Blankenberg in the Rhine Province of Prussia, he was the first of five children of father Johann Gottfried Anno Dietzgen and mother Anna Margaretha Lückerath. He was, like a tanner by profession. Self-educated, he developed the notion of dialectical materialism independently from Marx and Engels as an independent philosopher of socialist theory, his publications had major influences on Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Revolution of 1917, which are commented on today. Ludwig Feuerbach's works had a great influence on his early theories, he had Eugene Dietzgen. Early on in his youth, Joseph Dietzgen worked with the famed Forty-Eighters of the 1848 German Revolution, it was there that he first met Karl Marx and other socialist revolutionaries, began his career as a socialist philosopher. Following the failure of the 1848 Revolution he spent some time in the United States from 1849 to 1851, returning once again for a visit from 1859 to 1861.
While in the New World he traversed the American South and witnessed first hand the lynchings which had come to characterize the slave states. During the period between his travels, Dietzgen joined the Alliance of Communists with Karl Marx back in Germany in 1852. In 1853, after marrying his wife Cordula Finke, he established his tannery business in Winterscheid, Germany; when he returned to the United States in 1859 he set up another tannery in Alabama. From 1864 to 1868, he lived with his son Eugene in St. Petersburg, where he was headmaster in the state tannery, he worked with the Tsar of Russia on improvement of the Russian methods. During his time spent in Russia he wrote one of his earliest texts, The Nature of Human Brain-Work, published in 1869. Upon his first reading of the text, Marx forwarded a copy to Engels, remarking, "My opinion is that J. Dietzgen would do better to condense all his ideas into two printer's sheets and have them published under his own name as a tanner. If he publishes them in the size he is proposing, he will discredit himself with his lack of dialectical development and his way of going round in circles."
While he traveled, his wife managed the family tannery business back in Germany until he returned in mid-1869. Once he was back home, he was visited by Marx and his daughter, who proclaimed that Joseph had become "the Philosopher" of socialism. By 1870, Marx had embraced Dietzgen as a friend, praised him and his theory of dialectical materialism in the 2nd edition of the first volume of Das Kapital. On June 8, 1878, Dietzgen was arrested following the publication of a lecture he gave in Cologne: The future of the social democracy, he spent 3 months in prison on remand. Although Joseph was released along with copies of his article, he was re-arrested twice and released. In 1881 Joseph sent his son Eugene to the United States in order to avoid the Kaiser's upcoming army draft, to safeguard his articles and documents, as well as to secure a family home in the new world. Young Eugene was 19 when he arrived in New York, but jump started a thriving family business in Chicago, the Eugene Dietzgen Company.
It became one of the world's top drafting and surveying supply manufacturers and distributors and remained such through most of the 20th century. The company still exists today as a division of Nashua Paper, its two buildings still stand in Chicago's now trendy Printer's Row and Lincoln Park areas. During this period and Joseph kept in close contact through extensive letters which are being documented and published. In the same year, Joseph ran for the elections of the German Reichstag, but emigrated in 1884 to New York City, he moved to Chicago two years where he became editor at the Arbeiterzeitung. Joseph's death in 1888 marked an end to his son's dependency, but his family line would continue to be part of some of the biggest engagements of the 20th century. Dietzgen's words and life have for some underscored the unity that existed on the political left at the time of the First International, before Anarchists and Social Democrats were divided: "For my part, I lay little stress on the distinction, whether a man is an anarchist or a socialist, because it seems to me that too much weight is attributed to this difference."
In this, he acted to reconcile anarchists and Marxists. Dietzgen was figured on a stamp by the German Democratic Republic. Dietzgen's most important contribution to Marxism was arguably his philosophical theory of dialectical materialism, a means of understanding the world which draws from Feuerbach's materialism and Hegel's dialectic; the same principles were developed independently by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels and applied to their writings, of which the Communist Manifesto in particular had great influence on Dietzgen before he began writing. His works were quoted extensively by Lenin in the latter's philosophical polemic and Empiriocriticism – notably the second to last work as against the last, ignored entirely. Hence a list of Dietzgen's relevant philosophical works with accompanying dates of composition – not publication – can help to elucidate his philosophical evolution, he is mentioned four times in Lenin's late Philosophical Notebooks e.g. on pages 403 - 406 alongside Feuerbach.
Georgi Plekhanov wrote on Dietzgen's philosophy, this quotation with the quota
The Romani, colloquially known as Gypsies or Roma, are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group, traditionally itinerant, living in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan and Punjab regions of modern-day India. Genetic findings appear to confirm that the Romani "came from a single group that left northwestern India about 1,500 years ago." Genetic research published in the European Journal of Human Genetics "revealed that over 70% of males belong to a single lineage that appears unique to the Roma." They are a dispersed people, but their most concentrated populations are located in Europe Central and Southern Europe. The Romani originated in northern India and arrived in Mid-West Asia and Europe around 1,000 years ago, they have been associated with another Indo-Aryan group, the Dom people: the two groups have been said to have separated from each other or, at least, to share a similar history. The ancestors of both the Romani and the Dom left North India sometime between the 6th and 11th century.
The Romani are known among English-speaking people by the exonym Gypsies, which some people consider pejorative due to its connotations of illegality and irregularity. Since the 19th century, some Romani have migrated to the Americas. There are an estimated one million Roma in the United States. Brazil includes a notable Romani community descended from people deported by the Portuguese Empire during the Portuguese Inquisition. In migrations since the late 19th century, Romani have moved to other countries in South America and to Canada. In February 2016, during the International Roma Conference, the Indian Minister of External Affairs stated that the people of the Roma community were children of India; the conference ended with a recommendation to the Government of India to recognize the Roma community spread across 30 countries as a part of the Indian diaspora. The Romani language is divided into several dialects which together have an estimated number of speakers of more than two million; the total number of Romani people is at least twice as high.
Many Romani are native speakers of the dominant language in their country of residence or of mixed languages combining the dominant language with a dialect of Romani. French bohème, bohémien, from the Kingdom of Bohemia, where they were incorrectly believed to have come from, carrying writs of protection from King Sigismund of Bohemia. French gitan, English gypsy, Spanish gitano, Catalan gitano, Italian gitano, Portuguese cigano, Turkish kipti, all from Greek Αἰγύπτιος Aigýptios "Egyptian", Hungarian fáreónépe from Greek φαραώ pharaó "pharaoh" – referring to their Egyptian provenance. Usage of "gypsy" and derived words differs between groups as some Roma groups use this word as a self-identifier while others consider this word a racial slur. English tzigane, Spanish zíngaro, cíngaro, French tzigane, Old High German zigeuner, German Zigeuner, Dutch zigeuner, Danish sigøjner, Swedish zigenare, Norwegian sigøynere Old Church Slavic ациганинъ atsyganin, Italian zingaro, Romanian țigan, Hungarian cigány, Serbo-Croatian cigan, Albanian cigan, Polish cygan, Czech cikán, Portuguese cigano, Turkish çigan, Azerbaijani çıqan, Slovak cigán or cigáň, Venetian singano, Russian цыгане tsygane, Ukrainian цигани tsyhany, Lithuanian čigonai, Latvian čigāni, Georgian ციგანი.
Due to the negative connotations of referring to an ethnic group as "untouchable" words derived from this source are considered derogatory and outdated by modern Roma peoples. Albanian Jevg, gabel, Magjup Azerbaijani qaraçı Arabic Nawar and Zott. Egyptian Arabic ghager Rom means husband in the Romani language, it has the variants dom and lom, related with the Sanskrit words dam-pati, lom, loman, romaça. Another possible origin is from Sanskrit डोम doma. In the Romani language, Rom is a masculine noun, meaning'man of the Roma ethnic group' or'man, husband', with the plural Roma; the feminine of Rom in the Romani language is Romni. However, in most cases, in other languages Rom is now used for people of both genders. Romani is the feminine adjective; some Romanies use Rom or Roma as an ethnic name, while others do not use this term as a self-ascription for the entire ethnic group. Sometimes and romani are spelled with a double r, i.e. rrom and rromani. In this case rr is used to represent the phoneme /ʀ/, which in some Romani dialects has remained different from the one written with a single r.
The rr spelling is common in certain institutions, or used in certain countries, e.g. Romania, to distinguish from the endonym/homonym for Romanians. In the English language, Rom is a noun and an adje
Des Plaines River
The Des Plaines River is a river that flows southward for 133 miles through southern Wisconsin and northern Illinois in the United States Midwest meeting the Kankakee River west of Channahon to form the Illinois River, a tributary of the Mississippi River. Native Americans used the river as transportation portage; when French explorers and missionaries arrived in the 1600s, in what was the Illinois Country of New France, they named the waterway La Rivière des Plaines as they felt that trees on the river resembled the European plane tree. The local Native Americans showed these early European explorers how to traverse waterways of the Des Plaines watershed to travel from Lake Michigan to the Mississippi River and its valley. Parts of the river are now part of the Chicago Area Waterway System; the slow-moving Des Plaines River rises in southern Wisconsin just west of Kenosha and flows southward through marshland as it crosses into Illinois. The river turns to the east and flows through woodland forest preserve districts in Lake and Cook counties, northwest of Chicago.
Numerous small fixed dams have been built on the river starting in central Lake County and continuing through Cook County. The river turns to the southwest and joins with the Sanitary and Ship Canal in Lockport before flowing through the city of Joliet. Here it becomes part of the longer Illinois Waterway. In the industrialized area around Joliet, dams control the river. Just west of Joliet, the Des Plaines converges with the Kankakee River to form the Illinois River; those parts of the Des Plaines River preserved in a natural state are used for conservation and recreation, while altered sections serve as an important industrial waterway and drainage channel. The original course of the riverbed was moved to the west at the town of Lockport during the construction of the Sanitary and Ship Canal in 1905. According to Chicago Wilderness Magazine, as the Des Plaines River runs 95 miles through four Illinois counties, it "changes from prairie creek to a suburban stream, to a large urbanized river, to a major industrial waterway."Sections of the river in the Lake County and Cook County Forest Preserve districts in Illinois create "a nearly continuous greenway though all of Lake County and the northern section of Cook County."
While canoe launching ramps are available, "The lack of ramps for trailered boats makes this long river a quiet, family-friendly river." This greenway supports the Des Plaines River Trail, a multi-use trail that follows the course of the Des Plaines River through Lake County and into Cook County. The Des Plaines River was named by early French coureurs de bois sometime between the 17th and 18th centuries, after the trees lining the banks of the river; the word la plaine, in the 18th-century Mississippi Valley dialect of French spoken at the time, referred to either the American sycamore or the red maple, both of which resembled the European plane tree either in their palmate leaves or similar bark. This meaning of plaine survives in Canadian French: Plaine or Plaine rouge refers to an Acer rubrum and Acer saccharinum is sometimes named a plaine blanche; the English word for the plane tree came from the 14th century Old French word la plane. Since the 18th century, the French word for the plane tree has evolved into le platane.
As the Latin name for the plane tree is platanus, this transformation was done as a part of the attempts by late 18th-century French academics to change the spelling of many French words to what was perceived as their Latin origins. A side effect of such action was that the original French meaning of the name applied to the Des Plaines River was obscured. Today, des Plaines in modern Parisian French means "of the plains" or "of the prairie"; this has led to confusion about the meaning of the original French name for the Des Plaines River. Many people today believe that the river was named after the plains and prairies through which the river flows. But, in the 18th-century French dialect, it was more common to use the word "prairie" to indicate a plain, such as Prairie du Rocher in Illinois and Prairie du Chien in Wisconsin; as noted above, it is more that the river was named in reference to the trees rather than the land. The French, like the Native Americans, traveled by waterways rather than overland.
The view of the prairie was nearly always blocked by trees. To this day a large number of both maples and sycamores grow along the Des Plaines River. Although the original French name for the river has survived, its pronunciation has been altered. Today, locals pronounce it in an anglicized way, rather than according to the French pronunciation; the Des Plaines River Bridge in Joliet is a cantilever bridge, six lanes wide—three lanes traveling eastbound and westbound. The bridge is signed as part of Interstate 80; the bridge is located on the south side of Joliet. A Tunnel and Reservoir Plan to reduce the harmful effects of floods and the flushing of raw sewage into Lake Michigan is semi-operational, it diverts storm sewage into temporary holding reservoirs. The megaproject is one of the largest civil engineering projects undertaken in terms of scope and timeframe. Commissioned in the mid-1970s, the project is managed by the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago. Completion of the system is not anticipated until 2029, but substantial portions of the system have opened.
A modern flood control study stated that flooding on the Des Plaines River has caused signific
Interstate 290 (Illinois)
Interstate 290 is an auxiliary Interstate Highway that runs westwards from the Chicago Loop. The portion of I-290 from I-294 to its east end is called the Dwight D. Eisenhower Expressway. In short form, it is known as "the Ike" or the Eisenhower. Before being designated the Eisenhower Expressway, the highway was called the Congress Expressway because of the surface street, located in its path and onto which I-290 runs at its eastern terminus in the Chicago Loop. I-290 connects I-90 in Rolling Meadows with I-90/I-94 near the Loop. North of I-355, the freeway is sometimes known locally as Illinois Route 53, or Route 53, since IL 53 existed before I-290. However, it now merges with I-290 at Biesterfield Road. In total, I-290 is 29.84 miles long. This section runs from Rolling Meadows to Addison, it is the portion of I-290 more locally known as "Route 53." Here, I-290 runs above-grade through Schaumburg and Elk Grove Village, at or below grade through Itasca and Addison. The northern five miles of this highway were reconstructed in 2003–04.
A left shoulder and an auxiliary lane between ramps were added, as well as improved lighting. The highway is four lanes wide north of the Elgin–O'Hare Expressway / Thorndale Avenue, five lanes wide with a wide left shoulder south to the exit to I-355. Between mile markers 0 and 4, IL 53 overlaps this section of the Eisenhower Expressway; this section runs from Addison to Hillside. It took its name; the highway runs at-grade or above-grade for this length. U. S. Route 20 overlaps I-290 around Elmhurst from mile markers 12 to 13, runs parallel to the rest of this section between mile markers 7 and 18; this section of I-290 varies in width from two lanes at the ramp east from the I-290/I-355 split, to three lanes between I-355 and US 20, to three lanes plus two exit lanes at US 20/IL 64. After exit 13B, the highway reverts to three through traffic lanes. Exit 15 to southbound I-294 is a frequent point of congestion due to ramp traffic backing up onto the mainline highway as long as two miles; this is because the ramp is not isolated from the mainline, only one lane in width, is a low-speed ramp, is short while carrying a high volume of truck traffic south to Indiana from North Avenue.
Additionally, the sudden appearance of the exit tends to cause accidents when cars in the center lane try to aggressively turn into the right lane at the mouth of the I-294 exit. There is a dangerous high-volume weaving situation at the end of the ramp to I-294 with southbound I-294 traffic exiting to westbound I-88; as of 2006, there are no plans to overcome any of these problems with new construction. The western three miles of this section are blacktop, while east of IL 83 the original concrete is still in place; this section of I-290 is seven miles long, it runs from Hillside to the western border of Chicago. This section is sometimes referred to as "The Avenues"; as of 2002, it is the third-most-congested stretch of highway in the Chicago area, behind the Circle Interchange area and the intersection of the Dan Ryan Expressway and the Chicago Skyway. It is known for having a high volume of traffic on ramps through the Avenues, high volumes of traffic on left-side ramps in Forest Park and Oak Park.
I-290 runs above grade west of Mannheim Road, at or below grade east of Mannheim Road. Eastbound at Mannheim Road, the highway splits into one local lane. After Mannheim Road, the highway narrows to three lanes in width, causing mile-long backups, it remains three lanes to Austin Boulevard. Westbound, I-290 is three lanes wide to Mannheim Road, four lanes wide to the I-88/I-290 split. Exits at Harlem Avenue and Austin Boulevard are Inverted single-point urban interchanges, with left offramps and onramps; these cause backups as trucks switch lanes to exit, a large volume of traffic enters on the left side of the highway. In 2001–02, this section between mile markers 15 and 18 was reconstructed in the first phase of an attempt to untangle the "Hillside Strangler", adding the local lanes and extra on-ramp to I-290; the second phase, reconstruction of the highway between mile markers 18 and 23, is still in the preliminary engineering phase of construction as of April 2009. The easternmost section of I-290 is seven miles long and runs through the city of Chicago to the terminus at I-90/I-94.
It runs below grade for its entire length. This highway is four lanes wide in both directions for its entire length, most on-ramps and off-ramps are located just two blocks apart. Therefore, an exit in one direction may be marked one street, while the same exit in the other direction may be marked another though the streets are only a block apart; this configuration results in most exits on this portion of road being marked as A/B exits. Eastbound congestion is lighter here than through the "Avenues" limited to congestion on the tight onramps to the Kennedy and Dan Ryan Expressways at the eastern terminus or blind onramps at Kostner Avenue and at Homan Avenue. Westbound, congestion
Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material. The term relief is from the Latin verb relevo. To create a sculpture in relief is to give the impression that the sculpted material has been raised above the background plane. What is performed when a relief is cut in from a flat surface of stone or wood is a lowering of the field, leaving the unsculpted parts raised; the technique involves considerable chiselling away of the background, a time-consuming exercise. On the other hand, a relief saves forming the rear of a subject, is less fragile and more securely fixed than a sculpture in the round one of a standing figure where the ankles are a potential weak point in stone. In other materials such as metal, plaster stucco, ceramics or papier-mâché the form can be just added to or raised up from the background, monumental bronze reliefs are made by casting. There are different degrees of relief depending on the degree of projection of the sculpted form from the field, for which the Italian and French terms are still sometimes used in English.
The full range includes high relief, where more than 50% of the depth is shown and there may be undercut areas, mid-relief, low-relief, shallow-relief or rilievo schiacciato, where the plane is only slightly lower than the sculpted elements. There is sunk relief, restricted to Ancient Egypt. However, the distinction between high relief and low relief is the clearest and most important, these two are the only terms used to discuss most work; the definition of these terms is somewhat variable, many works combine areas in more than one of them, sometimes sliding between them in a single figure. The opposite of relief sculpture is counter-relief, intaglio, or cavo-rilievo, where the form is cut into the field or background rather than rising from it. Hyphens may or may not be used in all these terms, though they are seen in "sunk relief" and are usual in "bas-relief" and "counter-relief". Works in the technique are described as "in relief", in monumental sculpture, the work itself is "a relief".
Reliefs are common throughout the world on the walls of buildings and a variety of smaller settings, a sequence of several panels or sections of relief may represent an extended narrative. Relief is more suitable for depicting complicated subjects with many figures and active poses, such as battles, than free-standing "sculpture in the round". Most ancient architectural reliefs were painted, which helped to define forms in low relief; the subject of reliefs is for convenient reference assumed in this article to be figures, but sculpture in relief depicts decorative geometrical or foliage patterns, as in the arabesques of Islamic art, may be of any subject. Rock reliefs are those carved into solid rock in the open air; this type is found in many cultures, in particular those of the Ancient Near East and Buddhist countries. A stele is a single standing stone; the distinction between high and low relief is somewhat subjective, the two are often combined in a single work. In particular, most "high reliefs" contain sections in low relief in the background.
From the Parthenon Frieze onwards, many single figures in large monumental sculpture have heads in high relief, but their lower legs are in low relief. The projecting figures created in this way work well in reliefs that are seen from below, reflect that the heads of figures are of more interest to both artist and viewer than the legs or feet; as unfinished examples from various periods show, raised reliefs, whether high or low, were "blocked out" by marking the outline of the figure and reducing the background areas to the new background level, work no doubt performed by apprentices. A low relief or bas-relief is a projecting image with a shallow overall depth, for example used on coins, on which all images are in low relief. In the lowest reliefs the relative depth of the elements shown is distorted, if seen from the side the image makes no sense, but from the front the small variations in depth register as a three-dimensional image. Other versions distort depth much less, it is a technique which requires less work, is therefore cheaper to produce, as less of the background needs to be removed in a carving, or less modelling is required.
In the art of Ancient Egypt, Assyrian palace reliefs, other ancient Near Eastern and Asian cultures, Meso-America, a consistent low relief was used for the whole composition. These images would be painted after carving, which helped define the forms; the Ishtar Gate of Babylon, now in Berlin, has low reliefs of large animals formed from moulded bricks, glazed in colour. Plaster, which made the technique far easier, was used in Egypt and the Near East from antiquity into Islamic times and Europe from at least the Renaissance, as well as elsewhere. However, it needs good co
Raya Dunayevskaya, born Raya Shpigel Rae Spiegel known by the pseudonym Freddie Forest, was the American founder of the philosophy of Marxist Humanism in the United States. At one time Leon Trotsky's secretary, she split with him and founded the organization News and Letters Committees and was its leader until her death. Of Jewish descent, Dunayevskaya was born Raya Shpigel in today's Ukraine and emigrated to the United States and joined the revolutionary movement in her childhood. Active in the American Communist Party youth organization, she was expelled at age 18 and thrown down a flight of stairs when she suggested that her local comrades should find out Trotsky's response to his expulsion from the Soviet Communist Party and the Comintern. By the following year she found a group of independent Trotskyists in Boston, led by Antoinette Buchholz Konikow, an advocate of birth control and legal abortion. In the 1930s, she adopted her mother's maiden name Dunayevskaya. Without getting permission from the U.
S. Trotskyist organization, she went to Mexico in 1937 to serve as Leon Trotsky's Russian language secretary during his exile there. Having returned to Chicago in 1938 after the deaths of her father and brother, she broke with Trotsky in 1939 when he continued to maintain that the Soviet Union was a "workers' state" after the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, she opposed any notion that workers should be asked to defend this "workers' state" allied with Nazi Germany in a world war. Along with theorists such as C. L. R. James, Tony Cliff, Dunayevskaya argued that the Soviet Union had become'state capitalist'. Toward the end of her life, she stated that what she called "my real development" only began after her break with Trotsky, her simultaneous study of the Russian economy and of Marx's early writings, led to her theory that not only was the U. S. S. R. A'state capitalist' society, but that'state capitalism' was a new world stage. Much of her initial analysis was published in The New International in 1942–1943.
In 1940, she was involved in the split in the Socialist Workers Party that led to the formation of the Workers Party, with which she shared an objection to Trotsky's characterisation of the Soviet Union as a'degenerated workers' state'. Within the WP, she formed the Johnson–Forest Tendency alongside C. L. R. James; the tendency argued that the Soviet Union was'state capitalist', while the WP majority maintained that it was bureaucratic collectivist. Differences within the WP widened, in 1947, after a brief period of independent existence during which they published a series of documents, the tendency returned to the ranks of the SWP, their membership in the SWP was based on a shared insistence that there was a pre-revolutionary situation just around the corner, the shared belief that a Leninist party must be in place to take advantage of the coming opportunities. By 1951, with the failure of their shared perspective to materialize, the tendency developed a theory that rejected Leninism and saw the workers as being spontaneously revolutionary.
This was borne out for them by the 1949 U. S. miners' strike. In years, they were to pay close attention to automation in the automobile industry, which they came to see as paradigmatic of a new stage of capitalism; this led to the tendency leaving the SWP again to begin independent work. After more than a decade of developing the theory of state capitalism, Dunayevskaya continued her study of the Hegelian dialectic by taking on a task the Johnson–Forest Tendency had set itself: exploring Hegel's Philosophy of Mind. In 1954 she initiated a decades long correspondence with the Critical Theorist, Herbert Marcuse, in which the necessity and freedom dialectic in Hegel and Marx became a focal point of contention.http://marxist-humanistdialectics.blogspot.com/2018/03/coming-out-in-may-necessity-and-freedom.html She advanced an interpretation of Hegel's Absolutes holding that they involved a dual movement: a movement from practice, itself a form of theory and a movement from theory reaching to philosophy.
She considered these 1953 letters to be "the philosophic moment" from which the whole development of Marxist Humanism flowed. In 1953 Dunayevskaya moved to Detroit, where she was to live until 1984. In 1954–1955 she and C. L. R. James engaged in a split. In 1955, she founded her own organization and Letters Committees, a Marxist-Humanist newspaper, News & Letters, which remains in publication today; the newspaper covers women's struggles, the liberation of workers, people of color, lesbian and transsexual rights and the disability rights movement, while not separating that coverage from philosophical and theoretical articles. The organization split in 2008-9 and the U. S. Marxist-Humanists was formed. Dunayevskaya wrote what came to be known as her "trilogy of revolution": Marxism and Freedom: From 1776 Until Today and Revolution, Rosa Luxemburg, Women's Liberation, Marx's Philosophy of Revolution. In addition, she selected and introduced a collection of writings, published in 1985, Women's Liberation and the Dialectics of Revolution.
In the last year of her life she was working on a new book which she had tentatively titled, Dialectics of Organization and Philosophy: The'Party' and Forms of Organization Born Out of Spontaneity. Raya Dunayevskaya's speeches, publications, notes and other items are located in the Walter P. Reuther Library at Wayne State University in Detroit. Mic
Northwestern University Press
Northwestern University Press is affiliated with Northwestern University in Evanston, IL. It publishes 70 new titles each year in the areas of continental philosophy, Slavic studies, German studies, literary criticism, world classics, poetry, theater, critical ethnic studies and Chicago regional studies, it is a member of the Association of American University Presses. Founded in 1893, Northwestern University Press was dedicated to the publication of legal periodicals and scholarly legal texts. In 1957, the Press was established as a separate university publishing company and began expanding its offerings with new series in various fields. In 1963, the Press published Viola Spolin's landmark volume, Improvisation for the Theater: A Handbook of Teaching and Directing Techniques, which has sold more than 100,000 copies since its publication; the 1960s saw the beginnings of the Northwestern University Press-Newberry Library alliance in publishing the definitive edition of the writings of Herman Melville in conjunction with the Modern Language Association.
In 1992, Northwestern University Press and TriQuarterly magazine partnered to establish the TriQuarterly Books imprint, dedicated to contemporary American fiction and poetry. In 2010, Northwestern University Press acquired the publisher of international literature and Latin American voices, Curbstone Press. Northwestern University Press publishes a wide range of theater titles. Anchored by Viola Spolin's Improvisation for the Theater: A Handbook of Teaching and Directing Techniques, Northwestern's theater list includes works by Tony and Academy Award winners such as Mary Zimmerman, Tracy Letts, Bruce Norris, Horton Foote, as well as playwrights David Ives and Craig Wright; the Press has received many accolades, including major translation awards for Fyodor Dostoevsky's Writer's Diary: Volume I, 1873–1876, translated by Kenneth Lantz. In 1997 the Press won the National Book Award for Poetry for William Meredith's Effort at Speech, followed by a 2011 win for Nikky Finney's Head Off & Split. Several of the Press's titles, including Fording the Stream of Consciousness, Still Waters in Niger, The Book of Hrabal, have been named Notable Books by the New York Times Book Review.
Florida, a novel by Christine Schutt, was a finalist for a National Book Award in 2004. The Press published two novels by the winner of the 2002 Nobel Prize for Literature, Hungarian author Imre Kertész. Northwestern University Press published Herta Müller's novel Traveling on One Leg which won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 2009. NU Press's "Forest Primeval" won the 2017 Kingsley Tufts Poetry Award, Patricia Smith's "Incendiary Art" won the same award in 2019. For "Incendiary Art," Patricia Smith won the Los Angeles Times Book Prize for poetry in 2018. Official website of Northwestern University Press